• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ

МРНТИ 06.52 УДК 334:658

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факторлар және оның көрінісінің бес негізгі түрі ұсынылған, еңбек өнімділігін арттыру жолдары мен факторлары талданылған. Сондай-ақ, экономиканың түрлі секторларындағы еңбек өнімділігі талданады.

Мақалада Қазақстан экономикасының секторларындағы еңбек өнімділігін талдау нәтижелері ұсынылып, экономиканың жалпы динамикасы жағымды болғанымен, теріс үрдіске бейім салалар анықталды. Сонымен қатар, қарама-қайшылықтарды және елдегі еңбек өнімділігі деңгейін төмендетуді жою жолдары ұсынылды.

Түйінді сөздер: еңбек өнімділігі, еңбек шығындарының тиімділігі, әлеуметтік-экономикалық даму, еңбек өнімділігіңнің құралдары, өнімділікті бағалау.

АНАЛИЗ ПРОИЗВОДИТЕЛЬНОСТИ ТРУДА В ОТРАСЛЯХ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАЗАХСТАНА

В.Д. Ли1, А.О. Базарбаев2, Р.Д. Досжан*3

1,3 Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби, Алматы, Казахстан,

2АО «Университет Нархоз», Алматы, Казахстан e-mail: rdd2011@mail.ru

Резюме. Одним из важнейших показателей деятельности предприятия является производительность труда, которая выражает эффективность трудовых затрат. Она является основой устойчивого роста экономики страны. В связи с этим, повышение производительности труда является главной задачей ускорения темпа социально-экономического развития страны. В статье проанализированы способы и факторы повышения производительности труда. Приведены многочисленные факторы, влияющие на производительность труда, и пять основных форм ее проявления. Также проанализировано производительность труда в отраслях экономики.

В статье освещены результаты проведенного анализа производительности труда в отраслях экономики Казахстана, выявлено отрасли с отрицательной тенденцией, несмотря на то, что общая динамика экономики положительная. Предложены пути устранения противоречий и снижения уровня производительности труда в стране.

Ключевые слова: производительность труда, эффективность затрат на рабочую силу, социально-экономическое развитие, инструменты производительности труда, оценка эффективности.

МРНТИ 06.52

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legislative and regulatory materials of Kazakhstan on the industrial and innovative development of the national economy of Kazakhstan. The study used methods of system and comparative analysis, as well as methods of expert assessments and observations.

Results and discussion. State policy in the field of supporting innovative entrepreneurship by the state implies the implementation of a number of functions to provide financial, information, analytical and logistical support to entrepreneurship. All these forms of support are implemented by the state both through executive bodies through various programs adopted at the local and territorial levels, and through organizations specially created for this purpose with the participation of state capital [1,2,3]:

1. JSC "National Agency for Technological Development" (NATR) provides financial support for innovative entrepreneurial initiatives by attracting investments and financing projects. The Agency regularly conducts competitions with the participation of both legal entities and individuals aimed at identifying and implementing promising initiatives, and also coordinates the creation and development of technology parks, business incubators and industrial zones. According to official statistics, more than 50 business incubators and innovation centers are currently registered. The Kazakhstan Association of Business Incubators and Innovation Centers (CABIC), which has united 14 business incubators and technology parks and the Central Asian Network of Business Incubators and Technological Parks, is coordinated by the Shymkent Business Incubator SodBi.

At the same time, there is a low efficiency of business incubators' return, since often leased premises are not released by enterprises that have passed from the beginning stage to the stage of development and expansion. In addition, the main share of incubator clients is made up of companies engaged in production (food, clothing, furniture, crafts and souvenir production) and services (in the field of training, consulting and construction and repair) and only 2% of clients business incubators are engaged in technological business

2. JSC "Entrepreneurship Development Fund "Damu" - promotes the qualitative development of small and medium-sized businesses, as well as microfinance organizations in Kazakhstan as an integrator and operator of financial and consulting services. The main goal of the Foundation is to stimulate the formation and economic growth of small business entities, including innovative business in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and to increase the efficiency of using state funds directed to support small businesses. Effective measures to support and develop innovative entrepreneurship are successfully implemented in all areas of the programs.

However, it is necessary to note the weak work in 1 direction (the development of the industrial (industrial) infrastructure) of this Program, since the work performed does not fully meet the needs of innovative entrepreneurship.

3. JSC "Corporation for Export Development and Promotion "Kaznex" provides information and analytical support in the field of public policy development, including the development of innovative entrepreneurship. The Center conducts research in the field of marketing and management, providing consulting and information and consulting services, carries out the publication of methodical and reference and information literature in the field of marketing and management, the development of software products, the dissemination of products and information on the industry pits and spheres of economy.

4. JSC "Investment Fund of Kazakhstan" - provides financial support by investing in the authorized capital of enterprises that produce in-depth processing of raw materials and materials, using modern and advanced technologies. The main functions entrusted to the Fund are: to stimulate the development of the corporate securities market in the Republic of Kazakhstan; promotion of industrial cooperation between domestic and foreign enterprises; assistance in increasing the investment activity of Kazakhstani enterprises abroad.

5. Development Bank of Kazakhstan JSC was established with the aim of improving and improving the efficiency of state investment activities, developing the industrial infrastructure, manufacturing industry and facilitating investment in the country's economy. When selecting investment projects for crediting, priority is given to projects that form chains of technologically related industries with a high level of added value, and projects that are promising from the point of entry to world markets.

Commercial structures do not directly support small business entities, but indirectly they have a significant impact on the development of small businesses. Among such structures, the following organizations can be distinguished: second-tier banks; credit partnerships; microcredit organizations; leasing companies.

Despite the developed network of banking services and a large number of lending programs for most small businesses in Kazakhstan, the main source of finance is their own funds. At the same time, small business entities can not cover all financing needs only at the expense of their own resources, and the services provided by banks for some of them remain unavailable for various reasons. In this case microcredit organizations can take part in financing enterprises [4].

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From the analysis of institutions of financial support for entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan, the following problems should be highlighted: disparate activities, the lack of clear delineation of the functions of institutions and their duplication; the activity of some institutions is unprofitable, so it is expedient to reorganize and integrate them into single holdings according to a sectoral feature; lack of an effective mechanism for the exchange of information between state structures and development institutions; low level of monitoring of investment projects; the fragmented nature of the services provided to innovative enterprises;

the lack of a single information resource for all programs to support the subjects of innovative business; low coverage of institutional support for entrepreneurs in rural areas.

Currently, a number of state support programs for the development of science, innovation and entrepreneurship are being implemented. The analysis of state support for ISPI allows us to identify the following problems [5]:

1) state innovation policy in the field of MSIP is not formed, it is fragmented and unstable, including:

systemic problems in science and scientific activities, lack of clear guidelines for scientific research and applied work, absence of specific support mechanisms in numerous programs for innovation development, which are often are of a declarative nature;

2) a number of issues have not been adequately worked out at the regulatory and legislative level, including: there are inconsistencies in regulations and ambiguity in the interpretation of certain provisions of the law in law enforcement practice due to the lack of clear definitions, criteria for monitoring and evaluation of innovation potential;

3) the lack of a sufficient system of financing innovative projects at all stages of the project, especially at the initial stage, including: the lack of basic mechanisms for investing in venture projects (public- private funds ready to take on high risks of start-up projects, the market for the sale of business , developed stock market, etc.);

4) insufficient provision of service support for innovative entrepreneurship, including: lack of equipped laboratories and experienced production facilities; uncoordinated work of consulting organizations, duplication of their functions and responsibilities, difference in the cost of services provided; lack of objective criteria for assessing the activities of infrastructure subjects;

5) insufficiently effective mechanisms to enter Kazakhstan's high-technology goods / services on the international market: there are no incentives for exports of high-technology products manufactured from the Republic of Kazakhstan; high administrative barriers in the foreign economic activity of innovative companies; considerable document circulation and long terms for the declaration and release of goods;

6) "personnel hunger" in the scientific and innovative spheres, including: the lack of effective and quality training programs for innovative activities; lack of personnel in the field of innovative developments,

"brain drain" to countries that provide more opportunities;

Based on the world experience in our country, it is necessary to develop a highly effective scientific and innovative system that allows to unite all the participants in this process through a branched system of horizontal links: the scientific potential of universities and research institutes, innovative entrepreneurship in enterprises and organizations, innovative and financial infrastructure. Successful solution of the tasks is possible only if the entire national innovation system (NIS) is functioning effectively.

The results of our research of the innovation process can be reflected with the help of the so-called.

SWOT analysis technology (table 1).

Analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of innovative development, we can say that the merits are stable and serve as a basis for future prospects, and the shortcomings can be viewed to some extent as a consequence of the fact that the innovative process in Kazakhstan began to develop relatively recently, therefore during this time It is impossible to form an effective national innovation system. As experience of the world countries shows, NIS are formed by decades.

Table 1

SWOT-analysis of innovative development of the Republic of Kazakhstan Advantages (or strengths):

- macroeconomic and political stability;

- comprehensive support of the state (financial, political, legislative, etc.);

- availability of high scientific and technical potential;

- availability of highly qualified national staff;

- availability of necessary natural resources;

- positive dynamics of innovation performance indicators

Capabilities:

- international cooperation in the field of innovation;

- participation of foreign investors and partners in Kazakhstan's innovative projects;

- participation of Kazakhstan investors in foreign innovative projects; transfer of advanced technologies

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Disadvantages (or weaknesses):

- insufficient degree of national development;

- relatively low level of innovative activity of domestic enterprises;

- disproportion of innovation development in the regional and sectoral context;

- a low share of private investment in innovation.

Threats:

- crisis in the innovation economy;

- the global economic crisis;

- decrease in the pace of world NTP

Source: www.nif.kz - materials of the official website of the National Innovation Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan (now NATR) [6].

We believe that the potential of innovative development of Kazakhstan is hidden in the shortcomings, these are the directions by which we should move further.

Conclusion. Analyzing the critical factors constraining the development of innovative processes in the republic, we can come to such conclusions. Among the constraining factors for the development of the innovation sphere are:

- high risks of innovation processes; - disproportions in the structure of types of innovation in favor of the acquisition of machinery and equipment (small share of costs for training and training personnel, conducting marketing research and others in the total amount of expenditure on innovation);

­ reduction of costs for proper research and development, marketing research;

­ imperfection of regional and local legislation, lack of laws stimulating the development of innovative business, tax and non-tax incentives and preferences

­ obsolete material and technical base of science, education and industry;

­ inconsistency of professional skills of innovation activities to the required level;

­ absence or inadequacy of institutes of standardization, certification and patenting, high cost of services, incompetence, overregulation and difficulty of passing procedures;

­ high degree of personification of relations in interaction with key partners and conclusion of agreements, low level of interpersonal trust;

social problems associated with the high cost of housing, low wages and outflow of personnel, etc.

In the field of providing service support, there are many state, public and international organizations whose purpose is to support small and medium-sized businesses (associations, associations, chambers of commerce, business support centers, international consultants, foundations, etc.).

However, all of them work uncoordinated, their functions and responsibilities are not delimited and partially duplicated. Moreover, in view of the lack of clearly defined goals (with the exception, in some cases, of financial goals), objective criteria for their achievement, adequate indicators for evaluating the overall performance and proper control by the state, there is no responsibility.

In the field of providing service support to businesses, there are certain problems associated with the quality of service delivery. There is no single, unified and centralized infrastructure for supporting entrepreneurship, which provides a comprehensive solution to the problems of small businesses and low coverage of small business in the regions. In this regard, it is necessary to send service support to improve the enterprise management system in order to improve its efficiency.

The problems of providing service support are:

- the lack of close links between science and production;

- uncoordinated work of consulting organizations, duplication of their functions and responsibilities, difference in the cost of services provided;

- lack of objective criteria for assessing the activities of infrastructure subjects;

- lack of proper control by the state;

-the lack of a unified, unified and centralized infrastructure for supporting entrepreneurship, which provides a comprehensive solution to the problems of small businesses;

- low coverage of small business in the regions.

- lack of systematic provision of services;

-the lack of consulting companies in remote regions;

- Absence of a delimitation of powers between JSC "NUKH" Kazagro "and JSC" FRP "DAMU";

-conflicting the activity of business incubators and technoparks;

- the lack of innovative nature of the activities of SMEs located in business incubators;

- low commercialization of scientific research

- lack of personnel in the field of innovative developments

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Вibliography:

1 http://palata.kz – официальный сайт Национальной палаты предпринимателей.

2 www.damu.kz – официальный сайт АО «Фонд развития предпринимательства «ДАМУ».

3 www.kdb.kz – официальный сайт Банка развития Казахстана.

4 Турсынбаева А.А. Развитие инфраструктуры малого и среднего бизнеса в Республике Казахстан // Сборник материалов Международной научно-практической конференции, посвященной 70 – летнему юбилею профессора М.Д. Тинасилова. – Алматы:КазНТУим.К.И.Сатпаева, 2014. – С. 315- 319.

5 Городинная Е. И. Государственное стимулирование малого инновационного бизнеса в зарубежных странах: диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата экономических наук:

Москва, 2011.

6 www.nif.kz - официальный сайт Национального инновационного фонда Республики Казахстан (ныне НАТР).

АНАЛИЗ СУЩЕСТВУЮЩЕЙ ПОЛИТИКИ ПОДДЕРЖКИ ИННОВАЦИОННОГО ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСТВА В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН

A.A. Мухамеджанова*1, Г.С.Укубасова2 А.Х.Галиева3,

1,2,3Казахский университет экономики, финансов и международной торговли,

г.Астана, Казахстан е-mail: aigul-m-73@mail.ru

Резюме. В данной статье рассмотрены меры государственной поддержки в области инновационного предпринимательства по обеспечению финансовой, информационно-аналитической и материально-технической поддержки предпринимательства. На сегодняшний, день особую актуальность приобретают проблемы оптимизации государственного воздействия на сектор инновационного предпринимательства. В Казахстане все еще низка доля инновационного бизнеса.

Основной проблемой является в целом низкий спрос на инновации в казахстанской экономике, а также недостаточное финансирование и высокие риски инновационных предприятий, также в настоящее время реализуется ряд программ государственной поддержки развития науки, инновационной деятельности и предпринимательства.

Проведенный анализ государственной поддержки малого и среднего предпринимательства позволяет выявить проблемы, сдерживающего рост инновационного предпринимательства.

Ключевые слова: инновационное предпринимательство, государственная поддержка инновационного предпринимательства, институты финансовой поддержки, инновации, институты развития, малые и средние предприятия, финансирование, гранты.

ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫНДАҒЫ ИННОВАЦИЯЛЫҚ КӘСІПКЕРЛІКТІҢ ҚОЛДАНЫСТАҒЫ САЯСАТЫН ҚОЛДАУДЫ ТАЛДАУ

А.А. Мұхамеджанова1 , Ғ.С.Үкібасова2, А.Х.Ғалиева3,

1,2,3Қаззақ экономика, қаржы және халықаралық сауда университеті,

Астана, Қазақстан

Түйін. Бұл мақалада кәсіпкерлікті қаржылық, ақпараттық-талдамалық және материалдық- техникалық қамтамасыз ету үшін инновациялық кәсіпкерлік саласындағы мемлекеттік қолдау шаралары қарастырылады. Бүгінгі таңда инновациялық кәсіпкерлік секторына мемлекеттік әсер етуді оңтайландыру проблемалары ерекше өзектілікке ие. Қазақстанда инновациялық бизнестің үлесі әлі де төмен.

Негізгі проблема, әдетте, қазақстандық экономиканың инновацияларына сұраныстың төмендігі, сондай-ақ инновациялық кәсіпорындардың жеткіліксіз қаржыландырылуы және жоғары қатерлері, ғылымды, инновацияларды және кәсіпкерлікті дамытуды мемлекеттік қолдаудың бірқатар бағдарламалары жүзеге асырылуда.

Шағын және орта бизнесті мемлекеттік қолдауды талдау инновациялық кәсіпкерліктің өсуін шектейтін проблемаларды анықтауға мүмкіндік береді.

Түйінді сөздер: инновациялық кәсіпкерлік, инновациялық кәсіпкерлікті мемлекеттік қолдау, қаржылық қолдау мекемелері,инновациялар, даму институттары, шағын және орта кәсіпорындар, қаржыландыру, гранттар.

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МРНТИ 06.52.17.

УДК 338.45:68

ECONOMIC ISSUES OF LIGHT INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

T.G.Toilybek

University of International Business, Almaty, Kazakhstan

е-mail: kadato@bk.ru

Summary. This article defines the concepts and identifies the main issues, discusses negative factors affecting the development of Kazakhstan’s light industry, suggests possible solutions, identifies measures taken by the Government through the Comprehensive Plan for the Development of Light Industry for 2015–2019 and the Business Roadmap 2020 Programs, Employment 2020, Productivity 2020, Exporter 2020 in relation to improving the state industry.

The purpose of the study is to identify light industry as a priority sector of state’s economy for the industrial cooperation of the Customs Union member states and the Common Economic Space, to characterize the light industry, and also to talk about main industry’s problems and measures to solve them.

Keywords: light industry, competitiveness,textile products, value added, human resources.

Introduction. Light industry is one of the most important industries in national economy today, as it provides the citizens with shoes, clothing, knitwear, fabrics, and other consumer goods. In the conditions of orientation the country's economy to the population’s social needs, this industry plays a leading role in raising the population’s standard of living through its provision of high-quality non-food items.

TheLight industry products are not only focused on the needs of the country’s population; they also produce many types of raw materials and additional materials for other industries (mechanical engineering, food industry, etc.).

At the moment, Kazakhstan’s light industry has been given the task of forming and placing GovernmentalOrders and coordinating the activities of enterprises related to the fulfillment of these tasks, the task of developing programs for the future development of raw materials and supporting the balanced development of sub-sectors.

The Light Industry is closely interconnected with other industries in Kazakhstan. The agriculture provides its individual types of raw materials, engineering with the necessary equipment, chemical industry - with special chemical fibers.

Currently, the topic of light industry is raised in the media, the cause of many disputes and discussions, so we can conclude that the topic is relevant in our time.

Methodology of the research.To solve this goal, this article used various methods and techniques, in particular: methods of economic abstract-logical, expert comparison.

Results and discussion.The light industry development pays great attention in many countries around the world. Since this industry has no small social significance. In general, light industry in Kazakhstan has little impact for Kazakhstan’s economy and has a small share in the volume of industrial production. The light industry is only 0.4%, in manufacturing - 1% .

Today, there are 984 light industry enterprises operating in the country, of which 95% are small.

More than 12 thousand people work there, mostly women [1].

In January-November 2017, the volume of light industry products increased by 8.1% compared to the same period last year and amounted to 88,6 billion KZT. The growth is observed in all industries - in the production of textile products by 13%, in the production of clothing by 2%, in the production of leather and related products by 8%. The exports increased by 40%.

However, despite the positive dynamics, various kind of problems also remainwithin the industry as well.

The problems like underutilization of capacity, dependence on governmental orders, quasi-public sector, lack of working capital of enterprises, non-use of market tools to promote products are relevant to this day.

Common problems for the parties’ light industry are a significant dependence on the import of raw materials, high taxes, parallel imports and counterfeit products, technological lag, lack of funds for the implementation of large investment projects, unfair competition, poor infrastructure, etc.

There are three negative factors affecting the development of light industry:

The first is the high cost of labor. “If we compare in the global context, the lowest cost in Bangladesh.

In China, the cost is many times more than in Bangladesh. In Turkey, higher than in China, and we are even