SECTION I СЕКЦИЯ I
1.2. The Effectiveness of Management of Public Service in the Republic of Kazakhstan
3) currency risk (currency fluctuations);
4) interest rate risk (floating interest rate fluctuations).
The following issues will be addressed to prevent the growth of debts of state-controlled organizations:
- the creation by government organizations of foreign borrowing, the provision of mandatory consent and approval of the central authorized body for state planning;
- the possibility of imposing a ban on foreign borrowing of state- controlled organizations approved by the central authorized body for state planning;
- exchange of information on the debt of the quasi-public sector in the context of individual subjects among the interested state bodies .
In order to maintain the country's debt burden, the ongoing monitoring and assessment of the state of debt of state-controlled organizations, taking into account possible threats and crises, will continue.
1. Lukhmanova G. K. Daynaya-credit policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Tutorial. - Taldykorgan, 2014. - 129.
2. C.B. Makysh. Cash flow and credit. Textbook. - Almaty, Kazakh University, 2011.- 248 p.
3. Kosheninova B. Money, credit, banks, currency relations. Textbook.
- Almaty: “Economy”, 2012. - 118 p.
4. The monetary policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020 was approved - the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5. The basic principles of monetary policy. Official site of the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan. http://www.nationalbank.kz/.
1.2. The Effectiveness of Management of Public Service
servants. From their knowledge, skill, business ethics and honesty depends on the effectiveness of government.
The state cannot exist without public servants. Regardless of the state structure, political system, ruling regime, it is impossible to do without state administration.
Labor socially necessary activity of people, possessing special theoretical knowledge, skills and abilities acquired as a result of educational training, work experience in the system of public administration, this is the profession of a public servant.
With a special educational training, a civil servant is professionally engaged in public administration. He is hired by the society for public service to perform managerial tasks, and therefore, professionally, he is a social manager, that is, a specialist in management, including in the public sphere, unlike an engineer with a higher education in any field of technology.
According to the letter and spirit of the current legislation, civil servants are a professional stratum of people engaged in managerial work in various areas of state activity.
At the present stage of particular importance for Kazakhstan have the legal and moral aspects of public policy, whose role will continue to grow.
However, the most acute problem remains the need to quickly improve the efficiency of public administration and the quality of services provided.
This problem is relevant for most countries of the world. Today in Kazakhstan, along with the changes taking place in social and economic relations, there is a complex process of transformation of the role of the state itself. That is why there is a situation in which the reform of the public service is a priority area of reform. For sovereign Kazakhstan, the ability of the state apparatus to respond adequately to the needs of the population and society, taking into account the changing functions of the state, becomes relevant.
Improving the efficiency of public service should occur in the interests of developing civil society and strengthening the state, ensuring openness and regulating the activities of state bodies and civil servants, creating a positive image of public service in society. The effectiveness of the activity of the state apparatus, first of all, depends on the professionalism of civil servants.
The main factors aimed at improving the quality of public services in Kazakhstan are the following:
- providing a convenient infrastructure for the provision of public services, its availability;
- optimization of budget expenditures on public services;
- clear standardization of the process of rendering public services;
- increasing the level of information transparency and transparency of procedures, communication with the consumer on the principle of
- increasing the responsibility of the authorities for the execution of powers;
- the creation of regulatory conditions that orient the executive authorities to counter corruption;
- rational distribution of the functions of state bodies for the provision of certain public services;
- compliance with high ethical standards in the provision of public services.
One of the main factors in improving the quality of public services is compliance with high ethical standards. In all countries, professional ethical codes that set standards of behavior are widely used. This is, as a rule, the ideal with which to compare your actions and decisions, as well as evaluate the behavior of civil servants. Usually, ethical codes of civil servants include such provisions as:
• serving the public interest;
• compliance with the constitution and laws;
• professional competence at work;
• maintaining a high moral and psychological level in the organization;
• manifestation of personal moral qualities and others.
But in practice, ethical codes can be more effective only in conjunction with the use of the system of encouraging and encouraging highly moral behavior of staff. One of the effective means of improving the moral climate in the state apparatus is the ethical education of employees, which include three elements:
• professional socialization;
As a result, they should receive the necessary knowledge, skills and value orientations in the field of professional ethics. There are many moral problems faced by public servants in the process of developing and implementing public policy: lobbying, receiving gifts, relations with the private sector, misuse of public funds, and so on. But among them, ethical dilemmas stand out, that is, a situation in which ethical behavior towards one group (individual) is inextricably linked with unethical behavior towards another group (individual), or adherence to one ethical principle inevitably leads to a violation of another ethical principle. These moral dilemmas exist all the time.
But they are particularly acute in the period of the reforms in the state. As an example, the following ethical dilemmas in the public service include:
• management efficiency and rule of law;
• individual and collective responsibility;
• management decentralization and the need for control;
• respect for openness and rationality when making decisions and more.
In the event of ethical dilemmas, civil servants are encouraged to rely on existing legislation and follow the following principles, developed on the basis of the practical experience of developed countries:
1. The maximum social result and the satisfaction of the interests of most people.
2. Respect for the rights, freedoms and dignity of citizens.
3. Equitable distribution of benefits and costs among different social groups and segments of society.
Depending on the culture, traditions and characteristics of different countries, the norms of behavior of public servants are significantly different from each other. For example, a souvenir that was presented to the public service representative in industrialized countries, entails administrative, social, criminal liability. In many Middle Eastern countries, such a gift can be considered as a normal, quite common event.
The most directly related to administrative ethics is the problem of corruption, which, unfortunately, has become very common in Kazakhstan, which negatively affects the outcome of the social and economic development of society.
Corruption is the use by an official of his authority and the rights entrusted to him for personal gain, contrary to established laws and regulations.
Using various criteria corruption can be classified. In this context, consider two types of corruption - administrative and related to the seizure of the state.
Administrative corruption is the intentional introduction of distortions into the process of the prescribed implementation of existing laws and regulations in order to provide benefits to those interested. A kind of administrative corruption is household corruption, which appears in the entry of relations between citizens and civil servants. These relations include various kinds of gifts, services to a certain official or members of his family.
There is also such a thing as nepotism or nepotism.
According to the law of behaviorism, when a person enters a certain collective, he accordingly adopts the rules of behavior that are adopted in this collective. That is, if there is a positive culture in relation to bribes within a department or corporate party, the lack of publicity in discussing the misconduct of its employees, the new employees who come will perceive this situation as normal, normal and will continue to do so.
The “seizure of the state” as a form of corruption in the world is considered to be the action of individuals, groups or firms in both the public and private sectors in order to influence the formation of laws, laws and other instruments of public policy. Thereby, certain advantages are provided in the process of redistribution of state property and financial resources in their favor.
The task of fighting corruption is the most acute for our society today.
Corruption in our country has taken not just a large-scale character, it has become a habitual, mundane phenomenon characterizing the specifics of our life. It is a disease that erodes the social system from the inside, undermining the economy, adversely affecting the image of the state in the
eyes of the world community. But the main thing is that corruption destroys public confidence in the government, nullifies all its decisions aimed at creating a free, democratic society.
Against the background of developing corruption, hatred towards the country, disobedience to laws, immorality, disrespect of others to their work, mistrust of partners and unfair cooperation develop in a society, and the number of criminal offenses increases accordingly. That is why the fight against corruption today is a priority worldwide.
We have an anti-corruption system, but it needs to be improved. So, it is necessary to initiate measures to consolidate at the legislative level the concepts of conflict of interest, political corruption, to legislate and ensure the implementation of protection of witnesses and victims of corruption. It is necessary to achieve real separation of power, actions of the system of checks and balances, to develop local self-government.
Today, the issue of raising the status of the civil service is urgent, the solution of which will require raising the social prestige and responsibility of the civil servant. There is a social differentiation in the standard of living between the public servant and employees of business structures and the private sector.
The professional activities of public servants are characterized by a substantial restriction of certain personal rights and freedoms, which requires social compensation from the state side.
Due to the fact that there are no substantial benefits and social privileges, the public service becomes uncompetitive and unattractive for promising personnel. Therefore, it is necessary to understand that privileges are an objective need of any management system in any society.
To increase the prestige of the public service in society, it is advisable to strengthen the level of social support for civil servants.
First, one of the acute problems is the development of an incentive remuneration system for civil servants, which involves:
• orientation of the level of wages to the final result, efficiency and quality of work;
• adequacy of the level of salary complexity and volume of work;
• gradual increase in wages.
Secondly, it is necessary to refine the issue of creating additional mechanisms for providing affordable housing for civil servants. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the possibility of participation of civil servants in the shared construction on preferential terms. It is advisable to develop social and municipal housing.
Third, an optimal model of employee health insurance should be developed.
It is necessary to further improve the civil service system through increasing the responsibility of representatives of state authorities to citizens for their decisions.
The weak level of professionalism, the poor moral character of the individual employee has a negative effect in the minds of the population, as a result of which the stereotype applies to the entire state apparatus.
In line with all these problems, modern public policy should have the following key characteristics, namely, it should:
• be quickly adjusted in response to changes in society, the state and international relations, and be oriented towards national interests;
• be complex and consistent, consider any problem in conjunction with other problems and processes;
• comply with the law, be efficient, effective and socially fair;
• have the confidence and support of the majority of the population;
• comply with budget funds, have the opportunities and resources to implement and achieve their goals.
The combination of strong political will and these principles, careful planning and the ability to foresee problems, sensitivity to the needs of people, careful selection and training of employees should be the main factors of "cleansing" and improving the efficiency of the civil service of Kazakhstan. The professionalization of the public service should be strengthened.
A professional public service with a pool of qualified personnel will ensure continuity, preserve professional traditions and play a decisive role in carrying out the basic functions of the state and the plans of political leaders.
Thus, I would like to come to such a system, in which the political leaders whom the people of Kazakhstan put their trust in, form the policy, and the professional civil servants ensure its implementation.
From now on, public service should become not just an instrument of service to the people, it is called upon to rely on the initiative of the people, strengthen its potential, put forward bright and talented representatives of the nation to its heights.
We must defeat corruption once and for all and eradicate bureaucracy.
But this is not enough. Each person in the service of the state must realize - what he is obliged to do in his post for his country and his people - and honestly act in accordance with this conviction.
1. The Code of Honor of Civil Servants of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Rules of Official Ethics of Civil Servants), approved by Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 3, 2005 No. 1567 - Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. – 2005. - 5 May.
2. Andrianov V.D. Bureaucracy, corruption and government effectiveness. - M.: Volters Kluver, 2011.
3. Legal problems of reforming the public service of sovereign Kazakhstan / Under. ed. G.S. Sapargaliyeva – Astana, 2003.
4. Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 21, 2011 “On approval of the Concept of a new model of public service” / www.kyzmet.kz.
1.3. Изучение церковных расколов в государственном