• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

Methods of water quality control in terms of microbial contamination


2. Methods of water quality control in terms of microbial contamination

When our country introduced the Sanitary Rules called

"Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Water Sources, Water Withdrawal Points for Household and Drinking Purposes, Household and Drinking Water Supply, Places of Cultural and Household Water Use and Safety of Water Bodies" [11] as well as "Hygienic Requirements for Surface Waters Protection" [12], a new regulatory framework has been created. It provides for the need for direct detection of viruses in drinking water, surface and waste waters. The classical and most reliable method of controlling viral water contamination is the direct isolation of viruses on cell cultures. However, it is known that many epidemiologically significant viruses (for example, hepatitis A, rotaviruses, noroviruses, etc.) are not cultivated on cells traditionally used in the practice of virus isolation or are cultivated in special cultures with great difficulty. At the same time, working with cell cultures requires special laboratory equipment, qualified personnel and significant material costs. It should also be noted that the obtained results are of a retrospective nature, which reduces both the significance of this method as a planned one in practice and water quality control in relation to viral contamination according to epidemiological indications [5].

Concerning the water quality in terms of microbial contamination, the checking necessarily includes microbiological testing. In most cases, it involves the analysis of indicator faecal microorganisms, but sometimes it may also include an assessment of the density of specific pathogens. These checking approaches involve testing water at source, water immediately after treatment, water in distribution systems, or household water reserves. The quality of drinking water is tested for microbial contamination includes Escherichia coli as an indicator of faecal contamination. Escherichia coli is strong evidence of recent contamination by faeces that must not be present in drinking water. The main requirements for indicator and sanitary-indicative microorganisms are as follows [19,41]:

1. A common source of entry into the environment with pathogenic microorganisms;

2. Equal resistance to environmental factors and disinfecting agents with pathogenic microorganisms;

3. The quantitative predominance of indicator microorganisms over pathogenic ones;

4. Indicator microorganisms must have a stable correlation with pathogenic ones in order to assume the quantitative content of the latter by the number of the former;

5. Indicator microorganisms must not multiply in the environment;

6. Simplicity and rapidity of methods for isolating indicator microorganisms;

7. Non-pathogenicity of indicator microorganisms.

However, in practice, testing for thermoduric coliform bacteria may be an acceptable alternative in plenty of cases. While Escherichia coli is a useful indicator, it has some limitations. Enteroviruses and protozoa are much more stable to disinfection, that is why the absence of Escherichia coli does not necessarily indicate release from these microorganisms. Under certain conditions, it is desirable to include bacteriophages [6,19].

As the sanitary microbiology developed, there was a constant discussion regarding various microorganisms and indicators that could be used as criteria of viral water pollution: Escherichia coli, coliphages, clostridia, viral antigens of RNA and DNA of viruses, water turbidity, etc.

Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli cannot perform the function of indicator microorganisms in relation to viral contamination, since viruses are more resistant to the effects of chemical and physical environmental factors and disinfecting agents from water treatment than bacteria according to the data of domestic and foreign scientists [1,7-8].

The literature [2-4,9] describes outbreaks of viral hepatitis related to the use of drinking water with standard bacteriological parameters. The question of the possibility of introducing clostridia into routine sanitary and virological control as an indicator microorganism is debatable. Unlike coliform bacteria, clostridia are more resistant to various factors and water treatment agents than intestinal viruses.

In this regard, water disinfection requires significantly higher doses of chlorine, ozone and other disinfectants, which can contribute to a sharp increase in the formation of trihalomethanes, haloform compounds, free radicals, aldehydes, etc., having an adverse effect on public health and causing long-term biological effects. In addition,

Clostridia do not meet the requirements for indicator microorganisms in many other parameters.

In his works, K.K. Toguzbaeva and her colleques assume [21] that there is a trend for microbial pollution of drinking water, which directly affects public health and increases the number of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis. Preliminary calculations based on the regression dependence revealed a direct and strong positive correlation between microbial pollution of drinking water and an increase in the number of these diseases among the studied group of people. However, in terms of microbiological indicators in the region, the percentage of non-standard water samples from centralized water supply systems decreased from 0.59% in 2009 to 0.4% in 2013, from decentralized water supply systems from 1.3% in 2009 and to 1,08% in 2013. K.K. Toguzbaeva et al. [21] came to the following conclusions:

1. The most adequate indicators of viral water pollution are coliphages and markers of DNA and RNA viruses, determined by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively;

2. Markers of DNA and RNA viruses in a water sample indicate the direct presence of viruses in water and their species, as well as their possible quantitative level, which requires epidemiological alertness.

Having studied the rural population of the Almaty region and their sanitary and hygienic living conditions [10,22], a group of researchers led by B.A. Ramazanova came to the conclusion that the analysis of the water quality of decentralized water supply sources by microbiological indicators gave grounds to state a tendency towards its improvement. During the study period in this region, 9.0% of working water pipelines did not meet sanitary and epidemiological requirements, including 52.8% due to the lack of sanitary protection zones, 28.5% due to the lack of the necessary treatment facilities and 44.3% did not have disinfection facilities. In a number of districts, the unsatisfactory condition of the existing water pipelines was simultaneously caused by several of the above reasons.

Ensuring the microbial safety of the drinking-water supply relies on the use of many barriers from the water collection to the consumer in order to prevent contamination from drinking water or reduce it to acceptable levels, not harmful to health [38-39,40,42-44]. Safety is enhanced when multiple barriers against contamination are established, including protecting water resources, selecting and implementing a range of appropriate treatment measures, and regulating distribution systems (piped or non-piped) to maintain and protect the quality of treated water. The preferred strategy is a regulatory approach that focuses on preventing or reducing the entry of pathogens into water sources, and on reducing reliance on water treatment to remove pathogens.

Thereby, outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with microbial contamination are underinvestigated. Data on outbreaks caused by many etiological agents tend to rarely affect water supply networks, since backflow and growth events are likely not to be recognized and reported unless an entire building with a large number of people is affected.

There is a need for epidemiological studies that aim at microbial contamination of water. Surveillance systems help to track trends in causes and risk factors for waterborne diseases, but they are not very susceptible and not able to

serve as a fast warning system for water-related health problems in a particular community due to reporting delays.

Therefore, epidemiological studies of the risk of endemic diseases associated with microbial contamination of drinking-water should be carried out and developed with sufficient capacity and resources to address the shortcomings of previous studies.


Thus, ensuring the microbial safety of WASH requires the following: an assessment of the entire system to determine the potential harmful factors that may affect it;

determination of control measures to reduce or eliminate these harmful factors as well as operational monitoring to ensure the effective functioning of barriers from infection within the system; and developing regulatory plans to describe operations to be taken both under normal conditions and in unforeseen circumstances. These measures are three components of the WSPs. Insufficiency to ensure the microbiological safety of WASH can lead to outbreaks and fatal epidemics.


This research was funded by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. AP09058465).

Contribution of the authors:

Alua O. Omarova: planned the study and wrote parts of the final paper;

Ilya A. Belyayev: performed the review and wrote the first version of the paper;

Saule B. Akhmetova: performed the review and wrote the first version of the paper;

Nurbek Zh Yerdesov: performed the review and wrote the first version of the paper;

Chingiz U. Ismailov: collected and processed the sources;

Azamat D. Kharin: collected and processed the sources.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

The authors claim a lack of funding.

This article and parts of the materials of the article were not previously published and are not under consideration in other publishers.


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