SECTION V СЕКЦИЯ V
Bnouham 1 Abderrahim Ziyyat 1
06. The Role of Motivation in the Field of Production
Ph. Doctor of Economy, Associated Professor.
Shota Rustaveli State University (Batumi, Georgia)
For most people the term “motivation” is associated with money, career, statis and recognition. However, this is only a small list of the meaning of motivation. First of all, motivation is the process of encouraging of a person himself as well as a hired worker in order to achieve the goals of any company. A firm/company consists of people. There are a number of theories explaining the motives of people’s behavior in the field of production.
The evaluation of the joint action in accordance with the interests of the production can only be explained by the motivation of the labor. The motivation is closely related to the notion of the moral spirit of the service personnel in which a man's attitude towards the institution is revealed. A person’s moral condition depends on the fact how he feels at work.
In the past years the managers considered that the labor productivity mostly depended on the objective conditions of the working process. Such as: resources, competent employees, effective organizational structure, clear goals, etc. Nowadays, it is clear that the subjective conditions such as fairness, recognition of merits, the definite place in common collective goals, have a significant impact on the activities of any organization.
What is the basis of the labor motivation for present-day workers and is only the financial leverage so important here? Scientific researches have made evident that in modern conditions only high salaries cannot serve as a well-grounded argument. Most educated people seek not only for high salaries but also for perfect living conditions. Relaxation, family, lifestyle, intangible benefits, are as significant as a good job and a reasonable payment.
Formation of elements of motivation in the company is an important function of the manager, which is based on the desire and interest of each employee. Motivation in modern international business is a diverse, interconnected and difficult process, so its efficiency depends on the current situation. In order to create an atmosphere of normal human relationships, it is important for the manager to have leadership, relationship and motivation skills; though the motivation one of the essential components. It is an important factor in good human relationships. This is the determination of the incentives that define the high labor results of employees. A personality - the fourth principle of the economy - reacts to stimuli. That is also indicates to the motivation.
On the question – “What is the motto of work?” - Most are responding:
social environment, status, recognition, presence of people, career, the demand for professional growth, money, public utility, and so on. Apparently, motivation is perceived in a different way for different people. The quality of the activity of the enterprise depends on the behavior of the personnel, so one of the main objectives of management should be the achievement of the level of behavior within the working people that can ensure competitive results. This means that the behavior is controlled or subject to "external"
effects. Therefore, if we are well aware of the nature of human behavior and consequently impact on it, we can get the desired result.
There are two basic theories about motivation – meaningful and procedural. The meaningful theories of the motivation are based on the possibility that the behavior of people is determined by their needs. Workers are constantly comparing their own needs to the level of satisfaction they would like to achieve through their work.
The procedural theories of motivation are based on the possibility that the behavior of people is caused by the operation of the event perception by a person. There is the question: Is the self-development equal to “payment”?
The employee compares the paid remuneration not only to his work but also the remuneration paid to other employees in the same job. Therefore, the same pay value is relative and is determined by the sense of justice. An individual believes that the remuneration of labor contributes to the growth of labor productivity, and the breach of justice is the source of discomfort that ultimately negatively affects on the activities of an organization. The reason for the breach of justice is the mistrust between the employee and the manager, the wrong understanding of the employee's demands, and consequently, the result is a material priority.
It is noteworthy that the labor effectiveness will generate motivation and not vice versa as it was previously thought. The most important factor in transition from the goal to the concrete action stage is the motivation for success. When activities in the organization are conducted positively, most of its workers work with high productivity. The leadership towards the so- called "unmotivated" employees uses an individual approach. In order to facilitate workers' motivation, several methods are used: setting goals, modification of behavior, retraining method and others.
Some workers can be significantly stimulated by the help of a clear and real purpose. In this case managers have great chances to succeed. They succeed, because they know what this success is consisted of. For instance, the meaning of goal defining method by motivation is that the workers are able to identify and implement the tasks independently. Personnel "is allowed" to participate in determining their tasks. If the goals are thrusted from “above”, this method is less effective, because the workers can think that someone is manipulating them. It is better and more efficient when workers are given the opportunity to determine their tasks based on the goals of the organization.
It is necessary to build this system with a double connectivity, and then people will know how to reach the goal that will help them to have a high level of commitment. The meaning of goal achievement participation program is that the reimbursement will be paid on the basis of cost price reduction, quality improvement, customer service progress and fulfilling other pre-determined conditions of the company, but not on the basis of profits. Motivation to achieve a set goal can be promising or short-term, the choice of which depends on the existing situation in the company.
Short-term motivation helps any hired worker to overcome temporary difficulties, since it is the starting stage for him to achieve prospective goals, but if people working in the company are more concerned about long term problems such as: homelessness, health worsening, or unreachable education, motivation is usually inactive. It can also hinder the activity of the worker or even he can start to look for another workplace. Short-term motivation may be direct or indirect. A hired worker with the direct motivation
is satisfied with both the working process and the results. While with indirect motivation, the person is contented not only from the working process and its effectiveness, but also in earnings, recognition, social status, etc.
Among motivation methods there are important motives related to pure material interests, which directly affect on the workplace and selection of professions. It is of particular importance when the hired worker is less interested in salary and it receives spiritual satisfaction from the given activities. The idea in the basis of the modification of behavior is very simple.
It is necessary to encourage desirable actions, because even the surveys also prove that people are more likely to act if they are praised and this is necessary to achieve the desired result than condemnation of labor results expressed in reproach, mockery and other forms. Praise as the simplest form of behavior modification is used in many modern companies.
Firms use many forms of encouragement, including: gifts, joint lunches, awards, medals, business trips, etc.
In order to encourage workers, it is necessary to help them with monetary stimulation periodically. In other words, the wage accrual base is determined not by labor but by its results. That is why it is necessary to stimulate labor results to introduce an incentive system that includes such conditions as bonuses and commissions. One of the most effective forms of incentives is the bonus, so most of the firms will pay bonuses for workers.
Bonuses are related to realization of company objectives. Commissions are the monetary awards that are given by the firm in accordance of the volume of products or services. As a rule, they are used for remuneration of the staff employed in the field of sales. The program of participation in profit involves additional material encouragement of workers in case the income increases.
According to the company management, funds are issued on a monthly, quarterly, or yearly basis.
Firms, except bonuses, have other financial support for employees. In steady and leading companies high level managers have extra benefits, such as: the use of company vehicles for implementing company duties, payment for disabled working days, payment for phone credit cards, personal use of company vehicles, medical services, taxes for membership in different clubs, life insurance, car, phone tax, etc.
This is the list of benefits that the company's presidents and executive directors can enjoy. In addition, companies carry out insurance programs not only for each employee but also for their family members. Although insurance programs are not obligatory, they are becoming increasingly popular.
When the service personnel are given the opportunity to determine their tasks based on the objectives of the organization, encourage the desired results, praise and recognition pushes him to the demands of the organization's achievements. In addition, the managers should be guided by the principles of the organization which support the increase of workers' motivation and productivity in the organization. These principles include:
1. Justice. As the practice shows, people are more easily get on with lack of material wealth, than injustice. That is why the “climate” in any organization should be free from nepotism, protectionism and political influence. All steps forward to promotion must be based on merits only.
2. Distinctness. Formally, motivation is determined by the inner encouraging and intentional motives of the individual, which are based on the level of the effort toward the work he is in charge of, the ability to choose a variant from the alternative. Distinctness means that the goals of separate groups and individuals in the organization should be clearly formed.
3. Recognition of merits. Workers are convinced that they are