• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ


In document Х А Б А Р Ш Ы С Ы (бет 39-46)


ISSN 1991-3494

Volume 2, Number 366 (2017), 39 – 54

UDC 796.062

V. N. Avsiyevich

Kazakh academy of sports and tourism, Almaty, Kazakhstan.


doping center started its work in Kazakhstan, active work is being done to exclude doping from sport practice at the public and state level, the use of banned drugs in power sports in Kazakhstan remains relevant.

Methods of research.

1. Study, analysis and generalization of data of special domestic and foreign scientific literature.

2. Generalization of practical experience as the results of oral and questionnaire surveys of coaches and athletes.

3. Analysis of competitive standards, planning documents for the training process, developed training programs for training and competitive protocols.

4. Statistical processing of the results.

Results and discussion.

The state of the problem of doping in power sports in Kazakhstan. Table 1 presents the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) data for 2013 on the number of doping tests in athletes of 10 countries with the maximum number of positive results. In total, in 2013, 1953 positive doping tests were detected [7].

Table 1 – Ten countries, which athletes most often came across the use of doping, according to WADA data for 2013

N Country Number of athletes

1 Russia 225

2 Turkey 188

3 France 108

4 India 95

5 Belgium 94

6 Italy 83

7 Spain 67

8 Poland 55

9 Kazakhstan 47

10 South Africa 46

Table 2 – The number of Kazakhstan athletes specializing in various sports with positive doping tests, according to WADA data for 2013

N Sport The number of athletes with positive doping test

1 Weightlifting 16

2 Powerlifting 10

3 Judo 6

4 Track and field 3

5 Types of wrestling 2

6 Fencing 2

7 Cycling 2

8 Arm wrestling 1

9 Modern pentathlon 1

10 Ski sports 1

11 Rowing and canoeing 1

12 Kickboxing 1

13 Ice hockey 1

Total 47

As can be seen from Table 2, the superiority of the number of identified positive doping tests in Kazakhstan athletes belongs to representatives of power sports (weightlifting and powerlifting). This table does not specify the number of athletes who have been convicted of using doping as a result of additional studies of previously taken samples at competitions 2015-2016.

To date, there are 12 major groups of doping drugs used in sports and WADA prohibited for use by athletes in various sports (figure 1).

Figure 1 – Doping groups

Williams M. analyzed data, provided by sports officials and doctors, and received the following results regarding the use of anabolic drugs in the US sports in 1997:

1) 90% of male athletes engaged in weightlifting, powerlifting and bodybuilding, use these drugs;

2) 70-80% of the throwers of the hammer and disk, as well as the putters use anabolic drugs;

3) 40-50% of sprinters use anabolic drugs;

4) 10% of athletes involved in sports, where maximum endurance is required (running, cycling), also use pharmacological support based on anabolic drugs.

The author also notes that female athletes use anabolic drugs 4-5 times less often than male athletes.

In this case, the use of anabolic drugs in high performance sports and in sports for children and young people acquires a catastrophic character. In general, anabolic drugs are taken by more than 1 million American athletes [8].

The level of doping in strength sports in Kazakhstan. In 2017 we conducted a questionnaire survey of Kazakhstan coaches (11 people) and athletes (49 people) specializing in power sports (weightlifting and powerlifting), on the use of WADA prohibited drugs. The survey was informal, with complete anonymity.

61.2% of men and 38.8% of women were sportsmen. The average age of athletes was 24.43 ± 7.57 years old. The average length of employment by power sports at the time of the survey was 10.72 ± 7.57 years.

The title of MSIG is in 6.1% of respondents, MS - 22.4%, СMS-24.6%, I senior degree - 22.4%, II senior degree - 14.3%, III senior degree - 10.2%.

39% of the surveyed sportsmen indicated that they use or previously used illegal drugs. As indicated in the questionnaires, 89% of respondents who used illegal drugs and their coaches, the main drugs used by athletes in weightlifting and powerlifting are anabolic or androgen-anabolic drugs, 21% of respondents

noted the use of drugs with anti-estrogenic activity, 12% of coaches and athletes note the use of somatotropin (growth hormone) and gonadotropin. In this case, drugs with anti-estrogenic activity, somatotropin and gonadotropin are used mainly in combination with drugs of anabolic nature.

Voluntariness of participation in the survey of athletes and coaches on the conditions of anonymity and guarantee of confidentiality of the results obtained allowed to get reliable information about the use of prohibited drugs belonging to doping.

Among the identified banned drugs used by highly skilled athletes in power sports of Kazakhstan, according to WADA, the championship belongs to the remedies of anabolic number of stanozolol, followed by drugs of the same number of turinabol and oxandrolone.

Before determining the objective reasons for the doping use, we present the main stakeholders, both in the application and in the distribution of banned drugs. We distribute them to entities with direct interests and those with indirect interests.

Subjects with direct interest 1, 2 and 3 (Figure 2) are only interested in financial benefit by increasing sales and expanding the client base. Subjects 4 - in getting sporting fame, publicity, recognition and also in receiving material rewards for the high performances.

Figure 2 – Subjects of the process of using doping in sport

Subjects with indirect interest, i.e. all anti-doping structures, including WADA, which exist at the expense of contributions from individual states and commercial services. These structures are uncon- ditionally financed by presence of the problem of the use of doping in sport. In the absence of the problem, the structures would simply no longer need to exist. Therefore, most of these subjects with indirect interest are not beneficial in reduction of the doping use, which is certainly a sad reality, but this fact should be recognized.

The main reasons for the doping use in power sports in Kazakhstan and the prospects for solving the problem. At this time, there are several main reasons for the doping use in power sports.

1. The change in the standards towards weight gain in weightlifting and powerlifting over the past 40 years has been done repeatedly. It is clear that this was dictated by an increase in the level of power capabilities of athletes. By what means there was the rapid increase in power abilities, remains a big

question. For the period from the 70s of the XX century to the present time, there is a period with active introduction of pharmacological support of athletes with the use of drugs of anabolic and androgenic series, and approximately from the 90s of the XX century, also the use of a somatotropic hormone.

At this time, for example, to fulfill the standard of the master of sports in powerlifting in the weight category under 83 kg (in sum of three exercises - 590 kg without equipment) is practically not real without serious pharmacological support with the use of banned drugs. This reality is well understood by both coaches and athletes.

To solve this problem, a serious multifaceted approach is needed with the study of the standards that were applied in the so-called "before doping period" with their comparison with the standards currently used, and the study of the power abilities of athletes who never used prohibited drugs. To do this with the involvement of physiologists, biomechanics, biochemists, sports officials and experienced coaches.

Standards are needed to be revised downwards. Otherwise, the standard grid itself will be the main motivational factor for the use of doping by athletes.

2. Many professional athletes and coaches in power sports do not see any other opportunity to achieve high sports results, except by using doping, including those in the list of WADA banned sub- stances.

In power sports, where the main physical quality is the power, the manifestation of which occurs most intensively and in a short period of time (weightlifting, powerlifting, kettlebell lifting, bodybuilding), in most cases, power indicators are determined primarily by genetic data, and then by the training method, while the sources of energy supply for muscular activity differ fundamentally from those providing endurance.

In weight-lifters, powerlifters and bodybuilders the protein metabolism in the general scheme of metabolic reactions dominates, while the energy source of the motor action of heaving exercises is mainly creatine phosphate. Increase in strength of representatives of power sports requires a special control over the management of nutrition and the metabolism shift to the anabolic side without the use of anabolic and androgenic drugs, as well as somatotropic and gonadotropic substances. It also requires a full recovery of the athlete's body, achieved not only by using only reconstructive techniques, but also by a properly organized training process that reduces the catabolic response of physiological systems. Therefore, it is not a secret for anyone that athletes and coaches often take the lazy way out, as they think on, when a positive anabolic metabolic shift is achieved due to the use of banned drugs, while the issue of nutrition, as well as full recovery of the body, can be put on the back burner.

To solve this problem, first of all, from the pedagogical and methodological point of view it is neces- sary to use such training methods that would have the maximum training effect, maximize the power capabilities, but at the same time, not harm health and not require the inclusion in the training system of pharmacological support with the banned drugs. The training technique itself should be designed so that it takes into account the physiological reserves of the athlete's organism as much as possible, the ability to recover after training sessions. Development and implementation of training methods should be carried out at the stage of the formation of sportsmanship, in the time period of finding athletes in children and youth sports.

The management of the training process of young athletes should be carried out by the coaching staff and accompanying specialists (physiologists, doctors, nutritionists, etc.) with the active participation of young athletes and provide for two important components:

- collection of data on the state of the organism of young athletes and the level of their biological development, the reaction of physiological functional systems to training loads, the degree of load in the competitions, etc.;

- analysis of the obtained data on the basis of comparison of actual sports results, development, planning and distribution of the training load providing achievement of the targeted training effect at full preservation of the health level [9].

In addition, it is necessary to establish proper control over the expenditure of funds allocated to nutrition of athletes of picked teams. All incoming funds for nutrition should be spent exclusively for the purpose, to provide full recovery and increase the power capabilities of athletes specializing in power sports.

3. The development of professional sports is closely intertwined with different traditions and practice of using certain prohibited drugs, which in many ways contributes to their informal legitimacy of use by athletes at the psychological level, by the principle: applied earlier - apply now.

This problem has long pursued all power sports, and for its solution it is necessary, first of all, to provide psychological support to athletes, especially beginners. To conduct a permanent work of psy- chologists aimed at getting athletes information about the possibility of achievement high sports results without the use of banned drugs. To hold up as an example athletes of the early XX century, who showed very high results in heaving exercises without the doping use and solely due to a properly organized system of training, rest and nutrition.

4. The World Anti-Doping Code (2003) stipulates that the athlete himself is responsible for someone who trusts his/her health, but in practice he/she does not always know what is being introduced into his/her body. Mistakes of doctors or negligence of coaches could cost the athletes a career and earnings [10].

But, most importantly, mistakes could cost health, and even life. Besides some officials in power sports, coaches and sports doctors are of the opinion that the use of various prohibited drugs does not contradict sporting ethics and does not lead to deterioration of health status, as well as premature functional deterioration of physiological systems of the organisms.

To solve this problem, it is necessary to introduce administrative and, in cases of death of athletes as a result of doping, criminal liability of coaches and doctors for deliberately assigning banned drugs to athletes in the category of doping.

5. The uncontrolled sale of banned drugs related to doping has acquired a very wide scope in Kazakhstan at this time.

It is known that the main part of the drugs of the doping series was originally developed not for use in sports, but for the treatment of various diseases. Accordingly, the offtake was carried out through the pharmacy network under the condition of appointment by a doctor.

At the end of the 1980s, only four drugs belonging to the category of the androgenic-anabolic series were introduced in the pharmacy network of Kazakhstan, which were most widely used in power sports:

methandrostenolone (produced in Russia), retabolyl (active substance nandrolone dekochnoate, Hungary), sustanon (active substance-group of testosterones with different duration, India), omnadren (active substance-group of testosterones with different duration, Poland). There was no somatotropin (growth hormone) in the pharmacy network, gonadotropin was sold, but not in all pharmacies. Undoubtedly, there was also a "black market" of these drugs; the sale of medicines without prescriptions was usually handled by the pharmacy network workers.

Currently, the market of anabolic and androgen drugs in Kazakhstan also have a double structure: the pharmacy network and the "shadow business". If in the pharmacy network today there are only repatabol, sustanon and omnadren from the drugs of the androgenic-anabolic series and gonadotropin, then the

"black market" is simply reloaded with drugs. In the "black market" there are all known for today drugs used to grow power indicators, both the androgenic-anabolic and somatotropin. Especially popular are such drugs as stanozolol, methandrostenolone, oxandrolone, turinabol, various types of testosterone, both in mono (cypionate, enanthate, propionate), and in a multicomponent form (sustanon, omnadren). On sale there are also so-called "mixes", when several active substances are mixed in one vial. Most of the drugs produced in China, is imported illegally. The main stream arrives by mail, through Internet orders.

Supplies and sales in Kazakhstan are carried out by citizens of completely different professions, but they often have a direct or indirect connection with the sport. The "black market" of banned drugs in sports is absolutely uncontrolled at this time and is a serious problem.

To solve this problem, first of all, it is necessary to introduce administrative responsibility for the illegal importation and sale of banned drugs. The customs authorities and sanitary services should control imported illegal drugs by private persons and receiving goods through the postal network through Internet orders.

Unconscious factors of doping. In addition to the above reasons for the use of prohibited drugs, also at doping tests of athletes the presence in the body of substances, belonging to the category of doping using by the so-called unconscious factors, is revealed:

1st factor - use in sports of biologically active additives (BAA). In the world practice, cases when BAAs have in their structure forbidden substances of anabolic series and ephedrine are known, while the

information presented on the packs of does not reflect the actual content of the active substances. As it is known in Kazakhstan, the process of registration of BAAs is of a simplified nature, since they do not refer to medicinal products, respectively, their content, therapeutic effect, presence of side effects and contraindications is not subjected to a full analysis.

To exclude the 1st factor, it is necessary for athletes, coaches, sports physicians to exclude the use of insufficiently researched BAAs in sports practice, which can carry a potential threat.

2nd factor - athletes in power sports in a large enough quantity use in the diet meat of large and small cattle, as well as poultry meat for the full provision of the body with high-quality, high-grade protein. As it is known, meat producers not only in Kazakhstan, but all over the world, for a long time actively use anabolic drugs to accelerate the weight gain of animals. Actually, many drugs with an anabolic effect in their time came into the sport from veterinary medicine. At this time, in Kazakhstan, no trading network, both supermarkets and small shops and markets, even in the presence of veterinary laboratories, conducts test analyzes for the content of preparations accelerating the weight gain of animals in meat products.

Unfortunately, the exclusion of this factor from the category of threats to be caught in the doping use is almost impossible at this stage of livestock development in Kazakhstan and the state of veterinary control; it remains to hope for a better situation in the future.

3rd factor - As many sportsmen in power sports often suffer from various kinds of sports injuries (including chronic ones), doctors recommend for use any medicinal products that exert on the body not only a therapeutic (therapeutic) effect, but also give a certain level of stimulation of the physiological systems of the organism. Even the treatment of an elementary cough at cold, and a number of cough preparations containing ephedrine (for example, broncholitin) in the market, can be a very big problem for athlete in the future.

In the presence of 3 factors, it is impossible to assign responsibility only to medical workers. The athlete is interested and obliged to inform the doctor about his/her sports practice, specialization in sports, and to inform that he/she will be subjected to the doping test in the future. Only with this approach it will be possible to minimize the danger of prescribing a drug containing prohibited substances.

Conclusions. The information presented by us points out the particular gravity of the problem of doping in power sports in Kazakhstan.

To solve this problem, an integrated approach, involving sports officials, educators, psychologists, coaches, doctors and lawyers, is needed based on:

- revision of competitive standards, both at the national and international levels;

- development and implementation of new training techniques that take into account the physiological capabilities of the athletes, especially in children and youth sports;

- psychological training of athletes aimed at excluding the practice of using information on the positive use of banned drugs by athletes in the past;

- introduction to legislative system of Kazakhstan of legal responsibility for the distribution of banned drugs in sports and attracting athletes to doping;

- the maximum reduction in the turnover of illicit drugs in the "black market" due to the strengthening of customs control, increasing legal liability for the import and sale of doping drugs;

- adoption of legislative norms for registration of BAAs in Kazakhstan that would ensure proper control over their production, import from abroad and, most importantly, compliance with the prescription for medical reasons;

- establishment of appropriate veterinary supervision ensuring control over the production, import and sale of meat products, which would guarantee the complete absence of prohibited substances in meat.

The biggest disappointment for athletes is to lose to those who used dope. High sports achievements without doping are possible, but they will cost several times more expensive than sports with the use of banned drugs. From the economic point of view, this requires additional expenses, but from the point of view of the development of sports, this is the only way that will allow not only to show high performan- ces, but also to maintain the level of health and sports longevity of athletes.

REFERENCES [1] https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/doping

[2] Platonov V.N. The fight against doping in Olympic sports: crisis and ways to overcome // Science in the Olympic sport.

2016. N 2. Р. 64-90.

In document Х А Б А Р Ш Ы С Ы (бет 39-46)