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Problems of entrepreneurship development in the production sector in the Republic of Kazakhstan


Academic year: 2022

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E.K. Utegenov ¹ A.B. Maidyrova² A.Zh. Iskakov³

¹,²L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan

³Sh. Ualikhanov Kokshetau University,Kokshetau, Kazakhstan (E-mail: erkebulan.utegenov@mail.ru¹, maydirova2010@gmail.com², iskakov_az@mail.ru³)

Problems of entrepreneurship development in the production sector in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to analyze the application of mechanisms for the development of entrepreneurial activity in the production sector of the Regions of Kazakhstan and develop proposals for its improvement. The research process uses such General scientific research methods as observation, description, analysis and synthesis, as well as comparative, formal-logical and other methods of cognition. As a research information base, statistical data and data on projects of JSC «Damu entrepreneurship Development Fund», which helps in the creation and development of small and medium-sized business projects in Kazakhstan, were used.

This article demonstrates and analyzes current quantitative information on the number of enterprises in the field of small and medium-sized businesses in the regional and sectoral context.

The forms and sources of financing are investigated; the features of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Republic of Kazakhstan are defined. The ways of development of entrepreneurship in the production sphere are suggested.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, state support, enterprise, project, development, production, investment.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32523/2079-620X-2021-1-119-127


During the years of independence in the Republic of Kazakhstan was developed 10 policy documents on the basis of which was conducted and implemented the state program of agricultural development that led to increased entrepreneurial activity, the formation of a market economy and to the emergence of various organizational-legal forms of management in villages. In turn, the lack of funding and regular changes in legislation, as well as the Republic›s entry into the customs Union and the EEU, affected Kazakhstan›s producers, as the requirements put forward to them and new

technological standards have a negative impact and restrict the activities of small and large producers[1].


In the course of research, general scientific research methods such as observation, description, analysis and synthesis, as well as comparative, formal-logical and other methods of cognition were used.

History of the issue under consideration.

«Statistical data on projects of JSC»

«Entrepreneurship Development Fund» «Damu»

helping with development in the creation and


development of projects of small and medium- sized businesses, as well as economic reviews of the World Development Bank related to the ease of doing business in the Republic of Kazakhstan and annual reports of the organization for Economic Cooperation and development with an analysis of the implementation of innovative reforms in the country were used as a research information base.»


The article presented and analyzed up-to- date quantitative information on the number of enterprises in the field of small and medium- sized businesses in the regional and sectoral context. The forms and sources of financing were studied, and the specifics of the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Republic of Kazakhstan were determined. Ways to develop entrepreneurship in the industrial sphere were proposed.

The Kazakh market is filled with products from the customs Union and the CIS countries, and there is a shortage of condensed milk, cottage cheese and cheese of domestic production on the shelves [2]. At the same time the head of state set task to replace, missing the import of food products and to increase exports by half, hence the importance of finding effective directions of development of small enterprises, which meet the modern market economy, to improve self- organization, strengthen sectoral collaboration, to apply modern development strategies, making this study relevant[3].

The purpose of the work is to substantiate, develop methodological foundations and practical recommendations for the development of entrepreneurial activity in the production sector.

In accordance with this goal, the following tasks are set:

- to give a theoretical justification of the significance of the development of entrepreneurship in the field of production;

- research trends in the development of entrepreneurship in the field of production in the Republic of Kazakhstan;

- show the possibilities of developing entrepreneurship in the field of production;

- substantiate the development strategies of enterprises in the field of production;

- develop proposals for improving the infrastructure of small businesses.

Research methodology and methodology.

The theoretical and methodological basis of the research consists of the works of domestic and foreign scientists, fundamental provisions of economic theory, as well as economic reviews and reports of the Executive bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The study used the following methods: system analysis, economic and statistical, abstract-logical, monographic, etc.


Entrepreneurship is an important economic phenomenon for any state living in a market economy. The development of entrepreneurship determines the level of economic growth and improvement of well-being, contributing to an increase in the material and spiritual potential of society. Experts have proved that the role of the State in the development of entrepreneurship is very significant and indisputable, since the creation of the necessary conditions and material support for the subjects of the market economy create the infrastructure of business relationships. Today, Kazakhstan has created all the necessary conditions for the development of entrepreneurship [4]. Among Kazakhstani scientists, the works of many scientists of Kazakhstan are devoted to the problems of entrepreneurship, including the problems of small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector - B. Chakmak, R. Bugubaeva [5], D. Zhenshan, Esenbayeva A. E. [6] Pavlova T. I., Ramazanova Z.Sh. [7] and others. Among Russian scientists, we can note the works of Rastegaeva F.S. [8], Vasiliev K. A. [9] and others.

The policy of purposeful development of entrepreneurship and support of small and medium-sized businesses in the Republic of Kazakhstan is a priority. Since 2002, the Damu entrepreneurship development Fund has been providing loans to small and medium-sized


businesses [10]. Since 2012, important tools have been launched to support entrepreneurship in the regions: the business roadmap 2020 and the employment roadmap 2020, under which entrepreneurs have received support in the form of subsidizing the loan interest rate, partial loan guarantee, training, service support for doing business, foreign internships, etc., and since December 24, 2019, a new business support and development program «business Roadmap 2025»has been approved. All these programs are aimed at implementing the messages of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan starting with the strategy «Kazakhstan-2030» And

«Kazakhstan›s way-2050: common goal, common

Industry. Number of projects, units.. Industry.

Number of projects, units

The sum of credits KZT

Manufacturing industry 4 202 1 215 588 426

Transport and warehousing 3 385 384 011 858

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of cars and motorcycles 2 061 268 456 407

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries 1 176 139 949 966

Health and social services 940 93 438 846

Accommodation and food services 937 163 933 214

Education 641 52 971 113

Arts, entertainment and recreation 367 73 044 719

Real estate transactions 264 59 355 324

The construction industry 198 17 346 804

Provision of other types of services 197 7 001 270

Mining and quarrying 173 47 449 628

Professional, scientific and technical activities 172 9 851 596 Activities in the area of administrative and support services 155 13 375 260

Information and communication 112 22 433 626

Water supply; Sewerage system, control over waste collection

and distribution 112 18 805 563

Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning 51 58 216 260

Financial and insurance activities 3 65 946

Activities of households that employ domestic workers and

produce goods and services for their own consumption 1 55 222

Grand total 15 147 2 645 351 046 495

Source Damu entrepreneurship development Fund JSC [9]

Table 1 Industry breakdown of subsidy results from 2010-2019

interests, common future» [11]. The purpose of which is to ensure sustainable and balanced growth of regional entrepreneurship, as well as to maintain existing and create new permanent jobs.

As mentioned earlier, entrepreneurship is an important economic phenomenon that contributes to the development of strategically important industries in the country. Financial support measures for entrepreneurs include:

- subsidizing the interest rate on loans, financial leasing agreements of banks, the development Bank, and leasing companies;

- partial guarantee on loans from banks, the development Bank;


- development of production (industrial) infrastructure;

- creation of industrial zones;

- long-term leasing financing [12].

The list of priority sectors of the economy for potential participants of the Program includes the agro-industrial complex, mining, light industry and furniture production, production of building materials and other non-metallic mineral products, metallurgy, Metalworking, mechanical engineering and other industrial sectors. As well as transport and warehousing, tourism, information and communication, education, health and social services, art, entertainment and recreation, and other services [13].

Since 2010, Damu entrepreneurship development Fund JSC has subsidized 15,147 projects of 2,645 billion tenge in 3 areas of the program. (Including in 2018, 1,432 projects were supported for a total amount of loans of 173 billion tenge; in 2019, 2,396 projects for a total amount of loans of 154 billion tenge) [14].

As can be seen from table 1 «Industry breakdown of subsidy results», most of the subsidies are allocated to projects in the manufacturing industry (4,202 projects for a total of 1,215 billion tenge), transport and warehousing (3,385 projects for 384 billion tenge) and wholesale and retail trade (2,061 projects for 268 billion tenge) tenge)

As can be seen from figure 1, in the first diagram, the largest number of subsidies was directed to manufacturing projects, this is 27%, transport and warehousing 22% and wholesale and retail trade, car and motorcycle repair 13%, and only 8% of subsidies were allocated for the development of agriculture. While in the second diagram, the percentage of enterprises in the total number of enterprises is dominated by the share of enterprises in wholesale and retail trade-27%, construction - 12%, provision of other services-9%, professional and scientific and technical activities-7%, education-7%, manufacturing – 5%, activities related to support services-5%, agriculture and fisheries-4%.

In 2019, Kazakhstan›s GDP amounted to 5.15 trillion tenge, the contribution of agriculture to this figure was 5%. And in this indicator, 70% is provided by crop production, whose products are imported. Kazakhstan is an agricultural country, and on the example of the regions-North Kazakhstan, Akmola and Kostanay regions, you can see that the distribution of subsidies was not evenly distributed, since mainly subsidized enterprises engaged in crop production-64.8%

and livestock-35.2%, this is data for 2019 and according to data for 2020, it is distributed for crop production-67.3%, for livestock-32.7%. This is due to the fact that «80% of crop production is sold as raw materials without processing, and the products necessary for crop production,

Industries that received the most subsidies

Figure 1 – Industries that received the largest number of subsidies and the percentage of operating enterprises by industry

Percentage of

operating enterprises by industry


such as seeds, herbicides, fuel and lubricants, are imported, so this direction of subsidizing is well supported by the Ministry of agriculture. Analysis of animal husbandry from 2002 to 2019 showed that large farms managed to increase the number of livestock from 7 to 9.1%. At the same time, in small farms, this indicator was in the range of 4.5- 35%. The country is still dominated by subsidiary farms, which are the main suppliers of milk and meat [15].

Based on the data in table 2, it can be seen that from 2014 to 2015, the country has seen an increase in the number of operating enterprises, and by 2016 there is a decline of 0.99% or 122,295 enterprises and 148,311 less compared to 2017, respectively. This was due to the fact that, as a result of lower oil prices and the weakening of the ruble in the Russian Federation since the end of 2014 and 2015 there was a decline in the economy leading to higher inflation and lower real incomes. As a result, a large number of Russian products were imported to Kazakhstan due to

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020/1 2016/



2019 Republic of Kazakhstan 865 182 1304747 1182452 1156436 1233496 1330244 1318518 -122295 -11726 Akmola region 33 580 49 742 44 646 41 754 44 571 45 453 44 094 -5 096 -1 359

Aktobe 37 206 50 591 50 682 50 430 54 691 59 116 59 439 91 323

Almaty 96 221 159 687 118 551 111 528 114 919 122 368 121 362 -41 136 -1 006 Atyrau 31 916 46 644 44 118 43 388 46 779 49 917 49 389 -2 526 -528 West Kazakhstan Region 29 135 39 840 40 344 37 284 40 298 42 785 42 254 504 -531 Zhambyl 41 833 69 154 56 789 59 706 63 148 69 961 67 769 -12 365 -2 192 Karaganda 62 027 86 253 84 686 80 589 84 067 88 299 87 220 -1 567 -1 079 Kostanay 43 604 61 167 53 031 49 185 51 573 52 516 51 674 -8 136 -842 Kyzylorda 25 747 42 106 38 079 37 700 42 585 46 297 46 268 -4 027 -29 Mangystau 31 462 47 216 46 515 47 239 51 012 52 949 52 400 -701 -549 Pavlodar 125 951 185 936 173 611 179 704 43 643 45 482 44 868 -12 325 -614 North Kazakhstan 32 140 45 920 43 903 41 638 29 059 30 071 29 575 -2 017 -496 Turkistan 25 018 34 454 28 548 28 146 124 762 141 992 141 099 -5 906 -893 East Kazakhstan Astana 73 882 102 514 98 863 81 310 88 252 88 938 86 124 -3 651 -2 814 Almaty 55 677 98 740 99 971 97 197 118 461 134 475 135 382 1 231 907 Shymkent 119 783 184 783 160 115 169 638 177 200 190 190 190 015 -24 668 -175

Republic of Kazakhstan * * * * 58 476 69 435 69 586 - 151

Compiled by the author based on data stat.gov.kz [10]

Table 2 Number of operating enterprises in the SME sector for 2014-2020

the depreciation of the ruble at significantly low prices, which negatively affected the competitive environment and Kazakhstan›s producers [16].

The problem of the state and development of entrepreneurship in the Republic of Kazakhstan is more clear after we pay attention to the structure and ratio of enterprises by industry in European and Asian countries.

From figure 2, it is clear that in Europe, the vast number of enterprises engaged in trading activities – 21%, but at the same time, there is a large number of enterprises in the industry is -18% of the total number of enterprises, transport and communications – 14%, construction 13%, services – 11% of population – 12% of enterprises in agriculture is 11% of the total number of enterprises. As for the industry structure of small and medium-sized enterprises in Asia, such as Japan, Malaysia, and China, we see that there is a high concentration of enterprises in industry – 41% of the total number of enterprises, agriculture – 21%, trade enterprises – 16%, transport and


Figure 2 – Industry structure of small and medium-sized businesses in developed countries

communications – 12%, and construction – 10%.

As can be seen from figure 2, in the developed countries of Europe and Asia, small and medium- sized businesses cover all sectors of the economy, pay attention not only to industrial enterprises, or trade, but also to agriculture as a source of food security and a profitable industry, as well as pay attention to enterprises in the field of transport and communications, construction, and services.

In the Republic of Kazakhstan as already noted all necessary conditions are created for development of entrepreneurship, since entrepreneurship support programs at the state level, finishing services advice on one stop when the entrepreneur by contacting the office of «Damu» Fund can obtain the necessary assistance.


Based on the above, for the development of small and medium-sized businesses, following the example of developed countries, it is necessary to:

- actively increase innovative research and development programs, investing large amounts of money in them, to create advantages in the field of technology and ensure further sustainable development of its economy and export potential;

- differentiate the tax system taking into account the specifics of the field of activity (special attention is paid to high-tech and environmentally friendly technologies);

- pay special attention to the social status of entrepreneurs (special benefits for young people, women, disabled people, pensioners) and the development of the region (benefits for depressed regions);

- create special quotas for small businesses when distributing government orders, including military and space orders to large corporations;

- use the unique experience of venture financing and development of small innovative firms in universities, large corporations and state research institutes;

- pay great attention to financing start-up projects and maintaining business incubators in educational institutions.


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Е.К. Өтегенов¹, А.Б. Майдырова², А.Ж. Искаков³

¹,²Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Нұр-Сұлтан, Қазақстан,

³Ш.Уәлиханов атындағы КУ, Көкшетау, Қазақстан

Қазақстан Республикасы өңдеу секторындағы кәсіпкерлікті дамыту мәселелері

Аннотация. Мақаланың мақсаты – Қазақстан аймақтарының өндірістік секторында кәсіпкерлік қы- зметті дамыту тетіктерінің қолданылуын талдау және оны жетілдіру бойынша ұсыныстарды әзірлеу.

Зерттеу процесінде байқау, сипаттау, талдау және синтездеу сияқты жалпы ғылыми зерттеу әдістері,


сонымен қатар, танымның салыстырмалы, формальды-логикалық және басқа әдістері қолданылады.

Зерттеудің ақпараттық базасы ретінде статистикалық мәліметтер мен Қазақстандағы шағын және орта бизнесті құруға және дамытуға көмектесетін жобалар туралы мәліметтер пайдаланылды.

Бұл мақалада аймақтық және салалық тұрғыдағы шағын және орта кәсіпкерлік саласындағы кәсіпо- рындар саны туралы тиісті сандық ақпарат көрсетіліп, талданды. Қаржыландыру нысандары мен көздері зерттелді, Қазақстан Республикасындағы шағын және орта кәсіпкерліктің даму ерекшеліктері анықтал- ды. Өңдеу секторындағы кәсіпкерлікті дамыту жолдары ұсынылған.

Түйін сөздер: шағын және орта бизнес, қолдау, кәсіпкерлік, жоба, кәсіпкерлікті дамыту, өндіріс.

Е.К. Утегенов¹, А.Б. Майдырова², А.Ж. Искаков³

¹,²Евразийский национальный университет имени Л.Н.Гумилева, Нур-Султан, Казахстан,

³Кокшетауский университет им. Ш. Уалиханова, Кокшетау, Казахстан

Проблемы развития предпринимательства в производственной сфере Республики Казахстан Аннотация. Целью статьи являются анализ применения механизмов развития предприниматель- ской деятельности в производственной сфере регионов Казахстана и разработка предложений по его улучшению. В процессе исследования используются такие общенаучные методы исследования, как на- блюдение, описание, анализ и синтез, а также сравнительный, формально-логический и другие методы познания. В качестве исследовательской информационной базы были использованы статистические дан- ные и данные по проектам АО «Фонд Развития предпринимательства «Даму», оказывающий помощь при создании и развитии проектов малого и среднего предпринимательства, экономические обзоры всемирного банка развития, связанные с легкостью ведения бизнеса в Республике Казахстан, а также еже- годные отчеты организации экономического сотрудничества и развития с анализом хода выполнения инновационных реформ в стране.

В статье была продемонстрирована и проанализирована актуальная количественная информация по количеству предприятий в сфере малого и среднего предпринимательства в региональном и отраслевом разрезе. Исследованы формы и источники финансирования, определены особенности развития пред- приятий малого и среднего предпринимательства в Республике Казахстан. Предложены пути развития предпринимательства в производственной сфере.

Ключевые слова: предпринимательство, государственная поддержка, предприятие, проект, разви- тие, производство, инвестиции.

Information about authors:

Өтегенов Е.К. – негізгі автор, 8D04106- «Аналитикалық экономика» мамандығының 1 курс докторан- ты, Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Нұр-Сұлтан, Қазақстан.

Майдырова А.Б. – Экономика және кәсіпкерлік кафедрасының меңгерушісі, экономика ғылымдары- ның докторы, профессор, Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Нұр-Сұлтан, Қазақстан.

Искаков А.Ж. – С. Сәдуақасов Атындағы Аграрлық-Экономикалық Институтының Директоры, Эко- номика ғылымдарының докторы, Куанышев көш., 170, корпус №5, Көкшетау, Қазақстан.

Utegenov E. – The main author, the 1st year doctoral student of education program 8D04106 - «Analytical economics», L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Maydirova A.B. – Head of Department of Economics and entrepreneurship,doctor of economics,professor , L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Iskakov A.Zh. – director of the S. Sadvakasov agricultural and Economic Institute, doctor of Economic Sciences, Kuanyshev str., 170, Building 5, Kokshetau, Kazakhstan.

Ақпарат көздері


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Key words: Innovative development, innovative activity of an enterprise, innovation, entrepreneurship, development of small and medium-sized businesses, innovative

Abaydeldinov E.M. Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Prof., L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.. Abdilov K.S. Gumilyov Eurasian National

Abaydeldinov E.M. Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Prof., L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.. Abdilov K.S. Gumilyov Eurasian National

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of Historical Sci., Prof., L.N.Gumilyov ENU, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan (international relations) Оl’ga Аvdeeva Doctor of Political Sci., Assoc.Prof., Loyola University, Chicago,