• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ

МРНТИ 06.54.01 УДК 331.1

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between the volume of production and labor costs. The increase in labor productivity is associated with an increase in the volume of production per unit of time or a reduction in the working time necessary for the production of a unit of output [2].

There are several ways to increase the productivity of labor, which are shown in Figure 1. Despite the fact that they all increase labor productivity, some have a positive, and some negative effect on production employees [3].

Figure 1 - Ways to increase labor productivity

When considering performance as a way to achieve high results at the lowest resource costs, you should focus on using innovative ways to achieve goals other than those listed above. New methods should take into account the impact of interrelated factors that affect the effectiveness of the organization [3]. These factors are reflected in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - Factors affecting the effectiveness of the organization

Despite the many factors affecting labor productivity, there are five main forms of its manifestation:

- in the form of reducing labor costs per unit of cost of consumption, which reflects the economy of time. At the micro level, the indicator of time saving is the growth of the profit of the organization, in turn, at the macro level - the achieved level of economic development;

Ways to increase labor productivity

Positive

Increase the involvement and motivation of employees Improvement of working practices and work

organization Improve current processes

Negative

Increase in working hours

Dismissal of employees who do not achieve their goals Improve processes in only one area

Factors affecting the effectiveness of the organization motivation of employees bonus system and recognition

competence of employees competencies of managers clear division of roles and responsibilities clear key performance indicators, goals and expectations

feedback and information exchange transparent and simple organizational structure ability, motivation and desire to solve problems

safe, clean, orderly workplace effective teamwork correct interpersonal relationships

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- in the form of an increase in the mass of use values over a period of time. In this case, the result of labor is an important indicator, reflecting both the expansion of output volumes and quality improvement;

- in the form of a change in the proportions of living and materialized labor, since the process of labor is carried out with the help of three basic elements: the means of labor, the object of labor and labor itself. It should be borne in mind that the proportions of living and materialized labor can change and affect labor productivity to varying degrees. For example, with a decrease in the cost of living labor, the costs of materialized labor increase both in relative and in absolute terms. Such processes can be observed in those areas where computerization of production takes place;

- in the form of an increase in the mass and rate of the surplus product;

- in the form of reducing the turnover time by introducing scientific and technological progress in production, adopting foreign experience, which contributes to a reduction in time costs [4].

The results of calculations based on the formula (1) of labor productivity in the context of the branches of the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the analysis of changes in this indicator in relative terms are presented in Table 1.

Table 1

Labor productivity in the economic sectors of Kazakhstan for 2013-2015 (thousand tenge / hour)

Name 2013 2014 2015 Changefor 3

years (%)

1 Agriculture, forestryandfisheries 34,1 46,1 59,6 + 74,8

2 Miningandquarrying 1185,1 1037,0 768,2 - 35,2

3 Manufacturingindustry 337,2 362,0 355,6 + 5,5

4 Power supply, gas, steam and air conditioning 189,4 193,1 212,5 + 12,2 5 Water supply, sewage system, control over collection and

distribution of waste 68,7 66,1 68,6 - 0,1

6 Building 182,3 176,6 191,3 + 4,9

7 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of cars and motorcycles 156,3 192,0 206,3 + 32

8 Transportandstorage 191,8 219,1 245,6 + 28,1

9 Accommodationandfoodservices 69,9 70,4 82,2 + 17,6

10 Informationandcommunication 254,9 204,9 243,1 - 4,6

11 Financialandinsuranceactivities 240,9 208,8 278,8 + 15,7

12 Operationswithrealestate 796,3 1220,0 1248,7 + 56,8

13 Professional, scientific and technical activities 247,7 294,1 249,6 + 0,8 14 Activities in the field of administrative and support services 123,3 123,4 118,2 - 4,1 15 Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 102,5 97,6 110,8 + 8,1

16 Education 42,4 44,9 44,9 + 5,9

17 Healthandsocialservices 94,5 94,3 99,7 + 5,5

18 Arts, entertainmentandrecreation 65,4 63,5 80,7 + 23,4

19 Provision of other types of services 154,6 138,9 164,7 + 6,5

20 Activities of households that hire domestic workers and produce goods and services for their own consumption 65,9 200,5 213,2 + 223,5

21 Totalintheeconomy 163,8 181,7 185,4 + 13,2

Note - compiled by the author on the basis of the source data [5]

Based on the data in Table 1, labor productivity in the economy has a positive trend in the period under review, but there is a negative trend in such industries as:

- Mining and quarrying;

- water supply, sewage system, control over collection and distribution of waste;

- information and communication;

- Administrative and support services.

Turning to a direct analysis of labor productivity, it is necessary to introduce a formula by which this indicator will be calculated in the sectors of the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This formula has the following form:

𝑃𝑙 =𝐴𝑃𝑃𝑊𝑇 (1) Where, 𝑃𝑙 is the productivity of labor;

APP - ammount of products produced;

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WT - working time [5].

On the basis of the presented formula (1), according to official statistical data, the analysis of labor productivity in the sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan is carried out. Indicators of the number of products produced in the sectors of the economy are presented in the statistical compilation "National accounts of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2015", and data on spent working time - "Economic activity of the population of Kazakhstan for 2011-2015" [6].

Of all the above listed industries, the greatest decline was observed in the mining industry and the development of quarries. It is necessary to determine what causes the decline in the level of labor productivity in this industry. For this purpose, figure 3 presents information on the number of products produced and the time spent in this sector in the industry under consideration.

Figure 3 - APP and WT in the mining industry and quarrying for 2013-2015 (million tg and thousand hours respectively)

According to the data presented in Figure 4, the reason for the increase in labor productivity in the analyzed sector was the increase in the number of products produced against the background of a reduction in the working time spent on its production.

The study of the dynamics of labor productivity in the branches of the economy was carried out using horizontal analysis. From the point of view of vertical analysis, it is worth noting the industries with the largest considered indicator for 2015. These industries and their performance levels are shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 - Branches of the economy of Kazakhstan with the highest labor productivity in 2015 (thousand tenge / hour)

As noted earlier, the mining industry and quarrying for the period under review has a negative trend, but despite this, the industry occupies a leading position in terms of labor productivity in 2015.

These contradictory trends are explained by the fact that the current understanding of the concept of

"labor productivity" does not take into account the role of human capital in the labor process, that is, the innovative and creative potential of the individual, working conditions, and the quality of life are not taken into account [7].

11 817 544,2 12 219 898,4

8 733 096,2

9 972 11 784 11 368

0,0 2 000 000,0 4 000 000,0 6 000 000,0 8 000 000,0 10 000 000,0 12 000 000,0 14 000 000,0

2013 2014 2015

amount of products produced, mln. Working time, thousand hours

1248,7 768,2

355,6 278,8 249,6

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Operations with real estate Mining and quarrying Manufacturing industry Financial and insurance activities Professional, scientific and technical

activities

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Investigation of the influence of the above factors on labor productivity is necessary, since with the growth of the welfare of society, the accent shifts, according to the terminology of A. Maslow, from satisfying physiological needs to higher needs. Underestimating the importance of the influence of high-order needs on labor processes, one can get a negative trend in labor productivity indicators at the micro- and macro-level. To date, this situation is observed only in four sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan, but in the future it can spread to the entire economy as a whole unless measures are taken to resolve the issues of the importance of human capital [6].

Conclusion. Summarizing all the above information, it can be concluded that according to the analysis carried out in the Republic of Kazakhstan, there is a low efficiency of instruments that contribute to a gradual change in the level of labor productivity in the long term. These tools include programs that are aimed at eliminating excessive subsidies in the absence of mechanisms to analyze its performance, as well as to increase the competitiveness of human capital.

Based on the results of the analysis of labor productivity in the sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan, it was revealed that there are industries with a negative trend, despite the fact that the overall dynamics of the economy is positive. In the mining industry and quarrying, there is a contradictory situation, which manifests itself in a high level of labor productivity and negative dynamics in the same period in the period under review.

To eliminate such contradictions and reduce the level of labor productivity, it is necessary to take into account not only the economic component of the labor process, but also human capital, which manifests itself in the creative potential of workers, which makes it possible to create innovative means of labor. The introduction of high-tech industries also acts as a factor that has a significant impact on raising the level of labor productivity in the economic sectors. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a qualitative monitoring of these factors in order to assess their effectiveness.

Thus, an increase in labor productivity will solve the problem of creating an efficient and competitive economy. Achieving this goal should be considered from a strategic point of view, that is, in the long term. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, there are all conditions for achieving the level of developed countries for the indicator under consideration, but it is necessary to actively cooperate the three main actors (the state, business, population) to achieve a common common goal for the benefit of the country.

Bibliography:

1 Алибекова Р. Производительность –ключевой фактор успеха // Прикаспийская коммуна. - 14 апреля 2015 года .- №40 с.3.

2 Захаров А.Н. Проблемы мотивации и производительности труда работников сельского хозяйства //Вестник НГИЭИ. – 2013. – № 7 (26). – С.51-62.

3 Солонинчик К., Ефремова А.А. Факторы и пути повышения производительности труда //Инновационная наука. – 2015. – № 6. – С.76-80.

4 Митрофанова М.Ю. К вопросу о производительности труда //Вестник Чувашского университета. – 2010. – № 1. – С.430-433.

5 4.Дерябин В.С. Производительность труда //Вестник Томского государственного университета. – 2009. – № 2 (319). – С.138-142.

6 Данные сайтаМинистрества национальной экономики Республики Казахстан.

Комитетпостатистике: www.stat.gov.kz/faces/wcnav_externalId/

publicationsCompilations?_afrLoop=282771327144109#%40%3F_afrLoop%3D282771327144109%26_adf.c trl-state%3D5056r2pnu_54

7 Голованов А.И. От производительности к эффективности труда //Вестник Томского государственного университета. – 2013. – № 376. – С.137-141.

ҚАЗАҚСТАН ЭКОНОМИКАСЫНЫҢ СЕКТОРЛАРЫНДАҒЫ ЕҢБЕКТІҢ ӨНІМДІЛІГІН ТАЛДАУ

В.Д. Ли1, А.О. Базарбаев2, Р.Д. Досжан*3

1,3әл- Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университеті, Алматы қ., Қазақстан,

2«Нархоз Универсиеті» АҚ, Алматы қ., Қазақстан e-mail: rdd2011@mail.ru

Түйін. Компания қызметінің ең маңызды көрсеткіштерінің бірі - еңбек өнімділігі, ол еңбек шығындарының тиімділігін көрсетеді. Еңбек өнімділігі ел экономикасының тұрақты өсуінің негізі.

Осыған байланысты еңбек өнімділігінің артуы елдің әлеуметтік-экономикалық даму қарқынын жеделдетудің басты міндеті болып табылады. Мақалада еңбек өнімділігіне әсер ететін көптеген

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факторлар және оның көрінісінің бес негізгі түрі ұсынылған, еңбек өнімділігін арттыру жолдары мен факторлары талданылған. Сондай-ақ, экономиканың түрлі секторларындағы еңбек өнімділігі талданады.

Мақалада Қазақстан экономикасының секторларындағы еңбек өнімділігін талдау нәтижелері ұсынылып, экономиканың жалпы динамикасы жағымды болғанымен, теріс үрдіске бейім салалар анықталды. Сонымен қатар, қарама-қайшылықтарды және елдегі еңбек өнімділігі деңгейін төмендетуді жою жолдары ұсынылды.

Түйінді сөздер: еңбек өнімділігі, еңбек шығындарының тиімділігі, әлеуметтік-экономикалық даму, еңбек өнімділігіңнің құралдары, өнімділікті бағалау.

АНАЛИЗ ПРОИЗВОДИТЕЛЬНОСТИ ТРУДА В ОТРАСЛЯХ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАЗАХСТАНА

В.Д. Ли1, А.О. Базарбаев2, Р.Д. Досжан*3

1,3 Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби, Алматы, Казахстан,

2АО «Университет Нархоз», Алматы, Казахстан e-mail: rdd2011@mail.ru

Резюме. Одним из важнейших показателей деятельности предприятия является производительность труда, которая выражает эффективность трудовых затрат. Она является основой устойчивого роста экономики страны. В связи с этим, повышение производительности труда является главной задачей ускорения темпа социально-экономического развития страны. В статье проанализированы способы и факторы повышения производительности труда. Приведены многочисленные факторы, влияющие на производительность труда, и пять основных форм ее проявления. Также проанализировано производительность труда в отраслях экономики.

В статье освещены результаты проведенного анализа производительности труда в отраслях экономики Казахстана, выявлено отрасли с отрицательной тенденцией, несмотря на то, что общая динамика экономики положительная. Предложены пути устранения противоречий и снижения уровня производительности труда в стране.

Ключевые слова: производительность труда, эффективность затрат на рабочую силу, социально-экономическое развитие, инструменты производительности труда, оценка эффективности.

МРНТИ 06.52