• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

The technique of conducting a quality audit with the lowest labor costs, which includes the testing procedures of accounting systems and internal controls related to factoring transactions, as well as a list

A. D. Chelekbai,

4. The technique of conducting a quality audit with the lowest labor costs, which includes the testing procedures of accounting systems and internal controls related to factoring transactions, as well as a list

of audit procedures on the merits and risks of factoring transactions from the perspective of the auditor.

For applications in the international practice of the concept of risk-based audit focuses on the analysis of the auditor of the client, the allocation of areas with a high level of risk and of the fi nancial statements, which, according to the professional judgment of the auditor, the high probability of error or fraud.

Figure 2 – Audit factoring operations Note: according to the source [1]

Thus, the modern approach to the audit based on a detailed study of the system of risk management and internal control system and the client using the results obtained in the planning and execution of audit procedures.

At this point, you can highlight the following features of the factoring industry:

– improvement of the regulatory framework;

– optimization of the risk management system;

– reducing the number of factors.

These trends auditor will need to consider at all stages of the audit, as their analysis can identify areas of risk.

Among the main problems include:

– the lack of a specifi c law, "factoring" and the defi nition of "the facts of the Ring" in Russian legislation;

– lack of clear allocation of rights and obligations between the parties factoring relations;

– uncertainty as to the essential terms of the factoring agreement;

– inconsistent jurisprudence on emerging disputes and a number of other.

Operational risks.

In the emerging legislation auditor should carefully examine the current regulatory framework, to assess the skill level of the legal service of the audited entity to analyze the use of standard contracts (possibly with the help of outside experts). For example, the presence of fundamental importance in the standard material terms of the contract, since the absence of one or more of them, this contract may be declared null and void on the suit customer or client.

An important feature of the factoring business is dependent on the results of the risk management system.

Unlike manufacturing companies that may incur fi nancial loss as a result of illiteracy risk management and remain profi table with stable results from ordinary activities for the factors of risk management is a core business.

The practical experience of the author, and the analysis of the literature allowed us to determine the operational and fi nancial risks as the most critical types of risk factors characteristic of the Russian now.

According to the defi nition of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, operational risk is the risk of loss "resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events", which can be implemented at any stage of customer service - from the receipt of the application client to the fi nal payment factor in the amount of funding. It should highlight the relevance of operational risk for the Russian factor in the absence of signifi cant experience of factoring and qualifi ed personnel, the current stage of development, implementation and improvement of information systems and business process optimization.

Detection risk

financial Risks



Financial Risks.As part of the fi nancial risk, in our opinion, for the factoring companies are the relevant market and the credit and liquidity risks.

Market risk is the risk of financial loss resulting from changes in market factors.

It includes the following species:

– interest rate risk is the probability of fi nancial loss as a result of changes in interest rates. Increases the probability of the risk in diffi cult economic conditions.

– currency risk is the probability of fi nancial losses due to fl uctuations in exchange rates. Factoring companies for currency risk is relevant in view of the current practice of attracting relatively cheap.

To further the investigation of the return predictive power of MSVF, we perform stock-level Fama–MacBeth regressions where stock returns are regressed on MSVF and a set of control variables.

Western loans in foreign currency, while the fi nance clients are in Russian rubles. Features of factoring companies do not allow the methods to copy the entire bank credit analysis in view of the large number of potential borrowers and limited information about their fi nancial and economic standing. Furthermore, factoring in its nature is a tool of unsecured fi nancing. Liquidity risk in respect of factoring companies is the risk associated with the loss of opportunity to timely and fully service its obligations, including the provision of funding applications received. Audit procedures In addition to validation reporting auditor should express an opinion regarding the continuity of the factoring company. Therefore, after analyzing the main risks to which the factoring company, we have proposed a number of audit procedures for the audit of fi nancial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards:

1) documentation of key business processes, processes of receiving, processing and storage of information, verifi cation of job descriptions;

2) the study of the risk management policy and its implementation;

3) consideration of methods to reduce the level of risk (e.g., credit risk insurance, portfolio diversifi cation in terms of quality, setting limits on the client / customer / invoice amount, separation of powers decision makers in addressing the fi nancing of the debtor and the establishment of internal controls);

4) the study of the pricing policy and its relations with the risk management policy (for example, the possibility of increasing the fee for factoring services when the refi nancing or general market conditions);

5) the study of monetary policy;

6) interviews with management and employees;

7) an analysis of fi nancial statements (the level of outstanding debt and the pace of its growth, liquidity, including the undiscounted cash fl ows, capital adequacy);

8) to determine strategies to attract fi nancing and refi nancing of current liabilities;

9) an analysis of transactions with related parties;

10) analysis of the scoring system of evaluation of potential customers (debtors);

11) analysis of the admissibility of the assumptions used in the calculation of the provision for impairment and the need for a further adjustment to current market conditions;

12) verifi cation of compliance with standards established by the major creditors;

13) evaluation of the quality of the investment portfolio;

14) analysis of the ratio of fi nancial performance factor with the average;

15) analysis of the events after the balance sheet date (for example, the deterioration of payment discipline debtors);

16) study of the minutes of the meeting of shareholders, board of directors and management;

17) a detailed study of non-standard operations and the understanding of their nature.

The practical signifi cance of the study lies in the fact that the author’s audit methodology can be used by audit fi rms to reduce audit risk and improve the effi ciency of the audit by improving the quality of planning, evaluation of the system of accounting and internal control systems of the factoring company, optimizing labor costs, as well as to prepare and training of auditors, accountants and employees of Internal Oversight Services.


In the last decade, factoring shows signifi cant growth and is an additional source of funding for companies.

Due to the fact that the product is becoming more and more popular, the need to develop a methodology

for the audit of factoring operations. Audit factoring companies’ and the factor of banks, as well as other commercial companies is held in accordance with the requirements of auditing standards and international auditing standards. However, the specifi cs of factoring operations necessitates an integrated approach to the defi nition, the appropriate audit procedures. In this regard, the study were posed and solved the problem, aimed at developing methods of conducting audits of factoring operations.

The peculiarity of the factoring business is its high transaction. Therefore, the necessity of testing a combination of internal controls and substantive procedures of checking factoring requirements and provisions made for their impairment. As a result, we proposed a detailed audit procedures to verify the functioning of the internal controls, and to design audit procedures that are present in the audit program factoring requirements, conformity assessment factor going concern.

In addition to the primary audit objective is to confi rm the reliability of the fi nancial statements in the context of macroeconomic instability, the actual problem is confi rmation going concern factor. After analyzing national and international experience of fi nancial analysis, the author proposed a set of coeffi cients, allowing the auditor to evaluate the potential of further functioning factor, as well as a program of audit procedures designed to confi rm this assumption. Was justifi ed by the sequence of audit procedures and an algorithm for their performance when checking factoring transactions that meet the requirements of the rules (standards) of auditing and international auditing standards. The proposed audit methodology can be applied both in legal or audit initiative, and at special assignment, for example, in assessing the quality of the portfolio of factoring requirements.

Список литературы

1 Алексеев Д.Г. Отменить лицензирование факторинговых операций // Факторинг и документар- ные операции. – 2009. – № 2. – С. 32-46.

2 Алексеева Е.В. Бухгалтерский учет оценочных резервов: дисс. канд. эк. наук. – СПб.: Санкт- Петербургский гос. универ., 2005. – 184 с.

3 Аманжолова B.A., Лищук E.H. Аудит и аналитические процедуры // Аудиторские ведомости. – 2010. – № 3. – С. 55-65.

4 Аманжолова Б.А. Наумова A.B. Планирование аудита с аналитическими процедурами // Ауди- торские ведомости. – 2004 . – № 8. – С. 42-56.

5 Андреев В.Д. Практический аудит (справочник). – М.: Экономика, 1994. – 365 с.

6 Астахов К.В. Разработка и внедрение системы управления банком // Управление финансовыми рисками. – 2000. – № 4. – С. 290-307.

7 Аудит: учебник для студентов вузов, обучающихся по экономическим специальностям. / Под ред. В. И. Подольского. – М.: ЮНИТИ – ДАНА, 2008 . – 744 с.

8 Аппакова Г.Н. Модернизация аудиторской проверки экспортных операций // ҚазЭУ хабаршысы / Вестник КазЭУ. – 2011. – № 1 (79). – С. 175-179.

9 Варавин Е.В., Солтанмуратова А.К. Проблемы формирования и аудита консалидированной фи- нансовой отчетности // ҚазЭУ хабаршысы / Вестник КазЭУ. – 2010. – № 2 (74). – С. 476-483.


1 Alekseev D.G. (2009), "Otmenit’ litsenzirovanie faktoringovykh operatsii", Faktoring i dokumentarnye operatsii, Vol. 2, pp. 32-46. (In Russian)

2 Alekseeva E.V. (2005), "Bukhgalterskii uchet ot senochnykh rezervov", Sankt-Peterburgskiigos.

univer.,St. Petersburg. (In Russian)

3 Amanzholova B.A., Lishchuk E.H. (2010), "Audit i analiticheskie protsedury", Auditorskie vedomosti, Vol. 3, pp. 55-65. (In Russian)

4 Amanzholova B.A., Naumova A.B. (2004), "Planirovanie audita s analiticheskimi protsedurami", Auditorskie vedomosti, Vol. 8, pp. 42-56. (In Russian)

5 Andreev V.D. (1994), Prakticheskii audit, Ekonomika, Moscow. (In Russian)

6 Astakhov K.V. (2000), "Razrabotka i vnedrenie sistemy upravleniya bankom", Upravlenie fi nansovym i riskami, Vol. 4, pp. 290-307. (In Russian)

7 Podol’skiiV.I. (2008), Audit, YuNITI–DANA, Moscow. (In Russian)

8 Appakova G.N. (2011), "Modernizatsiya auditorskoi proverki eksportnykh operatsii", KazEU khabarshysy / Vestnik KazEU, Vol. 1 No. 79, pp. 175-179. (In Russian)

9 Varavin E.V., Soltanmuratova A.K. (2010), "Problemy formirovaniya i audita konsalidirovannoi fi nansovoi otchetnosti", KazEU khabarshysy / Vestnik KazEU, Vol. 2 No. 74, pp. 476-483. (In Russian)


Мақала авторы депозиттік операциялар аудитін жетілдірудің əдістерін қарастырып, коммерциялық банкте депозиттік операциялардың ішкі аудитін іске асыру бойынша практикалық ұсыныстар бер- ген. Сондай-ақ автор коммерциялық банктердің ішкі ережелерін жетілдірудің негізінде ішкі аудиттің тиімділігін арттыруға əсер ететін тексерулер əдіснамасын əзірлеген.


В статье автор рассматривает методы совершенствования аудита депозитных операций, и дает практические рекомендации по осуществлению внутреннего аудита депозитных операций в коммер- ческом банке. Автором разработана методология проверок, которые повысили бы эффективность вну- треннего аудита в коммерческих банках на основе совершенствования ее внутреннего распорядка.

Материал поступил в редакцию11.12.2013 г.

JEL classifi cation:H2: Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue; H21: Effi ciency; Optimal Taxation M.S. Nurmaganbetova,

DBA, senior Lecturer,

Kazakh-Russian International University, Aktobe, The Republic of Kazakhstan



Purpose – The article focused on determining the main directions and ways of improving the tax administration and to consider the methods, forms and principles of tax administration in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Methodology – In this article tax statistics were used and include such methods as statistical observation, clustering and consolidating of observation data, methods of initial statistical processing of data, induction and deduction.

Originality/value – the importance of conducted research consist in studying by author the activities carried out by the tax authorities in the fi eld of tax administration. Studied activities directed to the ensuring the full and timely tax collection and other obligatory payments as well as to conduct tax audit and tax law violators.

Findings – after conducting the research author made conclusions that the main direction for improvement the tax administration in the Republic of Kazakhstan is improvement of tax administration effi ciency. Tax authorities need to carry out actions to simplify and minimize the tax reporting with transition of economic entities to full electronic reporting regime.

Keywords – tax administration, tax control, taxpayer, tax loading, tax audit, tax planning.

U.D.C. 336.2 (574)

М.С. Нурмаганбетова, DBA, ст. преподаватель,

Казахско-русский Международный университет, Актобе, Республика Казахстан



Цель исследования – определить основные направления и пути совершенствования налогового ад- министрирования в Республике Казахстан, рассмотреть методы, формы и принципы налогового адми- нистрирования.

Методология – в данной работе автором использованы следующие научные методы исследования:

анализ, наблюдение, сравнение, а также метод абстрагирования, методы индукции и дедукции.

Оригинальность/ценность – ценность работы состоит в том, что при подготовке материала авто- ром изучены мероприятия, проводимые органами налоговой службы в сфере налогового администри- рования. Эти мероприятия направлены на обеспечение полного и своевременного сбора налогов и других обязательных платежей, а также на проведение налогового контроля и наказания нарушителей налогового законодательства.

Выводы – основным направлением совершенствования налогового администрирования в респу- блике является повышение эффективности налогового администрирования. Налоговым органам не- обходимо проводить мероприятия по упрощению и минимизации налоговой отчетности с переходом хозяйствующих субъектов на полный режим электронной отчетности.

Ключевые слова – налоговое администрирование, налоговый контроль, налогоплательщик, налого- вая нагрузка, налоговый аудит, налоговое планирование.

One of the main instruments of carrying out state economic policy is taxes. Ensuring receipts taxes completeness of tax revenue and other obligatory payments in the budget is impossible without creating effective tax service. The structure of tax service in Republic of Kazakhstan includes bodies of tax service, customs authorities, and local executive bodies [1].

Activity of tax authorities in the sphere of tax administration is directed on ensuring full and timely taxation and other obligatory payments according to the legislation of Kazakhstan Republic, and also on carrying out tax control and punishment of violators of the tax legislation. That is tax administration represents one of instruments of carrying out the tax, and also the general budgetary economic policy of the country.

Tax administration is a dynamically developing control system of the tax relations which coordinates activity of tax authorities in the conditions of market economy and provides realization of a tax policy of the state [2].

Tax administration is the most socially expressed sphere in which the state interacts with the population and business. Improving the quality of tax administration and toughening tax discipline - necessary measures for formation of state revenues in the conditions of the market relations [3].

Shortcomings or defects of tax administration can lead to drop of taxes revenues and other obligatory payments in the budget, increase probability of tax offenses, fi nally lead to negative consequences of economy development of our country.

In this regard, the current technology of tax administration will be defi ned by the following principles:

– Independent declaring by the taxpayer of taxable base and the added sum of a tax;

– The “benevolent” environment of interaction of tax authorities with taxpayers;

– Continuous, reliable and effective control of charge correctness and taxes payment promptitude and other obligatory payments by taxpayers[4].

Today tax administration of RK came to qualitatively new stage of development; a number of large-scale reforms has already been realized.

Since January 1 2009 the new Code of Kazakhstan Republic “About taxes and other obligatory payments in the budget” (the Tax Code) which promotes modernization and economy diversifi cation, a business exit from “shadow” took effect.

In the new Tax code it is provided:

– Drop of the general loading on not raw sectors of economy;

– Creation of the conditions promoting modernization and diversifi cation of economy;

– Improving conditions for business at the expense of improvement of tax administration and simplifi cation of tax procedures [5].

Complexity and rigid centralizing the organization of tax administration have different impact on economic subjects – taxpayers, stimulate their economic development by means of different methods.

Tax administration is carried out on the basis of the following forms and methods (tab. 1):

Table 1– Methods and forms of tax administration[6]

Methods of tax administration Form of tax administration

Tax planning Tactical

- assessment of tax capacity of the region - adoption of the budget for taxes - development of control tasks

- defi nition of share distribution of rates and privileges 2. Strategic

Tax regulation 3. Systems of tax incentives 3.1. Change of tax payment term - optimization of tax rates - system of tax privileges

- cancellation of advance payments - reduction of tax obligations - drop of the tax rate size

3.2. Granting the tax or investment tax credit 3.3. Granting delay or payment by installments 4. System of sanctions

- the fi nancial - the administrative criminal

Tax control - registration and accounting of payers - reception and reporting processing

- the accounting of taxes revenues and the added sums - control of timely payments

- tax checks

- realizing the materials of check

- control of realizing materials of check and payment of the added sanctions

Not only specialized bodies participate in controlling tax processes. All bodies of legislative and executive power, the Constitutional court of RK, scientifi c personnel of branches of institutes, higher education institutions, and also public organizations are involved in it - such as, for example, Public association of protecting the rights of taxpayers. Also law enforcement agencies, auditor, lawyer and consulting legal services infl uence tax interactions of payers and the state. Their activity is also, part of managing the tax relations [7].

The tax administration based on rules of the tax right and supplementing them, from the theorist - the practical point of view it is possible to call some kind of rod of the tax mechanism. Norms of the tax right allow organizing rational system of tax administration, to extend it to all tax mechanism[8].

Development of the market relations gives to controlling the taxation other economic sense. Controlling gradually leaves a static condition and starts reacting to various changes of tax legal interactions. In this regard, the system of the taxation gains indicative properties. Not receipting tax payments in the budget can signal about the following:

– operating tax norms ceased to meet requirements of reproduction and they should be subjected audits;

– Tax administrations lost ability to carry out monitoring tax revenues and to block possibilities of leaving from taxes;

– Integration processes amplifi ed, and there is a need of developing tax administrations of the foreign tax legislation, and also the international rules of the contracts conclusion about avoidance of the double taxation[9].

Such signals cause necessity revising the methods of internal revenue service. There is a need for changing structures and functions of the tax administrations, the directed tax policy and methodical bases of tax production that becomes the reason of accepting cardinal measures, up to carrying out the next stage of tax reform [10].

For optimizing development and improvement of tax administration it is necessary to designate the principles of creating tax system. The modern principles of creating tax system and the organization of a tax policy are divided into three groups:

– Organizational, refl ecting administrative management by taxation process (generality, uniformity, fl exibility);

– Economic, defi ning impact of taxes on economy (effi ciency, profi tability);

– Legal, refl ecting legislative base of the tax relations (unity, stability, defi niteness) [11].

The head of state in 2012 in “Strategy “Kazakhstan – 2050”: new political policy of the state” new reference points are designated.

One of tasks is liberalization of tax administration, simplifi cation and minimization of the tax reporting with stage-by-stage transition of managing subjects to a full mode of the electronic reporting [12].

For improving methods of tax administration by means of new information technologies in tax system of Kazakhstan introduction and development of the main information systems on electronic processing of the tax reporting, automatic maintaining personal accounts of taxpayers, the accounting of objects of the taxation for the purpose of control over correctness of calculation of taxes proceeds.

For example, since January 1, 2013 in the republic electronic registration of the rights to real estate that led to cutting-down terms of registration till 1 day is entered.

Following the results of 2012 of 85% of the tax reporting it is presented in electronic form[13].

Regarding convenience to taxpayers on obtaining information it is planned to create a situational site on search of taxpayers. This site will be public and will allow all without an exception to government bodies, banks of the second level and subjects of business to use data on unfair taxpayers.

Besides, since1 January 2013 on an alternative basis through the CSP service in issue of data on lack of a tax debt is provided. This service is completely automated and it is in electronic form by means of information systems of tax authorities and a portal of “the electronic Government”. And also, in a pilot mode two socially signifi cant tax services are brought into operation:

– Registration accounting of IB, lawyer, private notary, private judicial performer;

– Issue of the IB patent[14].

Today in the Republic the basic infrastructure which is supported and develops is created. The system consists of the components which are in a complex realizing the main functions, carried out by tax authorities:

registration of taxpayers, reception of the tax reporting, account, tax audit.

Thus, the main direction of improving tax administration in the republic is strengthening administration of taxation that will allow further drop of tax burden and ensuring economic and political stability of the state, improving investment climate in the country.