• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

The assessment of impact of «Kirovskaya» mine on the state of a soil and plant cover of the industrial site

In document ХАБАРШЫСЫ ВЕСТНИК (бет 53-56)

In the article technogenic influence of Kirovskaya mine on a soil and plant cover of a sanitary protection zone of the enterprise is considered. During the analysis it was revealed that the selected tests of soils contain the significant amount of the heavy metals exceeding maximum permissible concentration. The analysis showed that great values reach such substances as chrome, copper, zirconium, zinc and nickel. Migration and accu- mulation by plants of substances of the 1–2 classes of danger in high values were set. Active migration from soil into plants is observed in such metals as boron, copper, chrome, zinc. Manifestation of toxic effect of heavy metals happens, as a rule, at a top level of anthropogenic pollution of soils by them and in many re- spects depends on properties and peculiarities of behavior of concrete metal.

Keywords: heavy metals, industrial site, pollution of soils, migratory properties of plants

Modern scales of mining production are characterized by the intensive use of natural resources, increase of wastes and deterioration of environment. In this connection increasing attention is given to the question of economically reasonable and ecologically safe functioning of the mining enterprise. Specifics of influence of the concrete mining enterprise on environment is caused by geological and geochemical features of deposits and the applied equipment and technology for its development [1, 2].

Burning dumps, pit refuse heaps, high dust and gas content in the air, water reservoirs-clarifiers and set- tlings, tailing damps, pollution of surface and ground waters, dumping of highly-mineralized mine waters into the hydrographic network, dangerous geotectonic processes and invasion into the underground hydro- sphere, provoking sagging of the terrestrial surface, swamping of areas and regions, creation of artificially increased seismicity and so forth, it is far not a full list of anthropogenic pressure on the environment in min- ing regions. Even with closing of mines consequences of their former activity will negatively affect for dec- ades on the state of the environment and safety of life of the population of adjacent to them territories [3, 4].

For all methods of mining it is characteristic to influence on biosphere, affecting practically all its ele- ments: water and air basins, land, subsoil, plant and animal world. This influence may be both direct and in- direct, being the consequence of the first. The size of the zone of distribution of indirect influence considera- bly exceeds the size of the zone of localization of direct influence and, as a rule, to the zone of distribution of indirect influence gets not only the element of the biosphere, directly exposed, but also other elements [1, 2].

The most adverse is the open way at which off-balance ores and mineralized overburden breeds are stored on a surface in large quantities, turning into a powerful source of pollution of soil and water for tens and hundreds of years. The atmospheric moisture, accumulating in a dump body, turns into the saturated with metals sulfuric acid, resetting by gravity with the drainage waters into the subjacent soil dumps, ground wa- ters and further into the streams and rivers [5].

At such scales of destruction of natural landscapes coal-mining areas correspond to criteria of reference to zones of «ecological disaster». Extent of impact on the environment of these anthropogenic landscapes is such that it can't be estimated only as the damage caused to rural or forest farms any more. The cardinal changes of nature of biological and soil and geochemical processes caused by mining works are followed by a loop of negative ecological consequences, turning local environmental pollution in regional [6].

Materials and methods of research

The studied object: the industrial site is located in the Oktyabrsky district of Karaganda. The industrial site — the field of Kirovskaya mine is located in the northeastern part of the Karaganda pool. To the south of the industrial site of the mine, at the distance of 3 km, there is the field of the mine of the 50 anniversary of October revolution, which is liquidated nowadays, to the southeast (in 4 km from the mine) there is the field of the mine of Kostenko, in 2,5 km the field of the mine of Gorbachev is located.

The nearest distance to a residential zone is 350 m to the northwest (the settlement Finsky). The large settlement Prishakhtinsk is 1000 m to the northwest from the enterprise. Posts of supervision over a state of the environment are absent.

During researches the following works were performed:

1. Selection and studying of tests of soils on the content of heavy metals 2. Selection and analysis of tests of vegetation of industrial platforms

Sampling of soil (grounds) was made on the territory adjacent to anthropogenic objects (pollution sources) — 8 tests, and on the border of sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of the industrial area — 4 tests. Tests are selected layer-by-layer from the depth of 0–5 and 5–20 cm, weight not exceeding 200 g each.

Plants were selected in 3 samples on the route posts located on the border of SPZ of the industrial plat- form of the enterprise; 1 sample- in 20 km from the enterprise (background sample).

To obtain representative samples of plants on each route post from the area of 100×100 m the joint test, consisting of 5 individual tests of plants (on 50 g. each), was selected. Selection of plants of the same species was made. Due to the widespread prevalence and high sorption properties the wormwood was selected.

Analysis of tests was carried out in the branch of JSC «Azimut Energy Services» in Karaganda, in chemical analytical laboratory.

The assessment of impact of the Kirovskaya mine on the environment

The soil cover carries out functions of the biological absorber, the destroyer and converter of various pollutants. If this link of the biosphere is destroyed, then the developed functioning of the biosphere will be irreversibly broken.

If atmosphere and water environment can self-clean, soil doesn't possess such property: toxic substanc- es (including oxides of metals) constantly accumulate in it and lead to changes in its structure, it causes changes in a plant and animal world.

The conducted researches showed that some elements in the soil cover of the Kirovskaya mine exceed MPC (maximum permissible concentration) (Table).

T a b l e Data of the chemical analysis of soil and plants of industrial platform of the Kirovskaya mine

Substances Class of Danger MPC of soils

(mg/kg) Soil

(mg/kg) Harm indicator

(trans-located) Plants (mg/kg)

1 Boron 2 100,0 170,30 95,6240

2 Cadmium 1 2,0 2,45 0,1232

3 Cobalt 2 5,0 1,81 25,0 <0,005

4 Chrome 1 6,0 21,94 6,0 8,1230

5 Copper 2 3,0 26,87 3,5 19,9980

6 Manganese 3 1500,0 170,40 3500,0 34,82

7 Molybdenum 2 50,0 <0,005 – <0,005

8 Nickel 2 4,0 3,84 6,7 8,171

9 Lead 1 32,0 1,84 35,0 <0,06

10 Antimony 2 4,5 0,30 4,5 <0,01 11 Vanadium 3 150,0 9,36 170,0 <0,05 12 Zirconium 3 6,0 66,13 <0,003

13 Zinc 1 23,0 22,91 23,0 49,1280

14 Arsenic 1 2,0 <0,02 2,0 <0,02

15 Beryllium 1 10,0 <0,0005 <0,001

16 Selenium 1 10,0 <0,001 – <0,001 The analysis showed that great values reach such substances as chrome — 21,94 mg/kg, while maxi-

mum permissible concentration makes 6,0 mg/kg, accordingly there is an excess of a share on 3,657 maxi- mum permissible concentration, migration of chrome in a plant makes 8,1230, the amount of chrome in plants is controlled generally by the content of its soluble connections in soils. In spite of the fact that the majority of soils contain significant amounts of this element, its availability to plants is very limited [7]. Low rates of assimilation by plants of soluble forms of chrome are caused by features of the mechanism of ab- sorption of soluble forms of chrome by root system. Symptoms of toxicity of chrome are shown in withering of elevated part and damage of root system of plants.

Copper considerably exceeds 8,96 mg/kg, and by the index of harm copper into a plant is 19,99. Mobili ceipt, however copper has smaller m portant factor in contamination of so mulation.

The size of the content of zirc permissible concentration on 11,02 concentration is 100 mg/kg, accord concentration, migration in a plant p 95,6240 mg/kg.

The analysis of the content of of maximum permissible concentrat of vegetation and corresponds to th plants, and from reports the consum the feeding solution and in soils. Sp and environmental conditions of gro pose that it possesses moderate mob noticeable quantities of this elemen possible to believe that zinc concent The quantity of nickel in the so 8,171 mg/kg, which is higher than extracted from the soil by plants, so concentrations in plant tissues do no tent in the soils. With an excess o slowed down and metabolism is dist

Drawing. Excess o of the1s Active migration from soil into of the contents of nickel and zinc in ties of plants, accumulation of heavy liar absorption), which occurs mainl

Translocation indicator conside human or an animal organism when with it translocation of heavy metal in the majority of cases a limiting in Manifestation of toxic effect o tion of soils by them and in many r metal. But in nature ions of metals

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50



the share of maximum permissible concentrat mfulness there is exceeding of share of copper in ity of copper in vegetable fabrics strongly depen mobility in plants in comparison with other elem oil by copper is a strong tendency of the surface conium in the soil is 66,13 mg/kg, that exceeds 21. Boron in the soil makes170,30 mg/kg, while

ingly there is an exceeding of the share on 1,70 practically reaches the limit of maximum permiss zinc in the soil showed that in these tests there is tion, wherein high performance of this substance he value of 49,13 mg/kg. The soluble zinc form mption of zinc linearly increases with the increas

peed of absorption of zinc varies greatly depend owth. Some authors consider that zinc is very mob

bility. In fact, at the optimal receipt of zinc some nt from old leaves to generative organs. Summa

trates in mature leaves [9].

oil is 3,84 mg/kg, indicating no excess of MPC, t the content of nickel in the soil (drawing). Nick oluble forms of nickel are actively absorbed by ro ot reach certain values, absorption rates positively of nickel absorption of nutrients sharply decrea

turbed [10].

of maximum permissible concentration by some substa st-the 2nd classes of danger in the soil and plants o plants is observed in such metals as boron, copp

n plant samples unlike soil samples can testify to y metals in plants and arrival of elements in plan ly by not metabolic penetration through a cuticle.

ers ability of a chemical element to accumulate in n being used in food. The contents in soil of heav

ls into plants, is a difficult process, which is influ ndex is the translocation — transition of a pollutan of heavy metals happens, as a rule, at a top level respects depends on properties and peculiarities seldom may be found isolated. Therefore variou mium Chrome Copper Nickel Zinc

MPC soil plants

he assessment of impact …

tion (MPC), that makes 7,68 MPC, migration of nds on the level of its re-

ments [8]. The most im- layer of soil to its accu- s the share of maximum

e maximum permissible 3 maximum permissible ible concentration and is s no exceeding of values e is observed in the tests ms are available for the se of its concentration in ding on the plant species bile element, others sup- e species of plants move

rizing various data, it is thus its value in plants is kel is quickly and easily oots of plants, and while y correlate with the con- ses, growth of plants is


per, chrome, zinc. Excess o high migratory proper- nts through leaves (or fo- n plants and to get into a vy metals, and connected uenced by many factors, nt from soil into a plant.

of anthropogenic pollu- of behavior of concrete us combinative intermix-

tures and concentrations of different metals in the environment lead to changes of properties of separate ele- ments as a result of their synergetic or antagonistic impact on living organisms.

For example, the mixture of zinc and copper is five times more toxic, than arithmetically received sum of their toxicity, this is caused by synergism at joint influence of these elements. Likewise works the mixture of zinc and nickel [11]. However there are sets of metals, the combined effect of which acts additively. The striking example of it are zinc and cadmium, showing mutual physiological antagonism [11], also copper and iron show antagonism, toxic effect of copper can be reduced with introduction of iron, and their optimum ratio is various for different plant species [8].

About interaction of copper and manganese in the process of their consumption by plants there is the in- formation both about synergic and antagonistic relationships, depending on conditions and values of the con- centrations [8]. Synergism and antagonism of metals are obvious in their multi component mixtures. There- fore, the total effect of the poison pollution of the environment by heavy metals depends not only on the set and the level of the maintenance of specific elements, but also on the characteristics of their mutual impact on biota [11].


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