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The Properties of Storytelling and Singing Traditions in Kazakh Literature

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th

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ASIAN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

INTERSECTION OF CULTURES PROCEEDINGS

(ADES-V) 20-22 June, 2019

Editor

Dr. Pusat Pilten

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Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University Ankara, Turkey

5th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ASIAN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES: UNDERSTANDING CULTURE

(ADES-V)

Nur Sultan, KAZAKHSTAN, 2019

© Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, 2020 ISBN: 978-9944-237-82-6

Publisher: Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University Editor: Dr. Pusat Pilten

Cover Design: İhsan Erkal – BaskıAll, Kayseri – Turkey

The Symposium has been jointly organised by Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey, Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan and Akhmet Yassawi

International Kazakh-Turkish University in Turkestan, Kazakhstany.

All rights reserved.

The authors are responsible for the content and writing of the papers published in the book.

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Table of Contents

Preface ... IV Commitees ... VIII Chapter 1: Multicultural Transmission: Visualizing and Translating the Orient ... 1

“Trojan Queens in the 21st Century War World”: The Intersection of the Classical and the Contemporary

Palak Motsara ... 3 21st Century Urdu Novel: A Quest for Identity

Saleem Mohiuddin ... 17 Music as a reference phenomenon in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing

Emília Perez, Andrej Zahorák ... 23 Chapter 2: Globalization in History and Fiction ... 43

Appropriation of Christian Mythology in the Postcolonial Novel

Simona Klimkova ... 45 Globalization and Coexistence

Kemal Yavuz Ataman ... 59 Globalisation and Cultural Identity - Two Things are Incompatible?

Vladimir Budai ... 75 Chapter 3 : Interdisciplinary Approaches to Language Teaching ... 83

The Trial of Making a Textbook for Zero Beginners - How Should We Teach Letters and Pronunciation?

Ayako Ugamochi, Yoshiko Arakawa, Masayoshi Tsuchiya ... 85 Literature Review in Research Based Academic Studies

Gulnara K. Karbozova ... 95 Characteristics of Basic Cultural Terminology in Foreign Language Teaching At Beginning Level

Rahiya Umirbekova ... 101

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Chapter 4: Contemporary Approaches for Kazakh Language ... 107 Kazakh Oral Language: Past, Present, Future

Kuralay Kuderinova ... 109 Cumulative Function of Language and Speech Act

Zhanar Baiteliyeva ... 129 Selection of Reading Materials in Kazakh Language Learning

Gulzhamilya Shalabayeva ... 141 Chapter 5: Institution of Kazakh Identity ... 149

The Importance of Teaching Chingiz Aitmatov’s Works as Part of the Literature Curriculum in Secondary Education

Gultas Kurmanbay ... 151 Folklore Elements in Contemporary Kazakh Literature

Yermek Adayeva ... 163 The Properties of Storytelling and Singing Traditions in Kazakh Literature Zhanar Abdigapbarova ... 173

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Preface

International Symposium on Asian Languages and Literatures (ADES) started to be organized by Erciyes University Faculty of Letters with a view to contributing scientific research on specifically Eastern languages and creating opportunities for scholars to meet periodically, and with the hope to become a distinguished international symposium in its field.

The first ADES, which was held on 5-6 May, 2011, has been a greatly fruitful event in terms of achieving the goals of bringing together recent scientific research in the fields of Language, Literature, and Culture, sharing the experiences of individuals and institutions who work in these fields, and creating new networks. The symposium received 114 applications from 20 countries and 50 universities, and upon the evaluation of the Scientific Advisory Board, 75 papers were presented.

Upon the great interest that ADES I received, it was decided to hold the second ADES on 3-4 May, 2012. 30 faculty members from 5 countries representing 12 universities functioned as members in ADES II Organizing Board and Advisory Board. The main theme of ADES II was determined as

“Teaching Asian Languages in the 21st Century” and the aim was to discuss primarily the issue of teaching methodologies of Chinese, Indian, Japanese, and Urdu as foreign languages as well as the problems faced during instruction in a scientific context. As a result of the evaluations of the abstracts, papers of 63 participants, 72% of whom were foreigners and came from 20 countries (i.e., Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, England, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Switzerland, the USA, and Turkey) were accepted.

Upon the meetings aiming to evaluate ADES II, it was decided to hold ADES every two years periodically due to the contribution it made to the field and the great interest it achieved.

During the organization of ADES III, held in Kayseri on 8-9 May, 2014 and hosted by Erciyes University, 24 scholars from 5 different countries (i.e., Turkey, China, Japan, India, and Pakistan) acted as referees and members of Advisory Board and Organizing Board. 92 scholars from 17 different

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countries and affiliated to 55 universities sent abstracts to ADES III, the main theme of which was “Literature-Culture”, and 51 of these abstracts were accepted. The analysis of the countries of the 189 participants who attended the first three symposia reveals that Turkey, as the host country, has the highest percentage (43,4%), followed by China and India, with the percentages of 10,6 and 9,0 respectively. That is why, it was decided to hold the fourth symposium abroad, and mutual interactions led to cooperation with a university in India.

ADES IV was held in cooperation with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar University (BAMU) in Aurangabad, India on 2 – 4 February, 2017 with the theme

“Understanding Culture”. 76 papers out of 157 applications from 13 countries (Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Germany, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey and United States) were presented. In its fourth meeting, ADES brought together scholars to read cultures via texts produced in the Asian geography and explore and investigate the reflections of a joy of a birth, a funeral ritual, a merriness of a melody and the taste of a meal on the texts that Asia has accumulated throughout its history.

This year, the fifth of ADES was held in Nur Sultan, Kazakhstan on 20-22 June, 2019, and organized in cooperation with Erciyes, Nazarbayev and Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish Universities with the main team of “Intersection of Cultures”. 40 papers out of 79 applications from 15 countries (China, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea and Türkiye) were presented. This proceedings is composed by nine of them.

I would like to thank authors Palak Motsara, Saleem Mohiuddin, Emília Perez, Andrej Zahorák, Simona Klimkova, Kemal Yavuz Ataman, Vladimir Budai, Ayako Ugamochi, Yoshiko Arakawa, Masayoshi Tsuchiya, Gulnara K.

Karbozova and Rahiya Umirbekova for their alembicated contributions and Dr. Pusat Pilten for his meticulous editing. I would like to extand my gratitude to the chair of the board of trustees Prof. Dr. Muhittin Şimşek of Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University and former chair Prof. Dr. Musa Yıldız for their substantial supports from the beginning of the symposium. This book could not have been published without the contribution of them.

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As a scientific facility focusing on the Asian geography, bringing together scholars from disciplines, countries, and institutions and organized internationally and successively, ADES enriches its contributors and the place it is held. The more the stakeholders involved in the organization contribute, the more academic, social, cultural and interpersonal benefits will be attained.

Dr. Ali Küçükler Chair of ADES Organizing Committee

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Commitees

Scientific Advisory Committee

Ashutosh Anand (Jawaharlal Nehru University, India) Bolatbek Abdrasilov (Ahmet Yesevi University, Kazakhstan) Cengiz Tomar (Ahmet Yesevi University, Kazakhstan) Dina M. Siddiqi (New York University, Usa)

Han Zhimin (Shanghai Foreign Languages and Studies University, China) Hülya Argunşah (Erciyes University, Turkey)

Kuderinova Kuralay (National Scientific and Practical Center, Kazakhstan) Liu Zhaoming (Shandong University of Finance and Economics, China) Luciana Cardi (Osaka University, Japan)

Manuradha Chaudhary (Jawaharlal Nehru University, India) Mariya Mikhaylovna Repenkova (Moscow State University, Russia) Mitat Çelikpala (Kadir Has University, Turkey)

Nur Sobers-Khan (Habib University, Pakistan)

Orazbayeva Fauzya (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan) Phool Chand Singh (University of Allahabad, India) Ravinder N. Menon (Jawaharlal Nehru University, India) Romit Dasgupta (University of Western Australia, Australia) Saleem Mohuiddin (Shri Shivaji College, India)

Sevinç Üçgül (Erciyes University, Turkey) Smita Tewari Jassal (Ambedkar University, India)

Syed Azharuddin (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, India) Vytis Silius (Vilnius University, Lithuania)

Wang Ying Jie (Erciyes University, Turkey) Yu Xin (Fudan University, China)

Zaual Ionov (Karachay-Cherkessia Republican Inst. of Humanities, Russia) Zeynep Ölçü Dinçer (Erciyes University, Turkey)

Zhuang En Ping (Shanghai University, China)

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Organizing Committee

Ali Küçükler (Co-Chair – Erciyes University, Turkey)

Pusat Pilten (Co-Chair – Akhmet Yassawi University, Kazakhstan) Uli Schamiloglu (Co-Chair – Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan) Amirakul Abuov (Ahmet Yesevi University, Kazakhstan)

Canan Yoğurt (Erciyes University, Turkey) Didem Yılmaz (Erciyes University, Turkey) Erdem Erinç (Erciyes University, Turkey) Feyza Görez (Erciyes University, Turkey)

Funda Güven (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)

Gulzhamilya Shalabayeva (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan) Seniye Vural (Erciyes University, Turkey)

Yermek Adayeva (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan) Zhanar Baiteliyeva (Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan)

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Chapter 1:

Multicultural Transmission: Visualizing and

Translating the Orient

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“Trojan Queens in the 21st Century War World”1: The Intersection of the Classical and the Contemporary

Palak Motsara Lady Shri Ram College for Women, Delhi University – INDIA

Abstract

Syria has been a nation of war for more than fifty years. These past decades of violence and destruction have impacted the life of Syrian women to a great extent. They lost their homes and had to move to Jordan as refugees. Before the war, women were struggling with patriarchal domination but the war exposed them to greater difficulties. They were victims of a heinous war in which their bodies were exploited and misused for political gains. Their voices were crushed and silenced. This exploitation of the female body and the suppression of their voices is not just happening in contemporary Syria, but has tragically happened throughout history.

Omar Abu Saada, a Syrian director began a workshop where fifty exiled Syrian women, having found refuge in Jordan, participated in the making of the documentary Queens of Syria. In this they performed an Arabic interpretation of the play The Trojan Women which was composed by Euripides in 415 BC and juxtaposed the hauntingly similar Trojan and Syrian contexts. The Trojan Women is a play that you can put in any conflict zone to address the issue of war and violence, especially its effects on women due to the trauma of violations they suffer. The parallels between contemporary Syria and Troy are very obvious. In both the cases, cities are destroyed, men are killed, women and children are sold into slavery. In this sense, The Trojan Women can be seen as a metaphor for the contemporary Syrian crisis upon which the director Abu Saada wanted to focus.

The Trojan Women speaks for and to the modern-day world about war- torn Syria. This paper critically analyses how war operates in a gendered manner, destructive of the lives of women. It looks at how women respond and break free from these exploitations, consequences, and challenges to try and change society. Furthermore, through the paper one also looks at

1 Title is taken from the article “Trojan Women in the twenty first century: women in war from Euripides to Syria”, which is cited in the end.

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the responsibilities and challenges that women faced in Classical times and continue to face in the contemporary Middle-East.

How far is change possible by standing for yourself and voicing your opinions? Can change ever be brought through re-interpreting history? Can literature, especially the performing arts, make a difference? Can theatre’s rendering of the erstwhile written script onto a real-time material stage in front of a corporeally present audience help gender change? Or is catharsis the best possible reaction from the audience to the circle of violence that keeps on committing itself both in reel life and real life? Who becomes then the bearer of change? How does performance help in easing trauma? What happened to these Syrian women who enacted their Trojan counterparts?

What then is the role of theatre? Of art? These and many other such questions will be raised in this paper as it seeks answers for the same.

Keywords: Female Voice, Body, War, Oppression, Trauma

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Introduction

“I am like a flower that has been pulled from its soil.”

-Maha Yousef, A cast member “I have a scream I want to let out. I want the whole world to hear it.”

-A cast member The paper would begin by briefly discussing the documentary, Queens of Syria, its importance for the contemporary viewers and the idea behind the documentary. It will study how it echoes the contemporary reality of the Syrian women, their condition and their plight in post-war Syria. This will be done by studying how the contemporary reality of the pain and loss of these exiled women is similar to the women of Troy which Euripides reflects in The Trojan Women. After discussing the relevance of The Trojan Women in the 21st century, part II of the paper will discuss the issues that disclose the similarities and the differences between the documentary and the play. To understand this in the best manner, one will examine the themes of war, displacement, and land by focusing on the similarity of experiences in both the cases. In part III of the paper, one will critically examine how women are the worst targets during and after the war and how their voices are ignored or suppressed like the debris of destruction.

We will discuss how women’s bodies are used for social, political and economic gains which largely impact their lives. After discussing all the above issues, Part IV of the paper will discuss women’s response to this oppression and tyranny at the hands of the State and terror groups. Lastly, in conclusion, one will discuss the outcome(s) of women’s resistance and the voices they have raised and would reflect upon the change we have encountered.

I

As we know Syria, a country in the Middle East, has been the nation of war since the past five years. This has left 4,70,000 people dead and millions homeless, transforming them from citizens with rights to refugees with none. This is the largest refugee crisis since the Second World War. It has exposed millions of women and children to trauma who are now struggling with feelings of injustice and powerlessness. The documentary Queens of Syria directed by Omar Abu Saada gives a platform to these refugee women to talk about their individual pain, loss, sorrow and hope for a better future by retelling their experiences of the war.

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Yasmin Fedda, the documentary filmmaker pointed out that it is “about the effects of the war, but after the war, it’s from the point of view of women” (“Queens of Syria”)2. Further, the director Abu Saada believes how the play ‘is inspired by the ancient text but the new script will relate to them’ (Queens of Syria). It is the story of fifty women from Syria, forced to exile in Jordan as refugees who in 2013 came together to perform their own version of the play The Trojan Women. It “enables a cross-cultural contact across millennia”3, where women of Syria find the mirror of their realities in the tales of Queens, princess and other ordinary Greek women, who like them were uprooted and enslaved because of the Trojan war.

The Trojan Women can be seen as a metaphor for the contemporary Syrian crisis. It is a play that you can put anywhere, in any conflict zone to address the issue of war, violence, women enslavement, and trauma. It is an anti-war play, written in 415 BC to protest against the Athenian’s brutal capture of the city of Melos, an island in the Aegean Sea, during the Peloponnesian War. They killed all the male defenders who refused to yield to their demands and captured all the women and the children to serve as slaves. The play follows the fate of Hecuba, Andromache, Cassandra and other women of Troy who are waiting to hear their fate in a refugee camp.

The documentary Queens of Syria and the play The Trojan Women, both focus upon the issues of war, violence, reprisal, displacement, enslavement of the women’s bodies and rejection of women as human beings. Therefore, the documentary has given the Syrian women a platform to articulate their pain and suffering and talk about their individual sufferings through the retelling of the play.

II

The chorus of women performing the lines from the play The Trojan Women is scattered with the monologues from their experiences and predicaments in contemporary Syria, but the themes are so sharply linked and connected that it is hard to guess which lines are from the play by Euripides and which are from the accounts of the lived experiences of the women who had fled from Syria to seek refuge in Jordon. Fatima, a cast

2 This is a quote from one of her interviews cited at the end.

3 Taken from the introduction/summary given at the back of the documentary case.

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member, says, “It’s like it is inspired by the details of our lives and by what we have experienced in life. Hecuba is so close to me” (Queens of Syria).

Euripides’s play and the documentary by Abu Saada both represent different time zones and locations and yet they focus on issues that connect them on common grounds. Many women, during the rehearsal of the documentary, realized the extent to which Euripides has given the voice to the voiceless. Euripides provided classical women a space to narrate their predicaments and struggles, which is similar to what Fedda and Omar have done. Political matters became the priority of the nation, leaving the impact of war on women as a secondary matter. But the documentary gives women a chance to speak about the matters that have been ignored during the conflict. A cast member Sham says, “with the play, we discovered a place where we talk about our sufferings, what we want and what we’re dreaming… we’re not acting, we’re telling our real stories”

(Mezzofiore). They delved into their lives to feel in terms of what they have lost from their home to their family members which drew a parallel with the accounts of the Trojan women. Many women believed that they were not acting Troy, in fact, Troy was acting them4. A woman from the cast said, “we have come from the Troy of this age or even worse”

(Mezzofiore). Therefore, the documentary allows the Syrian women to bridge the gap between ancient Greece and modern-day Syria. A woman from the cast says, “doing the play impacted our lives in so many ways–

now we are all Trojans” (Mezzofiore).

In both Troy and Syria, women are displaced from their native homeland and are forced to live their lives either as slaves5 or as refugees. With Euripides, we see how women were waiting in tents to hear their fate6. This condition of the battlefield is similar to the contemporary situation in Jordon where over one lakh Syrian refugees are living temporarily. The Trojan women were allotted to their new masters where they had to start a new life with a new husband and a new family. In Euripides’ play, we hear Poseidon announcing “all the Trojan women who have not been allotted are in these tents. They have been picked out for the foremost men of the army”. (Euripides et al. 212). Similarly, in the documentary a

4 “we are not acting troy, troy is acting us” (Mezzofiore).

5 In Syria as well, women were enslaved and were used for political, economic and sexual benefits, which the paper will discuss later.

6 “You wretched Trojan women, come out of the tents to hear your troubles”

(Euripides et al. 222).

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woman in the chorus chants, “I will be a slave to my new husband. And then I will appear to be a traitor to the soul of my husband” (Queens of Syria). Therefore, Syrian women could relate the loss of their homeland and families with the Trojan women very well.

Fatima draws a parallel between Hecuba from Troy and other women in the cast. Hecuba who was the queen of Troy lost her kingdom and similarly, the women lost their homes which they consider as lost kingdoms. Hecuba in Euripides says, “Lift your head and your neck from the ground! This is no longer Troy and we are no longer Troy's queens” (Euripides et al. 217). In a way responding to this, Fatima says, “We were all queens in our houses. It is like us: we lost everything” (Queens of Syria). Besides this, the women also compared themselves to the Trojan women as both of them lost their loved ones. A crew woman proclaims her similarity by quoting a line from Euripides. She says, “My fathers and brothers live in the land of the dead7”, talking about her experience in Jordan where most of the families are run by females single-handedly because either the man of the family has died or gone missing because of the war (Queens of Syria). Another woman of the cast says that, “The character of Cassandra is similar to me. This is because I want to avenge what happened to me. There are people who want to keep me from my family but I won’t accept this. I really feel this character touches me” (Queens of Syria).

The theme of forced abandonment of the homeland where one is forced to leave their native land which they have cherished all their lives is a universal experience that connects refugees across time and space.

Women in the documentary repeatedly speak about their close connection to the land, trees and the natural beauty of Syria and their distressing experience of separation from their relatives, friends and family members.

Suad Al Saied, a member of the cast, resonates deeply with the speech of Hecuba about never seeing her beloved city Troy, again. She says, “…when we were at the border about to cross into Jordan my husband told me to look back to Syria for one last time because we might never see it again”

(“Unheard Voices”). We know that history repeats itself and no matter how much man tries to re-develop the nation, one can never alter the destruction that war has brought to the lives of people. We can never erase the trauma and the loss of life that comes with war.

7 In Euripides, Hecuba says, “what is there and here that I do not mourn in my misery? Country, children, husband- all are gone” (Euripides et al. 217).

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Queens of Syria has an empowering appeal to the audience as it is a projection of the Greek play The Trojan Women onto the modern Syrian tragedy. Women talk about their real-life experiences, what they have been through and what they are going through in the present, enduring the ramifications of the war. It reminds us that women are the worst victims of the war who are forced to rebuild their lives. The brutality of the war has played out in a gendered way leaving women to bear the brunt of the crisis. Women’s bodies have been used exploited and their voices have been crushed, leaving them the victims of all heinous wars.

III

The Syrian war has documented severe levels of sexual violence against women where women’s bodies have been the “objects of torture, physical misuse, and arbitrary detention attempted upon them by Assad’s forces, pro-government militias, armed opposition groups, and ISIS”

(Understanding women’s experience). They have been used as a weapon of war where some women who escaped the war had to manage their lives in the refugee camps. Euripides’ play echoes the theme of dislocation and aftermath of the war that aptly addresses the condition of these women who fled from Syria to Jordon to seek refuge. In these refugee camps, women were living under the risks of domestic violence, rape, and no right to work under the legal restrictions which exposed them to an unending sense of vulnerability. For instance, in 2013 a bridal boutique was opened in Zaatari to fulfil the needs of urgent marriages where girls under the age of eighteen were forcefully married. This exposed them to the risks of domestic violence and took away the chance of education.

Queens of Syria touches upon these issues while leaving it to the participants of the play to approach such topics taking their own time and space. Abu Saada in an extremely soft gesture, shares with the cast members, “Everything is a choice” (Queens of Syria). He gives them a choice to act and make decisions as they wish, something that is rarely asked or given to these women.

However, it exposes the spectator to the various issues that the conflict has caused in Syria where women’s bodies have been misused in many other ways. It allows one to understand the gendered implications of the war, which further links it to the social, political and economic background of the country. Gender inequality was the issue that existed even before the conflict started in 2011. The war changed their roles, status, and social

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relations because of the changing economy and the displacement caused by war and loss of their family members. All such matters exposed them to risks of violence. Sexual harassment and domestic violence were the issues that were considered private in a world of patriarchal beliefs. However, the Syrian war brought all these issues to the forefront by shedding light on this culture of shame. Therefore, most of the cases were unreported and there was an increase in the violence against women which resulted from Armed conflict. Women were commodified and were seen as assets.

In conflict zones, women are recruited by Kurdish groups, the Syrian government, and other oppression groups. They are used as a strategy against their male counterparts. The groups use religious beliefs and social constructs of sexuality as an excuse. For instance, if a man is killed by a woman it is believed that he won’t go to heaven8. In other cases, women, and children are as used as suicide bombers where they are also trained not to get captured to escape the risk of shame that might come if the women get raped. Also, women are used by militants and are the worst targets of ISIS who capture them as sexual slaves. Several non-Muslim Yazidis women who managed to elope from the areas of ISIS were reported by the media. They disclosed how they were tortured as slaves and were forced to bear children to become canon fodder. Therefore, women’s bodies were seen as commodities and assets to be owned for the individual political gains. However, on the brighter side, war has turned out to be empowering for women. As the men were absent because of the war, it allowed women to step out of their traditional roles and work as doctors, teachers, etc.

Therefore, the Syrian war exposes how we are living in a world where on one hand, women are seen as family nurturers, and the ones to the keep the society sane and on the other hand, they are the very beings who get exploited the most as their bodies are targeted by the men for their own pleasure and use. At this point, I will also want to discuss the Ithaca of The Odyssey that represents the other side of war when the men leave their land to fight, leaving the governance and care of their kingdom in the hands of the women. Penelope handles the entire kingdom after Odysseus leaves for the war just as Syrian women handled their families after the men had left for the war. Margaret Atwood, in her novella The Penelopiad,

8 Telhelden, a 21-year-old commander says in her interview with CNN, “they think they’re fighting in the name of Islam…they believe if someone from ISIS is killed by a girl, a Kurdish girl, they won’t go to heaven”.

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highlights the binaries of the ancient Greek society which was divided between the masculine and the feminine space. The masculine world is the public and the external, driven by the adventurous, predatory and conquering force whereas the feminine world is the private and the internal, marked by the passivity of their actions and their social position.

But we need to ask ourselves, this world in which war is the prerogative of the masculine, which devours innocent lives and leaves millions helpless and destitute, is this world for women? For whom is this world for and to whom does this world belong? Because, most certainly it is not a world fit for women. Maha Yousef strongly remarks, “It’s war in Syria now. You don’t know who is winning and losing and who is right and wrong. We, the people, are lost in the middle” (Queens of Syria). The history of war repeats itself, impacting the lives of women largely. The use and the misuse of the female body continues till date. But women have not stepped back from raising their voices of resistance against the oppression and traditional patriarchal oppression.

IV

I will now explore how women and men have responded against the injustices at the three different levels and how Euripides, Atwood, and Abu Saada help women to channel their voices by providing them a platform.

Besides this, we will look at the problems that the Syrian women faced when they participated in the documentary and the issues they are facing in the current society while raising their voices at the global level.

Euripides, as a classical writer, tries to empower women through literature.

He composes the play The Trojan Women in the classical era when the entire focus was on the war world and to focus on women’s point of view during that time was highly uncommon. Euripides breaks the conventions by portraying strong female characters. The play promotes a discussion about the consequences and results of the war by focusing on women’s lives after the war has ended and how they get reduced to the values of their bodies.

Centuries later, Margaret Atwood as an author gives voice to the voiceless characters of The Odyssey composed by Homer through the medium of language. It is important to look at her because she rewrites and inverts the Greek classical myth by articulating the feminist point of view visible through the characters of Penelope and the maids and challenges the masculine historiographic tradition. Furthermore, she as a modern writer

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gives hope to the women in the contemporary society who have faced the oppression of the masculine world by exposing the erstwhile hidden and repressed feminine narratives that abound in history. Her novella encourages women to address the tragedy that has happened to them.

“Atwood transforms the masculine public domain in which an epic is traditionally set into a female narrative sphere9 by changing its themes to domestic themes, and by supplanting the oral tradition in the shape of the bard’s song with gossip and hear-say” (Post 58). This makes the contemporary reader understand the need to change the perception of the past narratives by adapting a postmodern approach to reading texts, stories and myths. Her text destabilizes the idea of there being a singular dominant narrative by exposing Penelope and the maids’ (often clashing) narratives. This postmodern rendition is similar to what even Euripides and Abu Saada are doing as they bring to the fore alternate and divergent narratives of the Trojan and Syrian women, narratives that stand at odds with the traditional and official state-based accounts respectively.

Queens of Syria is a platform where we watch women standing for their powerful voices. Through their performance, they remind us that their voices cannot be silenced. Kaula, an actor from the cast says, “We came to a new society and we were isolated. Doing the play made us break the ice, and we started to connect with others and make some friends. It gave us the courage to talk about our problems frankly and clearly” (“Adaptation of Trojan Women”). Another woman from the cast says, “I have a scream I want the world to hear…We want the world to hear the struggles and strengths of the Syrian people, but in a different way" (Queens of Syria).

This voice is given to them by the theatre which continues to empower them. In addition to this, the performative aspect of theatre leads to the enactment of their repressed trauma, leading to a cathartic experience for not just the women but also their family members and the audience in general who have either been through it or have heard about it.

Although the play and the documentary provide women a liberal space to articulate their experiences, we observe that the theme of silencing re- occurs. While performing on stage women walked with their hands in front

9 She allows Penelope to create her own feminine space while highlighting the political and social issues of the time. Penelope uses the traditional female art of weaving as a silent language to weave her plot. The economic value attached to it allows her to weave life to something outside the parameters of patriarchal authority. She creates a language of her own.

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of their mouths reciting the line from Trojan Women, “I have reached the end of my sorrow. I shall leave my city to dust” (Queens of Syria). This highlights that women’s voices have been crushed throughout history and are suppressed in contemporary society as well. Women still face problems while attempting to put their problems forward. The women who participated were not appreciated since acting is not popular especially for women and society’s outlook towards women who participate in theatre is not positive. In the initial days, fifty women participated but only twenty-five remained. Some women feared that their appearance on screen might have a negative impact on the family reputation10; some had pressure from their husbands not to perform whereas some performed by their faces were blurred. Despite this, some women stood up for themselves and the other Syrian women who could not stand up for themselves.

In contemporary Syrian society, we see that war has not stopped women from working towards maintaining a civil society. There are many NGOs and women activists who are working towards achieving this goal and ensuring that women are involved in the peace-making process and are getting the proper education. They ensure that war does not become another reason of disaster for them as they were already fighting against patriarchy and dictatorship which now has extended to religious extremism. Ola El-Jindi, a programme manager at the NGO says, “We try to educate women about their rights, and spread awareness… This is the chance the war gave us – to empower women. If we didn’t use it well, it would be another disaster of war. We must use this opportunity to do better things” (“Syria’s Peace Talks”). Such inspirations have given women the strength to work in the fields like media, the government sector and civil society which was not possible earlier. Therefore, war opened the doors for women that were previously dominated by men. Their traditional role is not changing, but this shift has come at a devastating price. Many families are now headed by women; they are the breadwinners of the family.

10 A cast member says, “I have a brother in Syria. I am scared this will affect him”.

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Conclusion

“Tragedy is living a painful present while your soul yearns for a happy past.”

-A cast member Women’s response to war is that they have refused to go back to their previous positions. The social reformers are working towards empowering women in their daily lives so that they can represent themselves powerfully. They ensure that the changes are reflected at the grassroot levels. They try to make sure that women are involved in the peace-making process as well. In 2016, a Syrian Women’s Advisory Board attended the Geneva talks for the first time. Murah Bukai, one of the committee members writes, “All of us are women who regularly face a room full of men attempting to resolve a conflict fought mostly by men… In our own ways, we persist in taking on a political role that many people in our society do not accept” (“In Syria and Bosnia”).

We can say women are finally getting the chance to maintain equal status with men, a chance they should have actually got in 1949 when Syria adopted the civil and commercial codes which granted women the right to own assets and property and manage their own business. But ironically, there were other laws that limited their freedom. For instance, the penal code allowed men to forbid their wives or family women members from working. Finally, in 1973, Syria adopted its current constitution which gave them equal opportunity with men. However, women are still confined inside their homes because of their environment provided to them by the society members. . Here at this point it can be said that the centre has always been about the men women has always been on the periphery and war further pushes them out of the periphery because the biggest victim of war are women.

Therefore, we need more platforms, unconventional sources and projects like Queens of Syria which help women to find their voices, and the determination to make the world hear about the tragedy they have come out of, the tragedy that is happening now and the tragedy they overcame.

While this can be done on a broader level, the immediate change that can be brought about is hinted at by Abu Saada when he addresses the panicked cast of the play days before the first performance. He says, “The aim of this play is that we should all work together to produce a performance regardless of our allegiances or our political opinions. The important aim at this time and as a diverse group of people is to be able to produce a unified piece of work. In Syria, no one is united or able to work

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together towards something” (Queens of Syria). Women in the Middle East, whether they are Syrian or Jordanian, whether displaced or secure, must mobilise themselves and come together to help each other. The ideological change is a tardy process which will take perhaps decades to realise itself, but what can be the solution is the collective strength of women. Or as Abu Saada says, “The only solution is that we all should work together”

(Queens of Syria).

References Primary Works

Euripides, and James Morwood. The Trojan Women and Other Plays.

Oxford University Press, 2008.

Queens of Syria. Dir. Omar Abu Saada and Yasmin Fedda, Refugee Productions, 30 Oct. 2014.

Secondary Works

Atwood, Margaret. The Penelopiad. Penguin Books, 2005.

Alsaba, Khuloud and Anuj Kapilashrami. “Understanding women’s experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict:

the case of Syria”. Taylor & Francis Online. 31 May 2016.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhm.2016.05.002

Gatehouse, Gabriel. “The Kurdish Female Fighters Bringing the Fight to IS.” BBC News, BBC, 5 Sept. 2014, www.bbc.com/news/world-middle- east-29085242.

Goldman, Derek. “Listening for Unheard Voices- Syria.” Howl Round Theatre Commons. 18 Sept. 2014. https://howlround.com/listening- unheard-voices-syria

Homer, et al. The Odyssey. Penguin Classics, 2009.

Mezzofiore, Gianluca. “Theatre is therapy for Syrian women evoking ancient tale of loss and exile”. Mashable India. 8 Jul 2016.

https://mashable.com/2016/07/08/syrian-refugee-women-queens-of- syriatroy/#yCPS0.5qLiq3

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“Queens of Syria: How 50 women made award-winning film”. BBC Arts. 2 Dec. 2015

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/4yB2Cc6PJ2dXKb1NVkYh 7Ty/ queens-of-syria-how-50-women-made- award-winning-film Rees, Madeleine. “In Syria and Bosnia, women are quietly changing the

world”. The Guardian. 6 Sept. 2016.

https://www.theguardian.com/global-

development/2016/sep/06/women-changing-the-world-syria-bosnia- womens-rights-development-awid-forum-brazil.

Robbie, Heather, Georgina Paget and Charlotte Eagar. “Trojan Women in the twenty first century: women in war from Euripides to Syria”. Open Democracy. 19 June 2014.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/trojan-women-in-twenty- first-century-women-in-wa/

Tran, Mark. “Adaptation of Trojan Women starring Syrian refugees set for UK tour”. The Guardian. 20 Apr. 2016.

www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/20/queens-of-syria-refugees- trojan-women-adaptation-uk-tour.

Wallström, Margot. “Syria's Peace Talks Need More Women at the Table.” The Guardian. 8 Mar. 2016, www.theguardian.com/global- developmentprofessionalsnetwork/2016/mar/08/syrias peace-talks- need-more-women-at-the-table.

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21st Century Urdu Novel: A Quest for Identity

Saleem Mohiuddin Shri Shivaji College – INDIA Abstract

21st Century Urdu Novel: A Quest for Identity No doubt, Multiculturalism, and multicultural literature have found its roots deeper in contemporary literature. It is considered that it reflects the diasporic societies. But there are so many societies with huge cultural diversities like India. Where Multiculturalism and multicultural impressions existed beyond the theoretical causation. Urbanization in India started in the 20th century resulting in an upsurge of a metropolis. We find glimpses of multiculturalism and some abstract images of multicultural literature far before a defined approach. Urdu literature also witnessed several literary movements and trends. One of them called 'Jadeediyat' (modernism) emphasized upon individuality of the person. But it was more abstract than real. With 21st Century, the narrative text in the form of novel got importance and we find more than 50 significant novels written in a mere 18 years. We find social issues, cultural deprivation, political ingratitude and overall a big question mark over the cultural identity in the narratives of contemporary Urdu Novel. It all arises from the womb of multiculturalism. Apart from the difference in the topics, time and place, the soul issue of identity crisis remains the same. This paper will discuss at length the issue as depicted in contemporary Urdu novels. The impact and impressions of this issue on the Indian society and the language and literature as well.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Identity crisis, Urdu Novel.

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Literature in any language and of any society is a manifestation of the socio-cultural ethos of the society down the centuries. The literature displays the social, cultural and political ups and downs of a society with the help of language and culture and through various genres. Amongst the various literary genres “Novel” is a popular and powerful medium of expression. The environment, society and culture play a vital role in the creation of a novel. Novelist is a good observer or a storyteller. Novel is not a history, but it displays social, political, cultural and personal realities of a place or a period with clarity and detail which is not found in the works of history.1 Because of this, the changes, the positives and negatives of environment, society and culture are most visible in the novel.

Industrialization and urbanization have scattered the collectiveness of society and brought forward an urge of establishing the identity of an individual. Novel helped a lot in this process. A human is not fertilizer for the ideals of the society. He has his own existence, own life, joys and sorrows, successes and failures. Though the Space and time is the main factor of any novel, but it is represented by individuals. The stories of various individuals create an image of a society. According to Walter Scott,

“events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and modern state of society.”2

Urdu novel was written under the influence of English novel and in the beginning the main theme was nothing but ‘social reform’. The early Urdu Novelists like Deputy Nazeer Ahmed, (Mirat ul Uroos, Binatun Nash, Taubatun Nasooh), Hali (Majalisun Nisa), Nawab Afzaluddin Ahmad (Fasana-e-Khursheedi) were written with an aim of social reform. Followed by the social, cultural and historical phase of Urdu novel with Abdul Haleem Sharar (Fasana-e-Azad) and Ratan nath Sarshar (Firdaus-e-Bareen) both of them helped in widening the canvas and themes of Urdu novel.

Mirza Hadi Ruswa came up with his all-time famous novel “Umrao jan Ada”

with a technique and art of the novel. Then came Prem Chand with a narrative with creativity, with live characters and realistic approach towards the society. Premchand was a pioneer of progressive movement in Urdu literature under which the genre of novel in Urdu flourished.

Premchand was followed by Aziz Ahmad, Qurratul Ain Hyder, Asmat Chughtai, Rajinder Singh Bedi and Khawaja Ahmad Abbas.

Urdu literature has gone through various literary movements and trends.

Prominent amongst them are Islahi Tahreek (the Reformist Movement), Taraqqi Pasand Tahreek (the Progressive Movement) and Jadeediyat (the

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Modernist Movements). We can say that, the Urdu novel has got its roots in the Reformist Movement but got flourished under the Progressive Movement. The Progressive Movement was indeed a golden period for Urdu novel, as it produced some unfadable masterpieces. The writers like Rajinder Singh Bedi, Krishna Chandra, Qurratul Ain Hyder, Asmat Chughtai and many more formed a galaxy of Urdu novelists that brought forward real-life images of the society and prevailing social, cultural and political values and norms of their period. No doubt, society was their main concern. They preferred the society and its problems upon the individual and individual problems. This was mainly due to the ideology they uphold.

In the 60’s of last century, the Modernists came on the fore with an axe of individuality. But the absurdness of their writings not only killed the

‘narrative’ but also failed to create an impression of the ‘individual’. It is only after 1980, the narrative returned in Urdu fiction. The beginning of the 21st century was marked with upsurge of Urdu novel. The focus once again turned to the novel. Thus, come back of Urdu novel has got some distinct features. These include, the narrative once again engulfed with creativity, the strengthened bond between the society and the individual, the rapidly changes in the prevailing values and norms, the experiences of diaspora, globalization, multiculturalism, threat to identity and many more.

Apart from the individuals, the smaller groups in a larger society also found themselves under the threat of losing their identity.

The first ever glimpse of identity crisis in Urdu novel are found in Qurratul Ain Hyder’s novels. Where we find characters that are separated from their roots and compelled to live in Diaspora. After independence (in 1947) the Indian society felt the wounds of participation. The society which was divided in classes and social start as faced a new source of division called

“religion”. The partition of the country compelled thousands and thousands of people to be dislocated from their own roots. They were compelled to migrate within their own country and were separated by iron walls of international borders. In her first novel “Mere bhi sanam khane”

miss Hyder illustrates a scene of outburst of a communal tension as follows.

“He (Pt. Nehru, the then prime minister of India) got a phone call that Maktaba Jamia (A well-known Urdu library) is set on fire by some miscreants. Please do something. He suddenly started weeping. He shouted “What the hell are you doing. Please leave that Maktaba. It is not an agglomeration of papers. It is the treasure for our future generations.”3

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It shows the worst side of the situation where a person in highest position finds himself helpless to control the situation. The journey of the contemporary Urdu Novel in India begins with the writers from 1980-85.

These writers and their novels are different from their predecessors in terms of approach and ideas. They are well connected with their age and deeply rooted in present day life, lifestyle and thought process. Abdul Samad in his novel “Do gaz Zameen” (Two meters of land) illustrated the life of Bihari Muslims. This novel focuses on a small village of Bihar where two brothers live peacefully with different ideologies. Asghar Hussain and Akhtar Hussain, one is a congressman while other is influenced by Muslim league. With the partition Asghar Hussain migrates to Pakistan leaving Akhtar Hussain alone. After some time, he finds that his brother was called a Muhajir (a migrant) in Pakistan and he was also seen as a suspicious one on his own land. As the police interrogates him for the letters, he receives from his family members in Pakistan. According to him “Nothing was happened. Police did not find anything suspicious at my home. But I lost the reputation which was earned by my forefathers since hundreds of years.” 4

The irony of the situation is that Asghar Hussain who had migrated to Pakistan is a migrant there, but Akhtar Hussain has to feel the same at his own land, own village and own home. He feels that he is being uprooted.

Whereas, Husainul Haque, a senior writer, in his latest novel “Furat” (the river Euphrates) deals with religious, political and social changes that occurred in the human thinking and behaviour, it shows the degeneration of cultural values, downfall of composite culture and emergence of new values. According to Dr. Sagheer Afraheim.

“Degeneration of Values, scattering relations, changes in religion and politics, direction lessness, absurdity of life, identity of self-existence, etc.

which are the burning topics of our present-day life. All are came forward to us unitedly. Because of this “Furat” has become a mirror of our age”5 Gazanfar has given ten novels to Urdu literature his novel “Divyabani”

deals with the caste struggle in Indian Society. The issues of Dalit sects are discussed and dealt with a zeal to highlight the problem of being a Dalit (an untouchable) in Indian Society. It is the first ever Urdu novel that tries to establish a Dalit Identity. Paigem Afaqi’s “makan” (The house) is a story of an urban girl who tries to retain her house from being captured by the land mafia. It portrays the young girls’ problems in the context of the contemporary social, cultural and political system. Noorul Husnains recent novel “Aiwano ke Khawbeeda Charagh” has a vast canvas. He tries to

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establish and highlight the events and persons who sacrificed their lives during the noble cause of first war of independence, Noorul Husnain tries to portray the mixed cultural scenario which was the basic essence of the Indian Society.

Musharraf Alam Zauqui is known for his straightforward approach towards the issues of the society. He has brought forward the Muslim Minorities problems in his novels “Le sans bhi Ahista” and “Atishe Rafta Ka surag”. Being a journalist, he has good study of the field. In his novel

“Pokeman Ki duniya” he displays how the media hype issues and problems.

Khaled Javed’s “Nemat Khana” (2014) portrays the social, cultural and political struggle of muslims in India. It is an elegy of cultural traditions of Indian Muslims. This novel also deals with the psychological wounds of partition of the country.

There are many more notable novels that deals with the socio-cultural crisis of the Indian Society. Shafaq’s novel “badal” deals with the current situation of the country and rise in religious insanity. While Ahmad Sagheer’s “Darwaza abhi band hai” is a portrayal of the situation of the country after the demolition of Babri Mosque. Akhter Azad came up with a new theme of cultural change. In his novel “Laminated girl” he describes, how the new values of the society are replacing the older ones. There may be and I know there are a few more examples. But I feel it sufficient to conclude and express my point of view. I have to state it categorically that, the 21st century Urdu novel, in the quest of self-identity is dealing successfully and artistically with the identity crisis of the individuals and smaller groups of the larger societies.

References 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novel

2. Susan Manning, "Essay on Romance", Prose Works volume vi, p. 129 3. Qurratul Ain Hyder. “Mere bhi Sanam Khane” p. 424

4. Naya Safar- New Delhi - Book series, P.134

5. Dr. Sagheer Afraheim. “ Urdu fiction, Tanqeed Aur Tajziya,” 2003, P-77

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Music as a reference phenomenon in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing

Emília Perez – Andrej Zahorák Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra – SLOVAKIA

Abstract

This study focuses on a specific area of audiovisual translation – subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing – whilst the main attention lies on the specifics of the transfer of meanings presented at the level of sound, especially music. Meanings emanating from the sound level play a crucial role in the overall understanding of an audiovisual work and their insufficient representation in subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) can have a negative impact on overall reception by the target audience or even lead to complete loss of meaning or expressive value of the presented meaning. While the suggested area has been gaining increasing attention in audiovisual translation and media accessibility research, subtitling practices across some of the European regions vary and the question of good practice remains. In the case of music, practitioners often face a challenge on whether, when and how music should be presented in SDH based on its role and significance in a particular audiovisual work. The authors of the paper provide an overview of policies regarding this specific transfer in Europe and observe strategies and procedures applied in meaning transfer on various levels. Said observation reveals that music is an element present in most of the identified standards and subtitling recommendations, although the definition of recommended procedures differs in its extent and complexity. Existing standards are evaluated with respect to cognitive, interpretative and transfer specifics of music presentation in film and SDH, supplemented by the results of a structured discussion with representatives of the Slovak subtitling community. The results reflect the analysed issue from professionals’

perspective, revealing practical implications and specifics of the decision- making process when representing music in SDH.

Keywords: Cultural community, cultural references, audiovisual translation, subtitles for deaf and hard of hearing, auditory level.

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Introduction

Subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing can be defined as a specific type of translation as well as artistic transfer with the main goal of making an audiovisual work accessible to the target audience in the most comprehensible manner possible, maintaining all of the key meanings presented at the sound level of the original work. This, indeed, does not cover only the monologues and dialogues in the film, but also other sound elements which can influence whether, how and to what extent the intended meaning is perceived. A specific group of such sound elements is represented by various types of music which play a significant role in following, experiencing and remembering a film. And although the function of music and song in a film might sometimes only be emotive, or serving as background, could you imagine what would your favourite film be like without it?

There have been many theoretical reflections on the role of music in audiovisual works, described from several angles. A highly detailed one is the classification of eight film functions by Annabel J. Cohen (2011, 258) providing an in-depth view on how and why music is encoded in a film.

From covering external noises, providing continuity between shots, directing attention to important features, the ability to induce mood and to further narrative, associating meanings in our memory and creating a leitmotiv, towards strengthening absorption and creating an enhancement of the aesthetic effect of the film – some of these functions operate simultaneously. Cohen’s classification describes the functions of music from the perspective of a hearing viewer and their further elaboration brings us to contemplate whether, when, how and to what extent they can be maintained in subtitles for a deaf and hard of hearing audience. Music in film operates as a very complex referential phenomenon, creating atmosphere but sometimes also significantly supplementing, influencing or changing the way an audiovisual work is interpreted. Such communicative and expressive load cannot be omitted when making a film accessible to a deaf and hard of hearing audience and therefore a debate on meaning transfer strategies as well as the formal strategies and recommendations on how this difficult task should be performed is essential.

Transfer procedures and legal framework in selected European countries Subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing has been gaining more attention not only in terms of research in the field of audiovisual

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translation and media accessibility but also at the level of local and international initiatives. The European Union has witnessed an increase in initiatives supporting equality in public and private spheres, and equal access to communication for deaf and hard of hearing people. These can be seen also at the national level, which in the area of our interest is especially reflected in development towards the standardisation and statutory expression of policies and procedures related to subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing.

Such development, indeed, is of a different pace and impact in various regions. In European countries we can see a difference between the formulation and statutory expression of procedures in SDH; these can either operate as recommended general standards, or in some places as a legal obligation where the proportion of programmes with SDH are defined for various groups of broadcasters, in others as official legal regulations on national formal standards in subtitling, and in others still only as guidelines of a particular broadcasting company. Whilst the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive (2010) and its later amendments (2018) call for consistent strategies in providing access for both the visually and aurally impaired, its implementation at the national level varies, with statutory backing of initiatives in Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Greece, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Spain, Hungary, Czech Republic Cyprus and Slovakia, where national standards are set for both public and private broadcasters. The remaining member states place legal obligations on their public broadcasters only, but in most of the countries particular formal standards and/or recommendations on procedures in SDH are presented, even if only in a consultative manner.

This chapter provides a brief overview of policies and strategies in selected European countries which have influenced the development of the Slovak context analysed in the study, as well as in countries with similar development trails linked to several historical, cultural as well as linguistic intersections.

As the country which pioneered subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing audience, the UK initiated its SDH activities as early as the 1970s. Presently, the proportion of programmes with SDH broadcast via the main TV channels (e.g. BBC) are heading towards the highest percentage in Europe.

The given provisions of the recommended proportion of programmes with SDH are regularly observed by the UK’s communications regulator, based on the audience share of the broadcaster (Ferusová, 30). In terms of standards, the long(ish) history of subtitling has aided a unification of

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subtitling strategies, although these are not statutorily specified at the national level. Commonly used strategies are reflected for instance in the BBC Subtitling Editorial Guidelines which provide quite a detailed description of strategies and recommendations related to formal, technical as well as communicative aspects of subtitling. Some of the recommendations have also served as the basis of the creation of standards in Slovkia, although formal strategies here remain different in several ways. In relation to the specifics of transfer of music and sounds, Ferusová (31) points out the main difference lies in more verbal marking of information at the level of sound in the Slovak context as opposed to the use of symbols or specific use of punctuation marks to reflect certain groups of meaning (e.g. the # symbol when reflecting singing vs. verbal information SINGING/SINGS).

Countries observed in the German-language context (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) all feature legislation related to the duty to broadcast programmes supported by SDH, for both public and private broadcasters.

In terms of strategies and standardisation, procedures were not unified until 2015, before which several broadcasters operated with their own subtitling standards (such a strategy is in general not common and can lead to inconsistencies in viewer expectations). Later on, however, the German broadcasters ARD and ZDF, Austrian ORF and Swiss SRF created common SDH standards providing a definition of key procedures in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing audience. These include the maximum number of characters per line (37), expected average reading speed (13-15 characters per second), use of colours and brief guidelines on what should/should not be included in subtitles and when. In terms of procedures related to the transfer of meanings related to music and sounds, which are the focus of this study, these standards explicitly mention the formal procedure of transfer (white writing in a black box) and a recommendation to subtitle song lyrics if important for understanding the story.

When observing the Slovak subtitling context, one of the countries which has influenced its policies the most is the Czech Republic, which provides a very extensive 229-page document on standards and strategies in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing written by SDH professionals Raimund Koplík and Věra Strnadová (2008). Although subtitling recommendations and policies are not defined by law in the country, the subtitling practice described in the publication is quite complex and the practical implications are manifold. The particular strategies have also

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served as a basis for the creation of national Slovak subtitling standards – embodied in national law for all Slovak broadcasters, however, presented in a much briefer extent.

Also interesting from the point of view of comparison of development and strategies is the data from the Russian-speaking context. For instance, in Belarus SDH standards were created together with recommendations for audio-description procedures by the centre for rehabilitation of the visually impaired, known as the Center for a Successful Person (Центр успешного человека). Within the project Development of techniques for accessible information and art to the needs of the blind and deaf in Belarus (Развитие техник приспособления информации и искусства к потребностям незрячих и глухих в Беларуси) specialists from the centre elaborated recommendations on procedures related to meaning transfer from the aural to visual level and technical and formal parameters.

Formal parameters follow common procedures in SDH (use of the colour white, 2-line subtitle, 37-38 characters per line, positioned in the lower part of the screen, exceptionally in the upper part). In terms of strategies in the transfer of meanings from the level of sounds, the document points out the importance of giving information about the source of sounds, subtitling song lyrics which are related to the story, and giving the name of the interpreter/composer and title in the case of a well-known song.

Subtitling strategies for an audience with hearing impairment are elaborated in the national law of the Russian Federation GOST P 57763- 2017 from 2017, with the procedure for its implementation described in article 26 of federal act no. 162-FZ from 2015 on Standardisation in the Russian Federation. Measures for the complex development of subtitling of TV programmes are operated via the project Accessible Environment (Доступная среда) and the subtitling standards are implemented by Russian TV Channels Первый канал, Россия 1, Россия К (Культура) and НТВ. The standards cover several aspects: general SDH strategies (grammatical and stylistic accuracy, correspondence with the image, readability, equality); strategies in transferring sounds (identification of speakers); specifics in subtitling for children. Also defined are the formal parameters of SDH (number of lines, colours, duration); one section defines recommended duration between 2-8 seconds based on number of characters, and in case of need (e.g. subtitling song lyrics) duration can go up to 12 seconds. Just to compare, the Belarus standards define a maximum duration of 6 seconds. The presentation of sounds and sound effects should be made in round brackets, naming the source of the sound.

Ақпарат көздері

СӘЙКЕС КЕЛЕТІН ҚҰЖАТТАР

How to Educate a Child? The author advises first to put student’s heart the form of a real picture. «The way of teaching native language in elementary school»

Бұл мақалада Абайдың қазақ руханиятын әлемдік деңгейге көтере алған қуаттылығы мен оның шығармашылығының қалыптасуына, өсуіне, жетілуіне

д.философ.н., проф., Казахский национальный университет имени аль- Фараби, Алматы, Казахстан..

Robinson and his followers related to the application of theorems on the properties of model companions of the considered theories for classical algebraic objects, such as fields

This interpreta- tion of a citizenship demonstrated by eminent scientists in their works (Voevodin L.D., Lepeshkin A.I., 60-s and 70-s of the ХХ century) [10]. In the 70–80-s of

“vulgar sociology”. In the evaluation of the works, which were recognized as a success of Kazakh literature during the Great Patriotic War, criticism turned to its high taste

Indeed, one of the stages while genre types of Kazakh literary criticism were forming is 1940-s, in this period such main types of criticism as creative portrait, literary

Indeed, one of the stages while genre types of Kazakh literary criticism were forming is 1940-s, in this period such main types of criticism as creative portrait, literary