• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ


In document Х А Б А Р Ш Ы С Ы (бет 172-180)


ISSN 1991-3494

Volume 6, Number 364 (2016), 172 – 179

UDC 331.28

G. K. Tyurabayev, Ye. N. Nesipbekov

Abay kazakh national pedagogical university, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

E-mail: gani@kaznpu.kz, nesipbekov@mail.ru


self-realization. On the other hand, from the perspective of an organization, the development of employees represents an element of human resources management system and embraces definite processes, mechanisms and methods of an organization influence on professional qualities of employees to ensure sustainable development and enhancement of organization competitiveness.

Interpreting the definitions mentioned above, we understand the professional development of employees as a process preparing the employees to implement new functions production, fill the positions, and solve new tasks to overcome the divergences between the requirements to an employee and profes- sional qualities of a real man.

Professional development of company employees has two-sided benefit: first, it is a support for specialists in competitive struggle at labor market; second, an instrument on forming of valuable intel- lectual capital of a company and an opportunity to achieve the strategic development goals. Along with this, a company, providing the opportunities of professional growth for its employees, satisfies their moral and career needs supporting by its strategy on loyal attitude of employees to a company, and minimizes the level of the staff turnover. However, retention of employees is not an end in itself, first of all, the pro- fessional development of the staff should be aimed at effective application of acquired professional knowledge for the company activity.

Thus, the professional potential of employees turns into the strategic factor of success, more companies invest funds into the development of own staff. In order to increase the effectiveness of acti- vity, companies are more and more involved into the search and application of opportunities to train the staff.

The system of professional development of company employees is aimed at solving the following tasks:

 Staff development and learning to issue new products, correct application, technical maintenance and repair of production means; training and retraining of personnel, teaching for modern technologies;

 Ability to communicate, work in a group;

 Awareness of significance of increasing the role of labor, technological, financial, production labor discipline in the sense of accurate implementation of activities ensuring errorless operation of a machine, plant, department or enterprise;

 Forming the responsibility as a system quality of an employee and development of its types;

 Development of professional skills and knowledge by employees themselves [3].

Professional development of personnel is based on application of definite methods aimed at forming of definite knowledge and skills at employees. Conditionally, these methods can be divided into two groups:

1) methods to form and develop human resources of the organization in general;

2) methods to develop the potential of every particular employee.

The first group consists of:

 Methods of organizational development;

 Methods to improve corporate style of management;

 Methods to manage conflict situations, improvement of organizational culture, creation of favo- rable climate in an organization;

 Methods of team work.

Methods to develop the personnel on the level of every single employee:

 Training and retraining of staff of different level;

 Improvement of qualification outside the organization;

 Internal corporate seminars;

 Conferences, group discussions;

 Dual management – trainings (solving of definite economic tasks together with scientists);

 Business games [4].

The selection of employees’ development method depends on the company goals. For instance, a company solving a task in prompts perspective, i.e. wants to train the staff in shortest time and use the re- sults, hardly will develop the corporate culture, or conduct different events such as seminars and business games on constant basis. The listed activities are inherent to companies persuading strategic goals and tasks in the process of employees’ development.

The management of employees’ development process requires the availability of the following conditions:

 Institutional solutions: availability of education centers, special seminars and trainings, management schools and business schools, consulting organizations;

 Organizational solutions: necessity to select personnel of different profile, trainers and tutors, moderators and business advisors to conduct different events from conferences to business games and tests;

 System solutions to determine the career direction of personnel, for instance, creation of a career map.

While selecting the events, a company is guided by the following criteria: financial abilities of a company to pay for personnel education, elimination of existing gaps in necessary knowledge, and the goals of employees’ development. It should be noted that a company, by investing into the employees’

development, on the one hand, provides the staff an opportunity to improve professional skills, and along with this provides advance preparation of a personnel on the other hand. Today, it is obvious that successful development of a company depends on its intellectual capital – human resources.

There is an assertion that economic crisis postpones the development of personnel in companies for far prospect; however, we suppose that namely the period of economic stagnation allows developing an adequate concept of human resources development creating good prerequisites for economic activity in future.

Labor efficiency of employees depends on the staff managing system in whole; one of its main constituents is the system of professional development that ensures the conformity of professional and personal qualities of personnel with current and strategic requirements. Only if an employee is satisfied by his work at a definite position it can be supposed that his professional development is successful. Other- wise, an employee will not be able to meet the company requirements. Thus, management of personnel professional development is the process that implements the strategy of human resources management aimed at forming of definite professional skills and competence of employees. Professional career is planned and implemented by achieving the interaction between the company goals and each single employee [5, p.61].

The main elements of the managing system of employees’ professional development are: business career; personnel training; motivation and stimulation of professional development of personnel; effective management of internal labor pool; estimation of professional development of employees; provision of the system of professional development with necessary resources; management of employee self-develop- ment. An organization engaging in professional development of its employees aims at improving of emp- loyees’ labor potential to solve difficult tasks related to the functioning and development of a company.

However, in the context of managing effect, the problem of classification of employees’ development types is also important, mostly it influences the in-depth understanding of the role and place of employees’

development in a company. Due to diversity of concrete means that helps to implement the process of employees’ development there are different classification signs that depend on a range of factors shown in table.

The available potential of an employee is studied and formed by determining the ways of career growth of the employee. At the initial stage of the professional development the content of functional responsibilities of future employee are analyzed, duty regulations are reviewed and corrected, require- ments to an employee are formulated, the sources to search a candidate for vacant position are determined.

To analyze the work specifics of vacant position a questionnaire filled by future colleagues of an emp- loyee is compiled. Usually, the questions cover the main function of a work place, criteria and indicators of the work effectiveness, characteristic of management and features of staff relations. The interpretation of inquiry results could be used not only for determination of requirements and conditions of work, but for estimation of organizational culture of the company. In its turn, the results of organizational culture estimation could be used to develop the activities on improving of psychological climate in a company.

After an employee is hired to a vacant position (after a definite period of time (1–5 years), the personnel appraisal is performed, depending of the company activity field and personnel policy. The goal of the appraisal is to determine the level of personnel professional qualities conformity with determined requirements. The appraisal could be performed by testing or interviewing, or combine both methods.

The types of personnel development by classification signs

Classification signs Type of development

Sources of development

Development initiated by a company Self-development

Mixed development

Subjects of development Individual


Direction of development Personal


Personnel category Development of management personnel

Development of production personnel Timespan

Advanced Simultaneous Lagging Complexity of development forms

Sector-specific Targeted Complex Level of influence on development External

Intra-company Recurrence of development process One-time

Periodic Constant Note. The Table compiled by source [6].

Upon the appraisal performance results of each employee the decision on future career of personnel is made. Depending on the achieved results the personnel could be conditionally divided into 3 groups:

1) Complete conformity with work requirements;

2) Not meeting the requirements;

3) Not completely meeting the requirements due to reasons not depending on personnel.

The employees of the first group, if vacant positions are available, move up the career ladder passing corresponding training, if available. If there is no vacancy, the employees are included into personnel pool. After that the psychological diagnostics is conducted to determine the personal qualities of the emp- loyees. Basing on personal and professional characteristics of an employee the professional development of personnel is planned. Thus, the time prospect of long-term planning with an opportunity to correct mid- and short-term professional goals is constructed. According to the professional goals, the personnel pass the training conducted at a lecture room, work place, etc. When the training is finished, the initial process reoccurs – the personnel passes appraisal performance, professional competence and knowledge of employees are re-estimated, etc.

If personnel police stipulates the obligatory staff turnover, an employee is transferred to another department of a company. The turnover also takes place if career growth within one department is impos- sible. By this, the company provides its future director an opportunity to become familiar with work of other departments, identify interconnection and interdependence of departments’ goals, and determine informal features of business. When the work on turnover is finished, the professional qualities of an employee are estimated, i.e. the process is repeated.

The second group that includes the personnel who showed bad performance appraisal results is sub- jected to psychological diagnostics by management board or HR department who finally make a decision to dismiss an employee or downgrade. In the latter case, upon expiration of certain time, the personnel pass obligatory performance appraisal, which results influence on his further career in the company.

The third group of employees that partially meet the requirements are neither dismissed nor moved up. Most often those are suggested to pass scheduled education and performance appraisal.

The shown system process of professional development is correct regarding the long-term strategy of development management. However, depending on the goals of personnel management the process can be different in various companies. Nevertheless it should be admitted that the evaluation of professional qualities of employees plays an important role in determining the prospects of professional development

of personnel. Namely adequacy and correctness of evaluation methods influence on successful develop- ment strategy. Traditionally, the evaluation should embrace the information on qualitative characteristics of personnel such as experience, knowledge, skills, range of performed duties, and list of successfully solved tasks, career movements, productivity and innovatory activity [7].

The successfulness of employees professional development system depends on openness and trans- parency of the system: the procedures should be clear and understandable, and the processes – transparent and fair. For instance, the modern large company should have clear criteria and indicators of evaluation of work efficiency of different profile employees, and this information should be accessible for them. The methods of professional competence evaluation could be conditionally divided into 3 groups:

1. Quantitative methods – the method of grading, comparison, coefficient and expert methods, etc.

2. Qualitative methods – recommendations and characteristics of immediate superiors, biographical method, method of discussion, testing, stress-testing and other;

3. Combined methods – combining of methods groups mentioned above.

It should be noted that the mentioned methods are applied to evaluate the work of every employee, and these methods are, sometimes, insufficient to construct the effective management system of personnel professional development. A company not engaged in current problems of personnel management cannot risk by investing into human resources. A case example: if a company allocates huge funds for retraining or education of its personnel disregarding the staff turnover then it is bound to fail – the investments could be lost. Thus, in addition to the main methods of professional competence evaluation it is also necessary to consider other indicators such as satisfaction of personnel with work conditions, the level of devotion and loyalty of personnel to a company, the level of staff turnover, age structure of personnel, labor efficiency.

While constructing the plan of professional development of personnel it is also necessary to consider the current and expected business indicators of the company activity. Only basing on the detailed analysis of all these indicators the concrete programs of professional development of employees should be formed. In any case, the evaluation of professional competence of employees and important characteristics of their work conditions is a complex, but fundamental process resulted in estimating of expected economic and other effects, and in developing of new mechanisms on eliminating of revealed problems in the manage- ment process of employees professional development.

At the present time, the developed countries show a tendency on lowering the share of external trai- ning education which experts consider as companies desire to reduce the time of employees spent outside the work place [8, p.70]. In contrast to the USA and Western Europe, Japan applies a concept “knowledge management” implying a company conversion into self-educating system using its capabilities as laboratories of progressive experience and attracting the whole staff into the process of investigations and discoveries [9, p.93]. Staff rotation is an obligatory condition for career promotion.

In the foreign companies, the professional development of personnel is of great importance: gross expenditures on realization of activities on employees development accounts for up to 10% of the com- pany’s payroll [10]. Among popular instruments of personnel development in foreign companies are coaching, buddying, secondment, shadowing, е-learning [11, p.48].

1. Coaching is one of development forms when a coach supports a training employee in achieving of concrete personal or professional goal. Sometimes, coaching implies informal relations between two employees one of which has more experience and knowledge comparing to another and give him advices and recommendations [12]. At the same time, coaching should be distinguished from tutoring; if tutoring is aimed at achieving of common goals and general development, coaching is aimed at a concrete task or tasks [13]. In addition to coaching expensiveness it cannot be applied without preliminary preparation and certification of a coach, it is also inaccessible for all sections of personnel [14].

2. The essence of «Buddying» method is to train a new employee by friendly relations with a colleague. The method differs from tutoring and coaching by equality of its participants [15]. Some authors note complicated practical application of the instrument due to insufficient openness of personnel and incompatibility of pairs [16].

3. Secondment supposes transfer of an employee to another structural department for certain time, usually not exceeding one calendar year [7, p. 24]. Recently, this method is actively used by the USA and European companies. Application of this method has trilateral benefit:

a) for an employee – opportunity for personal development and gaining of diverse work experience in projects, enhancement of adaptability to changes, acquiring of new skills and experience in solving of complicated tasks;

b) for “sending part” – receiving of personnel with improved skills; strengthening of team work and cross-functional interaction; enhancement of personnel motivation; development of contact network;

establishment of reputation of the best employer.

c) for “receiving part” – receipt of free workforce [17].

4. Job Shadowing is an informal option of training able to assist the employee to learn responsibilities in another field within his work [7, p. 25]. The essence of this method is that an employee learns new functions by walking through the work day as a shadow to a competent worker, for instance visiting the meetings or participation in other activities related to the work functions.

5. E-learning is a teaching method for employees by using distant forms of online learning via the Internet technologies [7, p.25]. Having great advantages including an opportunity of in-service training, the adoption of E-learning is highly expensive process.

At the present time, most Kazakhstan companies do not pay due attention for training and education of their personnel, and the work of HR department is limited to drawing of personnel documentation. Only small part of the national companies considers employees qualification improvement as a priority task.

However, due to lack of interconnection between the training goals and organization, all efforts on profes- sional development of employees have fragmentary character. This practice does not favor the qualitative growth of professional competence of personnel necessary to achieve concrete tasks. Along with this, appearance of foreign companies at the local market as a result of Kazakhstan integration into the global economy can favor the promotion of ideology on importance of continuous training of personnel. Being the structural departments of large companies, these organizations use more improved model of profes- sional development of personnel.

If Kazakhstan and post-Soviet countries traditionally use the notion “personnel management”, the developed countries, where the concept of corporative management is more perfect and developed, use the notion of “talent management” [18]. In these organizations, the goals of personnel development follow the goals of corporate development of a company and pursue long-term business goals. This kind of organi- zations are called “learning companies” [19].

According to the concept of a “learning company” the effectiveness of a company activity depends not only on the application of available solutions, but on the ability of the staff to learn from own expe- rience. Such companies appeared in the USA and Western Europe by the end of 1970’s. The well-known global companies such as “IBM” and “Xerox” turned into giants owing to provision of self-realization opportunity to their personnel. Already in 1980’s these Companies spent 750 million dollars and 260 mil- lion dollars per year for the personnel training, respectively. At the present time these Companies have own centers to train their staff. In the USA, 263 dollars are allocated for the training of every employee. If the number of employed persons in the USA is more than billion, then the accumulated expenditures of the country on the personnel training is comparable with the country expenditures on the secondary and high education (350 billion dollars) [20].

The implemented investigation allows noting a range of irrefutable evidences highlighting the special significance of continuous professional development of personnel in the strategy of organization deve- lopment:

 Basic education cannot guarantee necessary qualification in the case of adoption of new equip- ment, modern technologies, growth of communication opportunities;

 With appearance and development of innovative technologies, some professions become obsolete;

retraining is necessary;

 Tightening business struggle forces the companies to search the ways on enhancing the labor efficiency and save the resources as much as possible without damaging the environment;

 Market volatility requires constant changes in technologies and informatics that stipulates the necessity in continuous training of employees;

 Preparation of own personnel is cheaper than hiring competitive specialists;

 Continuous training will affect the labor efficiency as all knowledge gaps will be periodically refilled and renewed; significant amount of funds spent due to incorrect performance of works will be saved.

In document Х А Б А Р Ш Ы С Ы (бет 172-180)