• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

Chapter 6. Conclusions and Recommendations

6.3 Implications for further research

This research project was focused on exploring the reflective experiences of


specific participants and had certain time constraints. As a result, it had its own limitations, such as the limited coverage of participants and the reliance on a single data collection instrument. Consequently, the results of this study cannot be generalized. That is why it would be beneficial to conduct a study that would explore the RP of teachers representing different types of educational institutions in order to develop a comprehensive policy regarding teacher reflection.

Moreover, some questions about teacher reflection, mentioned in the literature as well as in this study, remain unanswered. These include whether and how teacher

reflection can be taught or improved, whether it leads to the improvement of practice, what the stages of the reflective process are. It would also be interesting to investigate how guided refection (e.g. with a mentor) affects the development of reflective skills in novice teachers. A more comprehensive picture of teacher reflection may be obtained through a longitudinal study employing a greater variety of data collection methods, such as document analysis (e.g. analysis of reflective journals) and observation (e.g. guided reflection meetings). Such a study would supply data on how the RP of teachers develop over time. In addition, this study has revealed that the content of reflection may vary, and it would be interesting to explore this issue in a greater depth to understand the factors

affecting the variation.

Finally, neither this study nor the literature give a definitive answer as to the effective methods to develop reflective skills. Consequently, it would be beneficial for the whole pedagogical community to conduct a study that would compare and experimentally prove the effectiveness of certain methods currently employed to develop reflective skills or suggest and test a new method.



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Appendices Appendix A Interview Protocol

Project: Reflective practices: the experiences of teachers in one NIS school in Kazakhstan Time of Interview:





Position of Interviewee:

Thank you for agreeing to participate in this interview. It will help me to collect data for my research project on the experiences of teachers related to RP. Do you mind recording our conversation? Please be assured that the recording and your responses will be kept confidential and used solely for research purposes. Your name will not be revealed at any stage. The interview will take 40-60 minutes. Your participation is voluntary and you have the right to withdraw your consent or discontinue participation at any time. Please read and sign the consent form.


Background information

1. Please tell me about yourself.

• What subject do you teach? What grades?

• How long have you been working as a teacher? How long have you been working in NIS?


2. How do you understand teacher reflection?


• What is the role of reflection in your teaching?

• How does reflection help you to improve your teaching practice / your students’



3. How do you reflect on your teaching practice?

• Do you have any kind of journal where you write down your thoughts about your teaching? How often do you do it?

• Do you discuss your teaching with your colleagues? Do you do it on a regular basis?

Do you take any kind of notes?

• Do you have a mentor? Describe your work together.

• How do you use the reflection section of the lesson plan? What do you usually write there?

• Do you know about any requirements of your school regarding teacher reflection?

What are they?

• What strategies of teacher reflection do you find useful? Why?

RQ 3&4

4. Are there any circumstances that make it difficult for you to reflect? How can the problems be solved?

• Do you have enough time?

• Do you think you need training in this area?

• Do you need support of a more experienced colleague?

5. How can the reflective practices of the teachers in your school be improved?

Closing question

6. Is there anything that you would like to add to our conversation? Anything that I have not asked but you think is important for me to know?


Thank you for your cooperation and participation in this interview. Please be assured that your responses will be kept confidential and the recording will be electronically protected.

I will make sure to send you the transcript for you to verify your answers.


Протокол интервью

Проект: Рефлексия в работе учителя: опыт учителей одной НИШ в Казахстане Время интервью:





Должность участника:

Спасибо, что согласились принять участие в этом интервью. Это поможет мне в сборе данных для моего исследования опыта учителей в отношении рефлексии. Вы не против записи нашего разговора? Эта запись и Ваши ответы будут использоваться конфиденциально и исключительно в целях данного исследования. Ваше имя не будет использоваться ни на одном из этапов. Интервью займет примерно 40-60 минут. Ваше участие абсолютно добровольно и Вы имеете право отказаться от участия в любое время. Пожалуйста, прочтите и подпишите форму согласия.


Общая информация

1. Пожалуйста, расскажите мне о себе.

• Какой предмет Вы преподаете, В каких классах?

• Сколько Вы уже работаете учителем? Сколько Вы работаете в НИШ?


2. Как Вы понимаете рефлексию в работе учителя?

• Какую роль играет рефлексия в Вашей работе?

• Как рефлексия помогает вам улучшать Вашу работу / результаты обучения Ваших учеников?


3. Как Вы используете рефлексию в своей работе?

• Вы ведете какой-либо рефлексивный дневник, где вы записываете свои мысли о своей работе? Как часто Вы это делаете?

• Вы обсуждаете свою работу с коллегами? Вы делаете это регулярно? Вы ведете какие-то записи?

• У Вас есть ментор? Опишите свою совместную работу.

• Как Вы используете раздел для рефлексии в плане урока? Какие записи Вы обычно там делаете?

• Вы знаете о каких-либо требованиях школы в отношении рефлексии учителя?

Каковы они?

• Какие стратегии рефлексии учителя Вы считаете полезными? Почему?


4. Существует ли что-то, что мешает Вам рефлексировать? Как можно решить эти проблемы?

• У Вас достаточно времени?

• Вам нужно обучение по этой теме?

• Вам нужна помощь более опытного коллеги?

5. Как можно улучшить рефлексию учителей в Вашей школе?

Заключительный вопрос

6. Вы бы хотели что-либо добавить? Может быть, я не спросила о чем-то, что Вы считаете важным в этой связи?

Спасибо за Ваше участие. Ваши ответы будут храниться конфиденциально, и запись будет храниться под электронной защитой. Я пришлю Вам расшифровку записи, чтобы Вы могли проверить свои ответы.


Appendix B Informed Consent Form

Reflective practices: the experiences of teachers in one NIS school in Kazakhstan Dear Participant,

DESCRIPTION: You are invited to participate in a study of the experiences of teachers related to the use of reflective practices conducted by Xeniya Artamonova, a 2nd year M.Sc. in Educational Leadership student at Nazarbayev University. You will be asked to participate in a one-on-one interview, which will not take more than an hour, at any time and venue convenient for you. Your participation is entirely voluntary. The interview will be recorded with your permission and the recording will be transcribed. Your name will not be revealed at any stage (a code will be used instead), so your anonymity will be protected. You will receive an electronic copy of the transcript in order to eliminate any potential misunderstanding. All the data will be kept confidential on a password-protected computer and deleted after the completion of data analysis.

TIME INVOLVEMENT: Your participation will take approximately 1 hour.

RISKS AND BENEFITS: You may have to share information that is sensitive in terms of your employment and career. The potential risk may be connected with your sharing information about your professional life and an opinion about the organization of the reflective practices of teachers in your school. Please be assured that all the information will be treated as confidential and used solely for research purposes. Your participation in this study will not affect your relationship with your employer or Nazarbayev University.

You may benefit from your participation in this study by becoming more aware of your own reflective practices. The study as a whole will contribute to the pool of knowledge about the reflective practices of teachers in Kazakhstan and may inform the policy in this domain.

PARTICIPANT’S RIGHTS: If you have read this form and have decided to

participate in this project, please understand your participation is voluntary and you have the right to withdraw your consent or discontinue participation at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. The alternative is not to participate. You have the right to refuse to answer particular questions. The results of this research study may be presented at scientific or professional meetings or published in scientific journals.


If you have any questions, concerns or complaints about this research, its

procedures, risks and benefits, contact the Master’s Thesis Supervisor Dilrabo Jonbekova, PhD, e-mail: dilrabo.jonbekova@nu.edu.kz.

If you are not satisfied with how this study is being conducted, or if you have any concerns, complaints, or general questions about the research or your rights as a

participant, please contact the NUGSE Research Committee to speak to someone


independent of the research team at +7 7172 709359. You can also write an email to the NUGSE Research Committee at gse_researchcommittee@nu.edu.kz

Please sign this consent from if you agree to participate in this study.

• I have carefully read the information provided;

• I have been given full information regarding the purpose and procedures of the study;

• I understand how the data collected will be used, and that any confidential information will be seen only by the researchers and will not be revealed to anyone else;

• I understand that I am free to withdraw from the study at any time without giving a reason;

• With full knowledge of all foregoing, I agree, of my own free will, to participate in this study.


Signature: ______________________________ Date: ____________________

The extra copy of this signed and dated consent form is for you to keep.



Reflective practices: the experiences of teachers in one NIS school in Kazakhstan Уважаемый участник!

ОПИСАНИЕ:Вы приглашены принять участие в исследовании по изучению рефлексии в работе учителя, которое проводит Ксения Артамонова, магистрант 2 курса по специальности «Лидерство в образовании» Назарбаев Университета. Вам будет предложено принять участие в интервью, один на один с исследователем, которое займет не более одного часа и будет проходить в любое удобное для Вас время и в любом удобном для Вас месте. Ваше участие является абсолютно добровольным. С Вашего разрешения, интервью будет записано и расшифровано.

Ваше имя не будет указываться ни на одном их этапов (будет заменено кодом), таким образом будет сохранена Ваша анонимность. Вы получите электронный вариант расшифровки, чтобы исключить любое возможное недопонимание. Все данные будут храниться конфиденциально на компьютере исследователя, защищенном паролем, и будут удалены по завершении анализа данных.

ВРЕМЯ УЧАСТИЯ:Ваше участие потребует около 1 часа.


Возможно, Вам придется поделиться информацией, которая важна для Вашей работы и карьеры. Возможный риск связан с раскрытием информации о Вашей профессиональной деятельности и мнения об организации рефлексии в Вашей школе. Заверяем Вас, что вся информация будет рассматриваться как конфиденциальная и использоваться исключительно в целях исследования. Ваше участие в этом исследовании не повлияет на Ваши отношения с Вашим работодателем и Назарбаев Университетом.

Вы можете получить преимущество от участия в данном исследовании, глубже осознав свой собственный подход к рефлексии. Исследование в целом внесет вклад в развитие научных знаний о рефлексии учителя в Казахстане и может послужить основой для выработки политики в данном отношении.

ПРАВА УЧАСТНИКОВ: Если Вы прочитали данную форму и решили принять участие в данном исследовании, Вы должны понимать, что Ваше участие является добровольным и что у Вас есть право отозвать свое согласие или прекратить участие в любое время без штрафных санкций.В качестве альтернативы, вы можете не участвовать в исследовании. Также Вы имеете право не отвечать на какие-либо вопросы. Результаты данного исследования могут быть представлены или опубликованы в научных или профессиональных целях.


Вопросы: Если у Вас есть вопросы, замечания или жалобы по поводу данного исследования, процедуры его проведения, рисков и преимуществ, Вы можете


связаться с с руководителем исследования, используя следующие данные:Дильрабо Жонбекова, PhD, e-mail: dilrabo.jonbekova@nu.edu.kz.

Независимые контакты: Если Вы не удовлетворены проведением данного

исследования, если у Вас возникли какие-либо проблемы, жалобы или вопросы, Вы можете связаться с Комитетом Исследований Высшей Школы Образования

Назарбаев Университета по телефону +7 7172 70 93 59 или отправить письмо на электронный адрес gse_researchcommittee@nu.edu.kz

Пожалуйста, подпишите данную форму, если Вы согласны участвовать в исследовании.

• Я внимательно изучил представленную информацию;

• Мне предоставили полную информацию о целях и процедуре исследования;

• Я понимаю, как будут использованы собранные данные, и что доступ к любой конфиденциальной информации будет иметь только исследователь;

• Я понимаю, что вправе в любой момент отказаться от участия в данном исследовании без объяснения причин;

• С полным осознанием всего вышеизложенного я согласен принять участие в исследовании по собственной воле.


Подпись: ______________________________ Дата: ____________________


Appendix C

Interview Transcript Sample 005

Q – question A – answer

Raw data Codes Themes Notes

Q: thank you for agreeing to participate in this interview. It will help me to collect data for my research project on the experiences of teachers related reflective practices. Do you mind recording our conversation?

A: No, no.

Q: Please, be assured that the recording and your responses will be kept

confidential and used solely for

research purposes. Your name will not be revealed at any stage. The interview will take about 40 minutes. Your participation is voluntary and you have the right to withdraw your consent or discontinue participation at any time.

Pleas, read and sign the consent form.

A: Ok.

Q: Ok, tell me about yourself. What subject do you teach? Which grades?

A: So, I teach basically 7th grade only, English language. I've got 5 different classes from A to E. Two Kazakh class and two...no, three Kazakh and two Russian.

Q: Wow. so many.

A: Yeah.

Q:Ok. How long have you been working as teacher?

A: I've been working as teacher for 4 years, more than 4 years, if you would know. Before working here, I worked in different courses, language courses.

Last year I worked in college of foreign languages "Lingva" and this year I started working here, this school.

Before that I have never worked in the school.

background information

Little experience, new to this school

Q: Ok. So this is your first year as a school teacher. Ok. How do you understand "teacher reflection"? What is it for you?

looking back, evaluation

retrospective analysis