• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

Conclusion

In document «Quality Management: (бет 61-69)

SECTION V СЕКЦИЯ V

Bnouham 1 Abderrahim Ziyyat 1

6. Conclusion

diabetes foot complications probably resulted from the good accompaniment and education of the patients by health professionals of (RCD) in the long- term follow-up of their disease.

Our analysis has showed that age, diabetes duration and a high level of albuminuria were the principal risk factors associated with development of diabetes complications in both T1D and T2D. These findings are consistent with other reports [70]-[77] showing that the risk of developing these complications is positively associated with these variables.

This retrospective study confirms previously reported trends in the relationship between hypertension and diabetes complications [72] [75]. We have found that hypertension in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with development of complications.

Furthermore, this association persists after multivariate logistic regression analysis in type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.26 - 1.92, P < 0.001).

Consistent with foregoing studies [78] [79], we have found that lower levels of education are significantly (P < 0.01) associated with an increased rate of complications in T1D patients and a higher level of education had a protective effect against diabetic complications in these patients. In the same context, researchers evaluating the relationship between socioeconomic status and diabetic complications indicated that the incidences over 1 to 20 years’ follow-up of end-stage renal disease and coronary artery disease were two to three times greater for T1D individuals with lower level of education, compared to those with higher one [79].

In this paper, the risk of each micro and macrovascular complications of T2D is statistically associated with high HbA1c (P < 0.001). 33.1% of patients with T2D who have complications, have a poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7%). This result as others [80] [81] [82] has demonstrated that an improved glyceamic control can reduce the incidence and the risk of micro and macrovascular complications in these people.

There is evidence that overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes [12] [83].

Our study has confirmed this data and found overweight and obesity to be strongly associated (P < 0.001) with an increased risk for diabetes complications in patients with T1D.

References:

1. International Diabetes Federation (2010) A Call to Action on Diabetes. IDF. [Citation Time(s):1].

2. International Diabetes Federation (2011) Global Diabetes Plan 2011-2021. IDF. [Citation Time(s):1].

3. Siddiqui, A.A., Siddiqui, S.A., Ahmad, S., Siddiqui, S., Ahsan, I. and Sahu, K. (2013) Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology and Management—

A Review. International Journal of Drug Development & Research, 5, 1-23.

[Citation Time(s):1].

4. Punthakee, Z., Goldenberg, R. and Katz, P. (2018) Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 42, S10-S15. https://doi.org/

10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.10.003 [Citation Time(s):3].

5. American Diabetes Association (2009) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 32, S62-S67. https://doi.org/10.2337/

dc09-S062 [Citation Time(s):2].

6. Aung, W.P., Htet, A.S., Bjertness, E., Stigum, H., Chongsuvivatwong, V. and Kjøllesdal, M.K.R. (2018) Urban-Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus among 25 - 74-year-old adults of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: Two Crosssectional Studies. British Medical Journal, 8, e020406. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020406 [Citation Time(s):1].

7. Cho, N.H., Shaw, J.E., Karuranga, S., Huang,Y., da Rocha Fernandes, J.D., Ohlrogge, A.W. and Malanda B. (2018) IDF Diabetes Atlas:

Global Estimates of Diabetes Prevalence for 2017 and Projections for 2045.

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 138, 271-281.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.02.023 [Citation Time(s):5].

8. http://diabetesatlas.org/resources/2017-atlas.html [Citation Time(s):

1].

9. De Silva, A.P., De Silva, S.H.P., Liyanage, I.K., Rajapakse, L.K., Jayasinghe, K.S.A., P Katulanda, P., et al. (2012) Social, Cultural and Economical Determinants of Diabetes Mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka:

A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 11, 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-11-76 [Citation Time(s):1].

10. Kim, M.J., Lim, N.K., Choi, S.J. and Park, H.Y. (2015) Hypertension Is an Independent Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Hypertension Research, 38, 783-789.

https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2015.72 [Citation Time(s):1].

11. Al Khlid, A., Al Abbas, M. and Nisha, S. (2017) Risk Factors Associated with Diabetes Mellitus in a Saudi Community: A Cross-Sectional Study. Primary Health Care, 7, 270. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167- 1079.1000270 [Citation Time(s):1].

12. Aranmolate, R. and Obayemi, O.S. (2018) Trends in the Prevalence and Awareness of High Cholesterol among Adults in Mississippi,

United States. The European Journal of Environment and Public Health.

https://doi.org/10.20897/ejeph/92010 [Citation Time(s):2].

13. Brownlee, M. (2005) The Pathobiology of Diabetic Complications:

A Unifying Mechanism. Diabetes, 54, 1615-1625. https://doi.org/10.2337/

diabetes.54.6.1615 [Citation Time(s):1].

14. Lotfy, M., Adeghate, J., Kalasz, H., Singh, J. and Adeghate, E.

(2017) Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: A Mini Review. Current Diabetes Reviews, 13, 3-10. https://doi.org/10.2174/157339981266615101 6101622 [Citation Time(s):1].

15. Volpe, C.M.O., Delfino, P.H.V., Anjos, P.M.F.D. and Machado, J.A.N. (2018) Cellular Death, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Diabetic Complications. Cell Death and Disease, 9, 119. https://doi.org/10.1038/

s41419-017-0135-z [Citation Time(s):1].

16. Krentz, A.J., Clough, G. and Byrne, C.D. (2007) Interactions between Microvascular and Macrovascular Disease in Diabetes:

Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Implications. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9, 781-791. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00670.x [Citation Time(s):4].

17. Chawla, A., Chawla, R. and Jaggi, S. (2016) Microvasular and Macrovascular Complications in Diabetes Mellitus: Distinct or Continuum?

Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 20, 546-553.

https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.183480 [Citation Time(s):2].

18. Bos, M. and Agyemang, Ch. (2013) Prevalence and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus in Northern Africa: A Systematic Review. BMC Public Health, 13, 387. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-387 [Citation Time(s):

2].

19. Benjelloun, S. (2002) Nutritional Transition in Morocco. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 135-140. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001285 [Citation Time(s):1].

20. Amuna, P. and Zotor, F.B. (2008) Epidemiological and Nutrition Transition in Developing Countries: Impact on Human Health and Development. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 67, 82-90.

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665108006058 [Citation Time(s):1].

21. Tazi, M.A., Abir-Khalil, S., Chaouki, N., Cherqaoui, S., Lahmouz, F., Sraïri, J.E., et al. (2003) Prevalence of the Main Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Morocco: Results of a National Survey, 2000. Journal of Hypertension, 21, 897-903. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200305000- 00013 [Citation Time(s):2].

22. Shaw, J.E., Sicree, R.A. and Zimmet, P.Z. (2010) Global Estimates of the Prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87, 4-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2009.10.007 [Citation Time(s):1].

23. Ramdani, N., Vanderpas, J., Boutayeb, A., Meziane, A., Hassani, B., Zoheir, J., et al. (2012) Diabetes and Obesity in the Eastern Morocco.

Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 5, 149-155.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12349-011-0087-2 [Citation Time(s):3].

24. Lemine, M. and Pathé, D. (2000) Enquête sur les Maladies Non Transmissibles selon l’Approche STEPWISE de l’OMS: Etude de l’Hypertension Artérielle, du Diabète et des autres Facteurs de Risque a Nouakchott. Lettre ministérielle, DELM /N°0103 du 06-Mai-2000. Ministère de la santé, Maroc. [Citation Time(s):1].

25. World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, World Health Organization, Geneva. [Citation Time(s):1].

26. Cuddy, M. (2005) Treatment of Hypertension: Guidelines from JNC 7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 1). Journal of Professional Nursing, 55, 17-21. [Citation Time(s):1].

27. American Diabetes Association (2009) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2009. Diabetes Care, 32, S13-S61. https://doi.org/10.2337/

dc09-S013 [Citation Time(s):1].

28. National Kidney Foundation (2002) K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 39, S1-S266. [Citation Time(s):1].

29. Stone, N.J., Bilek, S. and Rosenbaum, S. (2005) Recent National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Update:

Adjustments and Options. American Journal of Cardiology, 96, 53-59.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.06.006 [Citation Time(s):1].

30. Nathanson, C. (1977) Sex, Illness and Medical Care: A Review of Data, Theory, and Method. Social Science & Medicine, 11, 13-25.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-7856(77)90141-X [Citation Time(s):2].

31. Wingard, D.L. (1984) The Sex Differential in Morbidity, Mortality, and Lifestyle. Annual Review of Public Health, 5, 433-458.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.05.050184.002245 [Citation Time(s):1].

32. Verbrugge, L.M. (1989) The Twain Meet: Empirical Explanations of Sex Differences in Health and Mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 282-304. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136961 [Citation Time(s):1].

33. Fillenbaum, G.G., Horner, R.D., Hanlon, J.T., Landerman, L.R., Dawson, D.V. and Cohen, H.J. (1996) Factors Predicting Change in Prescription and Nonprescription Drug Use in a Community-Residing Black and White Elderly Population. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 587-593.

https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(95)00563-3 [Citation Time(s):1].

34. Merzel, C. (2000) Gender Differences in Health Care Access Indicators in an Urban, Low-Income Community. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 909-916. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.6.909 [Citation Time(s):1].

35. American Diabetes Association (2010) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 33, S62-S69.

https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-S062 [Citation Time(s):1].

36. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2016) Fact Sheet.

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/ [Citation Time(s):1].

37. RGPH Recensement Général de la Population Marocaine (2014) Haut Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc. http://www.hcp.ma/

[Citation Time(s):1].

38. Belhadj, M., Malek, R., Boudiba, A., Lezzar, E., Roula, D., Sekkal, F., et al. (2011) DiabCare Algérie. Médecine des maladies Métaboliques, 5, 24-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1957-2557(11)70068-2 [Citation Time(s):1].

39. International Diabetes Federation (2011) IDF Diabetes Atlas. 5th Edition, IDF, Brussels. [Citation Time(s):1].

40. El Hsaïni, H., Agnès, G., Jacques, B., Aguenaou, H., Edwige, L., et al. (2013) Coexistence de Surpoids/Obésité et d’Anémie chez les femmes de Rabat-Salé. Biomatec Journal, 8, 57-67. [Citation Time(s):1].

41. Sellam, E.B. and Bour, A. (2015) Overweight/Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in the Eastern Morocco. Journal of Obesity and Weight Loss Therapy, 1, 009. https://doi.org/10.23937/2572-4010.1510009 [Citation Time(s):1].

42. Ziyyat, A., Ramdani, N., Bouanani, N.H., Vanderpas, J., Hassani, B., Boutayeb, A., et al. (2014) Epidemiology of Hypertension and Its Relationship with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Eastern Morocco.

SpringerPlus, 3, 644. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-644 [Citation Time(s):1].

43. Berraho, M., El Achhab, Y., El Rhazi, K., Tachfouti, N., Benslimane, A. and Nejjari, C. (2009) L’hypertension Artérielle chez 525 Diabétiques de Type 2: Etude Transversale dans Trois Régions au Maroc. Revue d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 57, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/

j.respe.2009.02.052 [Citation Time(s):1].

44. Berraho, M., El Achhab, Y., Benslimane, A., EL Rhazi, K., Chikri, M. and Nejjari, C. (2012) Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross- Sectional Study in Morocco (EPIDIAM Study). Pan African Medical Journal, 11, 52. [Citation Time(s):1].

45. Selihi, Z., Berraho, M., El Rhazi, K., El Achhab, Y., Lyoussi, B. and Nejjari, C. (2015) Fréquence, Types et Déterminants des Complications Dégénératives du Diabète de Type 2 au Maroc: Données d’Inclusion de la Cohorte (EpiDiaM). Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 21, 448-450.

https://doi.org/10.26719/2015.21.6.448 [Citation Time(s):2].

46. Zaoui, S., Biemont, C. and Meguenni, K. (2007) Approche épidémiologique du Diabète en Milieux Urbain et Rural dans la Région de Tlemcen (Ouest algérien). Cahiers d’études et de recherches francophones/Sante, 17, 15-21. [Citation Time(s):1].

47. Roaeid, R.B. and Kadiki, O.A. (2001) Prevalence of Long-Term Complications among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi, Libya. Journal of Diabetology, 3, 5. [Citation Time(s):1].

48. Al-Sinani, S., Al-Mamari, A., Woodhouse, N., Al-Shafie, O., Amar, F., Al-Shafaee, M., et al. (2014) Complications and Associated Conditions among Omani Type 2 Diabetes Patients at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Journal of Family Medicine, 1, 6. [Citation Time(s):1].

49. Elmahdi, E.M., Kaballo, A.M. and Mukhtar, E.A. (1991) Features of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in the Sudan. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 11, 59-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168- 8227(91)90142-Z [Citation Time(s):1].

50. Al-Khaldi, Y.M., Khan, M.Y. and Khairallah, S.H. (2002) Audit of Referral of Diabetic Patients to an Eye Clinic, from a Primary Health Care Clinic. Saudi Medical Journal, 23, 177-181. [Citation Time(s):1].

51. Al-Maskari, F. and El-Sadig, M. (2007) Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Survey. BMC Ophthalmology, 7, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-7-11 [Citation Time(s):1].

52. Lamri, L., Gripiotis, E. and Ferrario, A. (2014) Diabetes in Algeria and Challenges for Health Policy: A Literature Review of Prevalence, Cost, Management and Outcomes of Diabetes and Its Complications. Global Health, 10, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-10-11 [Citation Time(s):1].

53. Khandekar, R. (2012) Screening and Public Health Strategies for Diabetic Retinopathy in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology, 19, 178-184. https://doi.org/10.4103/

0974-9233.95245 [Citation Time(s):1].

54. Al-Rubeaan, K., Youssef, A.M., Subhani, S.N., Ahmad, N.A., Al- Sharqawi, A.H., Mutlaq, Al H.M., et al. (2014) Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study. PLoS ONE, 9, e88956.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088956 [Citation Time(s):1].

55. El Mahdi, E.M., Abdel Rahman, I. and Mukhtar, S. (1989) Pattern of Diabetes Mellitus in the Sudan. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 41, 353-357. [Citation Time(s):1].

56. Harzallah, F., Ncibi, N., Alberti, H., Ben Brahim, A., Smadhi, H., Kanoun, F., et al. (2006) Clinical and Metabolic Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients: Experience of a University Hospital in Tunis.

Diabetes & Metabolism, 32, 632-635. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1262- 3636(07)70319-1 [Citation Time(s):1].

57. Afifi, A., El Setouhy, M., El Sharkawy, M., Ali, M., Ahmed, H., El Menshawy, O., et al. (2004) Diabetic Nephropathy as a Cause of End-Stage Renal Disease in Egypt: A Six-Year Study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 10, 620-626. [Citation Time(s):1].

58. Kadiki, O.A. and Roaed, R.B. (1999) Epidemiological and Clinical Patterns of Diabetes Mellitus in Banghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 5, 6-13. [Citation Time(s):1].

59. Hamed, S.A., Amine, N.F., Galal, G.M., Helal, S.R., Tag El-Din, L.M., Shawky, O.A., et al. (2008) Vascular Risks and Complications in Diabetes Mellitus: The Role of Helicobacter Pylori Infection. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 17, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/

j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2007.10.006 [Citation Time(s):1].

60. Moumbe Tamba, S., Ewane, M.E., Bonny, A., Muisi, C.N., Nana, E., Ellong, A., Mvogo, C.E. and Mandengue, S.H. (2013) Micro and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes Mellitus in Cameroon: Risk Factors and Effect of Diabetic Check-up—A Monocentric Observational Study. Pan African Medical Journal, 15, 141. https://doi.org/10.11604/

pamj.2013.15.141.2104 [Citation Time(s):1].

61. Khazai, M.H., Khazai, B., Zargaran, Z., Moosavi, Z. and Khadivi Zand, F. (2006) Diabetic Complications and Risk Factors in Recently Diagnosed Type II Diabetes: A Case-Control Study. ARYA Journal, 2, 79- 83. [Citation Time(s):1].

62. Zabetian, A., Keli, H.M., Echouffo-Tcheugui, J.B., Venkat Narayan, K.M. and Ali, M.K. (2013) Diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa.

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 101, 106-122. https://doi.org/

10.1016/j.diabres.2013.03.010 [Citation Time(s):1].

63. Al-Adsani, A.M. (2008) Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Kuwaiti Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Saudi Medical Journal, 29, 1669-1671.

[Citation Time(s):1].

64. Mansour, A.A. and Ajeel, N.A. (2013) Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Basrah.

World Journal of Diabetes, 4, 82-87. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v4.i3.82 [Citation Time(s):1].

65. Harwell, T.S., Moore, K., McDowall, J.M., Helgerson, S.D. and Gohdes, D. (2003) Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Montana American Indians with and without Diabetes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24, 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00640-2 [Citation Time(s):1].

66. Herman, W.H., Aubert, R.E., Engelgau, M.M., Thompson, T.J., Ali, M.A., Sous, E.S., et al. (1998) Diabetes Mellitus in Egypt: Glycaemic Control and Microvascular and Neuropathic Complications. Diabetic Medicine, 15, 1045-1051. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(1998120)15:12<1045:

:AID-DIA696>3.0.CO;2-L [Citation Time(s):1].

67. Ahmed, A.M., Hussein, A. and Ahmed, N.H. (2000) Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Saudi Medical Journal, 21, 1034-1037. [Citation Time(s):1].

68. Saadi, H., Carruthers, S.G., Nagelkerke, N., et al. (2007) Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Compilications in Population Based Sample in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Diabetes Research and Clinical

Practice, 78, 369-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2007.04.008 Citation Time(s):1].

69. Abbas, A.M. (2009) Chronic Compilications of Diabetes in Iraq:

Experience from Southern Iraq. Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2, 89-97. [Citation Time(s):1].

70. Tuomilehto, J. (2004) Impact of Age on Cardiovascular Risk:

Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Management. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 5, 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2004.

03.006 [Citation Time(s):1].

71. De Craen, A.J., Oleksik, A.M., Maier, A.B. and Westendorp, R.G.

(2009) Causes of Health and Disease in Old Age: New Insights from the Leiden Research Program on Ageing. Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie En Geriatrie, 40, 237-243. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03088517.

72. Ebeling, P. and Koivisto, V.A. (1997) Occurrence and Interrelationships of Complications in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in Finland.

Acta Diabetologica, 34, 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005920050062 [Citation Time(s):1].

73. Tomlin, A.M., Dovey, S.M. and Tilyard, M.W. (2008) Risk Factors for Hospitalization Due to Diabetes Complications. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 80, 244-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2007.12.

017.

74. Pradeepa, R., Anjana, R.M., Unnikrishnan, R., Ganesan, A., Mohan, V. and Rema, M. (2010) Risk Factors for Microvascular Complications of Diabetes among South Indian Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes—The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) Eye Study-5. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 12, 755-761.

https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2010.0069.

75. Del Cañizo Gómez, F.J., Fernández Pérez, C., Moreno Ruiz, I., de Gorospe Pérez-Jáuregui, C., Silveira Rodríguez, B., González Losada, T., et al. (2011) Microvascular Complications and Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Endocrinología y Nutrición, 58, 163-168. https://doi.org/

10.1016/j.endonu.2011.01.006 [Citation Time(s):1].

76. Litwak, L., Goh, S.Y., Hussein, Z., Malek, R., Prusty, V. and Khamseh, M.E. (2013) Prevalence of Diabetes Complications in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with Baseline Characteristics in the Multinational Achieve Study. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 5, 57.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1758-5996-5-57.

77. Awadalla, H., Noor, S.K., Elmadhoun, W.M., Almobarak, A.O., Elmak, N., Abdelaziz, S.I., et al. (2017) Diabetes Complications in Sudanese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Overlooked Problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, 11, S1047-S1051. https://doi.org/

10.1016/j.dsx.2017.07.039 [Citation Time(s):1].

78. Chaturvedi, N., Stephenson, J.M. and Fuller, J.H. (1996) The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Diabetes Control and

Complications in the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabetes Care, 19, 423-430. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.19.5.423 [Citation Time(s):1].

79. Secrest, A.M., Costacou, T., Gutelius, B., Miller, R.G., Songer, T.J.

and Orchard, T.J. (2011) Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Major Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complication (EDC) Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 374-381.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.02.007 [Citation Time(s):2].

80. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group (1998) Intensive Blood-Glucose Control with Sulphonylureas or Insulin Compared with Conventional Treatment and Risk of Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (UKPDS 33). The Lancet, 352, 837-853. https://doi.org/10.1016/

S0140-6736(98)07019-6 [Citation Time(s):1].

81. Shichiri, M., Kishikawa, H., Ohkubo, Y. and Wake, N. (2000) Long- Term Results of the Kumamoto Study on Optimal Diabetes Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Care, 23, B21-B29. [Citation Time(s):1].

82. Ceriello, A., Colagiuri, S., Gerich, J., Tuomilehto, J., Guideline Development Group (2008) Guideline for Management of Postmeal Glucose.

Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 18, S17-S33.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2008.01.012 [Citation Time(s):1].

83. Bassuk, S.S. and Manson, J.E. (2017) Obesity/Overweight: Health Consequences. International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 5, 277-294.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00308-8 [Citation Time(s):1].

04. Professional Stress Factor of Vulnerability in Which Has Occurred

In document «Quality Management: (бет 61-69)

Outline

СӘЙКЕС КЕЛЕТІН ҚҰЖАТТАР