МРНТИ 16.01.45 МРНТИ 16.01.45
D. S. Likhachev
Introduction. Intensive development of verbal communications characterizes society in the modern world.
Along with the emergence of new technologies, various types of speech communications appear, as a result of which we can observe the emergence of both new communicative genres and new academic disciplines focused on studying and raising various levels of culture, including linguistic. The second half of the last century in the field of studying Russian was marked by the appearance of the following language disciplines: ―Culture of Speech‖, ―Stylistics‖, ―Speech Etiquette‖, ―Psycholinguistics‖, ―Professionally Oriented Russian Language‖ and many, many others.
Guided by knowledge in the field of Russian stylistics, linguists traditionally distinguish five functional styles of speech, four of which, by definition, are bookish: journalistic, scientific, official business and artistic, and the fifth is conversational. Let us dwell in more detail on the latter. So what is a conversational style of speech, and what are its features? The basis of the colloquially everyday style, like the books we have designated, is mostly neutral or, as it is otherwise called, inter-style vocabulary, which certainly gives it the right to function in all styles of speech without any restrictions. The peculiarity of this style is the presence of specific language means, such as:
phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic.
For us, teachers of linguists, all aspects are undoubtedly important, but in this article we will focus on two levels in more detail: phonetic and lexical.
Method. The main methods of work are: analysis of the specialized literature in this field, where the works of Soviet and modern teachers are reviewed; the method of observation allowed us to evaluate the learning process and students' speech culture based on personal experience.
The great teacher of the twentieth century, Anton Semenovich Makarenko, said: The teacher cannot help but play ... I became a real master when I learned to say the phrase‖ come here with fifteen or twenty shades, when I learned to give twenty nuances in the formulation of faces, figures, voices …‖ [1, 250]. Based on the above, we can argue that both verbal and non-verbal means of communication are important in colloquial speech, while at the phonetic level we distinguish the following processes: diverse intonation in different situations, reduction of vowels (weakening of the sound of vowels in an unstressed position) [2, 160], for example: the words ―threshold‖,
―holy‖, ―medal‖ are pronounced as [n ^ rock], [sv'ietOi], [midal '] and many others, pronunciation of words, for example : now [sh'as], hello [(h) dras't'i], that [cho], today [s'odn'a], etc.
Conversation is used in everyday, everyday communication. As a rule, such speech is characterized by ease, unpreparedness, informality, emotionality, and has both a monologue and a dialogic form. Subjects of conversations can be diverse - this means that one should not mistakenly reduce the conversational style only to the topics of a domestic nature; here one can also include family conversations about art, sports, science, where all the conversations are in an environment that is conducive to informal communication. At the same time, we can talk about the ease and unpreparedness of speech, if the topic of conversation is related to the working activities of the speakers, therefore it is allowed to use other types of vocabulary, including professional, scientific, etc.
The normalized Russian literary language and our colloquial speech are two mini-systems within one large layer - the literary language.
Result. In the course of our research, the following results were obtained: a characteristic feature of colloquial speech is the diversity of its own lexical and grammatical features. Here we can see the most varied lexical groups of words both in thematic and stylistic terms: it is neutral vocabulary: sky, society, people, walking, beautiful, etc., book vocabulary: admiration, monument, pride, impeccably, cry, etc.., terminology: syntax, suffix, morpheme, scalpel, suspension, injection, etc., words of foreign origin: fast food, blinds, boutique, price, luxury, rendezvous, selfie, interview, etc. Are not uncommon and common vernacular elements: sleep, want, here, otshit, bullshit, lousy, cheat, etc., also slang: dorm, coolly, mower, hickey, wheelbarrow, loot, tusit, rags, etc. All this is due to many factors, at the head of which, of course, is the thematic variety of conversational speech, which, as mentioned above, is not limited to household conversations and general replicas. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the spoken language is carried out, as a rule, in two intonations - serious and playful, and it is in a playful manner that the use of the whole variety of linguistic elements is allowed.
Speaking about lexicology as a whole, we cannot fail to mention such a large section as phraseology.
According to statistics, colloquial phraseology makes up the majority of all phraseological turns of the Russian
language, which are used directly in oral speech, for example, hanging noodles on the ears, prying nose, an hour, to distant lands, headlong, etc. What explains the popularity of using this phenomenon in everyday communication? The answer is obvious: the use of phraseological units in speech makes it more vivid, imaginative, emotional, gives it an expressive color.
The phraseological system of the modern Russian language is not frozen and unchanging, in view of the fact that the language keeps pace with the times, constantly replenishing itself with neologisms, borrowings from other languages. Thereby enriching our speech with new, relevant metaphors. I would like, as an example, to cite several ―fresh‖ stable expressions and aphorisms resulting from various linguistic processes as a response to the realities of modern life.
We have classified modern aphorisms in two categories: the first group included stable expressions based on the replacement of the component:
Easy as to send two bytes (by analogy with the expression ―like two fingers on asphalt‖ - English analog
―shooting fish in a barrel‖) - which means to do something with particular ease, without difficulty. This expression is formed by replacing the last two components with professionalism from the field of programming, and the structure of the aphorism itself is preserved.
The words will bring to killer (by analogy with the expression ―the language will bring to Kiev‖ - English analog ―with a tongue in one's head one can find the way to Rome‖) - this means that the speaker must carefully follow what he says in order to avoid all sorts of trouble. This aphorism is formed by replacing one component, while retaining the grammatical form of the word and the consonance with the original component is felt. The phrase has the same meaning as many stable expressions, proverbs and sayings about the meaning and strength of the language.
We wish you health, happiness and creative Uzbeks – (by analogy with the expression ―we wish your health, happiness and creative success‖) - this expression has no definite meaning, being an artistic method of giving a comic speech. It is formed in a manner similar to the first two examples, but with one difference: the replacement of the component occurred not at the lexical level, but at the phonetic one, i.e. there was an alternation of paired consonants s-z, b-p and historical alternation k-h.
Fight, search, find and hide (by analogy with the expression ―fight and search, find and not give up‖). This expression in its original form is the recognizable motto of the heroes of the story by V. Kaverin ―Two Captains‖, but in the modern interpretation we see humorous notes that arose in the manner described above. Here the replacement of the component is made at the lexical level, namely, the contextual antonym to the word ―find‖ is used.
To the second - absolutely new phraseological units that have no direct analogues in the modern Russian language:
Morning is never good! - this phrase is pessimistic, because it is used by people who are in a bad mood due to early awakening. These people, as a rule, do not sleep enough, do not like to get up very early.
Don't stop! Grab a Snickers!- this expression has become widespread thanks to the Snickers chocolate bar commercial. At first, this phrase called for the buyer to eat chocolate, but over time, the connection between the brand and the original meaning weakened and found a new life as a call for action.
At home the head must be someone like……she! - the aphorism is comic and has the value of the superiority of a woman as head of the family over a man. The peculiarity of the structure of this expression is that the grammatical category of the genus of the name of the numeral is intentionally violated, that is, instead of the expected masculine gender, the female is used, which creates the effect of surprise and satire.
From time immemorial language and culture are inextricably linked with each other. However, not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance, and this relationship has its own nuances. In the table below we will find points of contact and differences between language and culture.
Common features of language and culture Differences between language and culture 1. Language and culture are those forms of consciousness
that reflect the human worldview.
1.The language is a self-developing phenomenon, while culture requires human activity.
2. A person is a subject who is always in the center of attention of both phenomena.
2. A language is characterized by mass character, and for a culture - selectivity.
3. Both culture and language tend to be normative, leaving a mark on history.
3. Language is closely connected with communicative processes, while culture forms not only the personality of an individual, but also society as a whole.
4. In both phenomena, the desire for sustainability is equally visible, but at the same time changing.
To summarize: in spite of all the similarities and differences between language and culture, we cannot completely separate these two concepts, since language is an integral part of culture, and culture, in turn, plays an important role in the development of the national language of all peoples.
Discussion. Culture is a multi-component concept. More than a hundred definitions of culture there are today. In its first meaning, culture is a phenomenon that people cannot do without; it is a kind of mechanism that allows a person to cope with any situation in which he would not be [3, 46]. Following from this value of culture, we can add that it is the reported knowledge, traditions that are transmitted from the older generation to the younger, in order to help society, live in the world, according to modern trends and time, manifested in the totality of people's attitudes to nature, between yourself and to yourself. Culture is inherent in any form of human existence as its characteristic and indispensable component.
The culture of speech emphasizes the principles of the selection and use of language means in the process of speech communication, helps to form a conscious attitude to their use in speech practice in accordance with communicative tasks.
Consider the concept of ―student speech behavior‖ from a psycho-linguistic point of view. Such an interpretation in modern linguistics is considered expedient, because it is defined as a specific speech and communicative-practical activity focused on the performance of certain tasks in all spheres of human life, personal, social, and professional.
Modern students, as a rule, use their free time to watch various television programs and TV shows of entertaining nature; they are keen on visiting Internet sites, thereby replacing real reality with virtual reality, paying less attention to reading fiction and scientific and educational literature. At the same time, linguistic culture is not an exception from the interconnection system, in other words, its quality is directly dependent on the competent content and the increase in the number of information communications. That is why the question of creating a pedagogical system aimed at developing a linguistic culture of chairs remains open.
The level of culture of a single person, and sometimes even a whole generation, is often expressed by the position on which the native language is located. That is why, we see the goal of any education in the formation and development of responsibility towards our mother tongue and, not least, towards other languages. From the above goal, it is possible to form tasks of language education: firstly, preservation and enrichment of historical, scientific and cultural values of the modern young generation, secondly, to instill interest and respect for non- native languages, and, thirdly, to develop the desire study foreign languages, which will allow the student to become a developed competitive language personality in the future.
Language culture plays a fundamental role for students studying foreign languages, and is one of the most important components of their qualifications, because it is the cultural language level that determines the professional competence and suitability of the beginning young professional.
The habitat of any person is his communication. Without communication, it is impossible to imagine the formation of a person as a person, his upbringing and development of intelligence. Together with the term
―communication‖, the word ―communication‖ is also widely used. Communication is communication, the exchange of information, opinions, is a specific form of human interaction in the cognitive-labor process and in many other types of human activity. Speech, or communicative, human activity is the most complex and common, because without it no other activity is possible. The peculiarity of speech communication is that it often enters into the wider system of activity as a necessary and interdependent component.
In the process of knowing other people, a person gets a unique opportunity to determine the prospects and stages of joint activities. The level of effectiveness of communication depends on the extent to which a person imagines the actual conditions of communication. As a result, speech behavior is also determined or corrected. As a rule, people do it intuitively, without thinking. In order for communication to take place, communicators need a communication channel, in this role the organs of speech and hearing, that is, the auditory channel, but the form and content of written speech is perceived by means of the visual channel.
Effective speech communication is the result of adequate semantic perception and interpretation of the transmitted information.
In the same row with the terms ―speech‖, ―speech communication‖, ―language culture‖ is the concept of
―speech etiquette‖. ―Speech etiquette is a peculiar rules of speech behavior, a system of speech formulas of communication. The level of proficiency in speech etiquette determines the level of professional fitness of a person. Knowledge and compliance with certain rules allows a person to feel more confident and at ease, not to experience discomfort due to incorrect actions. Observance by people of etiquette, including speech, has educational value and contributes to improving the cultural level of society. Speech etiquette is constructed taking into account the individual characteristics of the speakers, leading the official conversation: the social status of the
subject and the addressee of communication, their place in society, type of activity, profession, age, gender, etc. We can safely say that speech etiquette has a national specificity: every nation has its own system of rules for speech communication. Any act of communication has three stages - this is the beginning, the main part and, accordingly, the final part of the conversation. If the addressee is previously unfamiliar, then the communication will begin, as a rule, with an acquaintance. All other meetings of friends, formal or informal, begin with a greeting. With regard to greetings, speech etiquette provides for a certain character of behavior, that is, the so-called sequence of greeting.
Men should be the first to welcome women, the youngest by the position of the elder, etc. Formulas of speech etiquette should always be used, both in everyday and in business environment. Any speech act always has a beginning, which, as a rule, is expressed by a greeting, the main part, which describes the essence of the conversation and, without fail, the end of the conversation, implying farewell to the interlocutor [4, 382].
The ethical aspect of the culture of speech prescribes the knowledge and application of the rules of language behavior in specific situations. Under the ethical norms of communication is understood directly speech etiquette.
The qualitative use of speech etiquette is greatly influenced by extra linguistic factors such as age, social status, the nature of the relationship between the speakers, the time and place of the conversation.
Conclusion. To live in modern society, to be modern means to follow and comply with many norms that have been established and generally accepted at the present time, including in the field of oral speech. And the person who, with his speech, seeks to influence the masses, should not allow himself to use non-normative elements. Knowledge and observance of the norm is one of the first, obligatory conditions for a competent and expressive speech, free, easy, informative and interesting communication.
Any serious work on yourself and, of course, on your speech begins when there comes a clear awareness of why, why you need it. Many linguists who study oral speech have concluded that it differs from the written one in its structure. Of course, they are basically similar, because, otherwise, we could not retell what was read and write what was said. Oral speech differs from the written one and the number of communication channels: if in written speech we single out only one channel, then in oral communication there are two: this is the information itself, which is contained in the words we uttered and the second is the information that we receive in addition to words, information, accompanying speech [4, 173].
Summarizing all the above, we can say with confidence that speech etiquette is inextricably linked with speech culture, which is why every educated person should be able to speak correctly and beautifully. In addition, it is worth noting that one of the most important tasks of educating modern functional speech culture of young people is to master the skills and abilities of analyzing difficult communication situations, primarily with examples of practical exercises in current communicative areas and situations. On this basis, the corresponding productive skills can be acquired by self-education and upbringing in natural speech practice.
1. Makarenko A.S.(1983). O moyemopyte. [About my experience]. Moscow [in Russian].
2. Vvedenskaya L.A., Pavlova L.G.,KashayevaE.Yu. (2001) Russkiy yazyk i kultura rechi [Russian language and culture of speech]. Rostov-on-Don: Feniks[in Russian].
3. Shifman Kh. F. (1996.). Lingvisticheskaya kultura i yazykovayapolitika[Linguistic culture and language policy]. – New Yоrk: Rоutledge.
4.Kondubayeva M.R., Baltabayeva Zh.K. & Shakhanova R.A. Ocobennosti rechevogo povedeniya kommunikantov v sotsio kulturnykh usloviyakh Kazakhstana // Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal eksperimentalnogo obrazovaniya. – 2013. №3. – S. 172-175
5. Kazartseva O.M. (1999). Kultura rechevogo obshcheniya: Teoriya i praktika obucheniya [Speech communication culture: Theory and practice of learning].(2ded.). – Moscow: Flint [in Russian].
Г.С. Сулеева1 , Г.А. Атембаева1 , А.Т. Есетова1
1Казахская национальная консерватория имени Курмангазы, г. Алматы, Казахстан
РУССКОЕ РЕЧЕВОЕ ПОВЕДЕНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ-БИЛИНГВОВ КАК ЭТНОКУЛЬТУРНЫЙ ФЕНОМЕН ПОЛИЛИНГВАЛЬНОЙ СРЕДЫ
В статье рассматривается русское речевое поведение студентов-билингвов как этнокультурный феномен полилингвальной среды. Рассмотрено влияние казахского языка на русский язык, которое отражает особенности восприятия мира и его ценности. Данные стандарты воссоздают современные концепции этнической и социальной взаимосвязи и выявляют характер функционирования русского языка. В публикации приведен анализ толкований заимствованных слов и вкраплений, который подтверждает мысль о том, что для оказания какого-либо влияния одного языка на другие, нужны формы культурных контактов, в результате которых возникают новые свойства языка. Таким образом, лексика, заключающая в себе лингвоспецифичные концепты, одновременно «отражает» или «формирует» образ мышления носителей языка, причем в языке находят те черты внеязыковой действительности, которые представляются релевантными для носителей культуры, пользующейся этим языком.
Ключевые слова: русское речевое поведение, этнокультурный феномен, полилингвальная среда, заимствованные слова.
G.S. Suleeva1,G.A. Atembayeva1 , A.T. Yesetova1
1Kazakh National Conservatory named after Kurmangazy, Almaty, Kazakhstan
RUSSIAN SPEECH BEHAVIOR OF BILINGUAL-STUDENTS AS AN ETHNO-CULTURAL PHENOMENON OF THE MULTILINGUAL ENVIRONMENT
The article deals with the Russian speech behavior of bilingual students as anethnocultural phenomenon of a polylingual environment. The influence of theKazakh language on the Russian language, which reflects the perception of the worldand its value, is considered. These standards recreate modern concepts of ethnic andsocial interconnection and reveal the nature of the functioning of the Russianlanguage. The publication analyzes the interpretation of borrowed words andinclusions, which confirms the idea that in order to exert any influence of onelanguage on others, forms of cultural contacts are necessary, as a result of whichnew properties of the language arise.Thus, the vocabulary, which includes linguo-specific concepts, simultaneously"reflects" or
"shapes" the way of thinking of native speakers, and the language findsthose features of extralinguistic reality that are relevant to the carriers of culture usingthislanguage.
Keywords: russian speechbehavior, ethnocultural phenomenon, polylingual environment, borrowed words, inclusions.
Г.С. Сулеева1, Г.А. Атембаева1, А.Т. Есетова1
1Құрманғазы атындағы Қазақ ұлттық консерватория, Алматы қ., Қазақстан КӚП ТІЛДІ ОРТАДАҒЫ ЭТНОМӘДЕНИ ҚҦБЫЛЫС РЕТІНДЕ СТУДЕНТТЕРДІҢ
ОРЫС ТІЛІНДЕ АУЫЗША СӚЙЛЕСУ ӘРЕКЕТТЕР Аңдатпа
Маҗалада орыс тілінде кҿптілді ортадағы студенттердің этномҽдени җҧбылыс ретіндегі ҽрекеттері җарастырылады. Җазаҗ тілінің орыс тіліне деген ыҗпалы җарастырылады, ҽсіресе осы ҽлемнің ерекше җабылдауын жҽне җҧндылыҗтарын кҿрсетеді. Бҧл стандарттар этникалыҗ жҽне ҽлеуметтік җатынастардың заманауи тҧжырымдамаларын җайта жасайды жҽне орыс тілінің жҧмыс істеу сипатын аныҗтайды. Басы- лымда бір тілдің басҗаларға җандай да бір ҽсер етуі, мҽдени байланыстардың җажетті формалары, жаңа тіл