ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ
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IMPROVING THE WORKING MOBILITY SYSTEM AS A METHOD OF ACCOUNTING ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE
Y. Abraham, Y. Tkal
Sumy National Agricultural University, Sumy, Ukraine e-mail: email@example.com
Annotation. Article is devoted to the research of practical and theoretical aspects of staff management system. The entity and the place of labour motivation in management are shown in the article;
the approaches to the solution of staff motivation problems, that are applied at Ukrainian and foreign enterprises, were researched; the main methods of the material and non-material motivation as well as their impact on the activity of the enterprise’s personnel were studied; socio-economic base of personnel’s efforts enhancing, directed on the motivation improvement, was researched.
The socio-economic events of the current motivation system improvement were developed on the basis of the obtained results of the research in order to increase the effectiveness of the labour resources usage and to improve the economic results of the companies.
Key words: motivation, motivation system, methods of labour motivation, non-material motivating, material motivating, theories of motivation, stimulus, motive.
Introduction. The most effective way to ensure the efficient use of labor resources is to create a proper motivational mechanism in an organization that would meet the current economic and political conditions prevailing in Ukraine and be flexible to economic change. Formation and introduction of models of motivation at enterprises, allows the company to use resources as efficiently as possible, to realize their own capabilities, and to increase productivity and, consequently, increase profits.
Creating a motivational system at the enterprise means not only the desire of the management to increase profits, but also indicates a careful attitude towards employees. The attitude of company management to its employees determines the image of any company. Therefore, the right motivational system can provide a positive image for the company, and properly motivated employees can be a guarantee of the company's success. The modern market system provides for the use of various forms of motivation.
Methods. The level of motivation is a measure that characterizes workers' motivatedness, their desire for work to achieve both personal goals and goals of the company.
The graph-analytic method can be used to evaluate the obtained parameters. The value of the resulting indicator determines the length of the vector, forming a pentagon of labor motivation (Fig. 1). If the values of all the resulting indicators are in the range of 1 to 2, the level of motivation is high if all the indicators are in the range of 1-0.5 - the level of motivation is characterized as «average», the level of motivation is characterized as «low», when the values of the resulting parameters are in the range from 0 to 0.5 .
Fig. 1 – Pentagon of labor motivation Source: own development
0 0,5 1 1,5
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A hexagon may have the correct and incorrect shape. If the shape of the pentagon is correct – the organization equally uses the tools of motivation for all management functions. The wrong shape of a pentagon means that one vector is more developed than the other, or all vectors are developed in different ways. This testifies to the incomplete use of the potential of personnel motivation in the organization .
The level of labor motivation is determined by the integral index (M), whose value can range from 0 to 2.5, from 2.5 to 5, and from 5 to 10. If the integral value is 0 to 2.5, then this indicates a low level of motivation work The 2.5-5 range indicates an average level of motivation for work. A high level of motivation is achieved at a value of 5, but for some enterprises – from 7.
The problem of achieving the effect of labor motivation is relevant not only for countries with economies in transition; it is worried by progressive scientists and politicians, business leaders and managers all over the world. The economic effect of motivation in a context of intensifying competition is very important: the growth of wages, which occurs in accordance with the growth of labor productivity or somewhat ahead of it, creates favorable incentives for finding the most advanced competitive advantages .
At the same time, one can not underestimate the social effect of stimulus measures. Consequently, it is safe to assert that the effect of motivation of labor is economic and social dimensions. Therefore, the question arises about the definition of the main criteria for assessing their effectiveness.
The performance indicators of staff motivation methods affect all economic performance of the company. For example, economic indicators can affect company revenue, costs, profitability, profit, etc. (Fig.
Fig. 2 – System of indicators of efficiency of methods of personnel motivation Source: own development
Determining the level of personnel motivation can be objective only if the optimal set of parameters is taken into account that meets all conditions of completeness and efficiency. It is necessary to form such a number of parameters that would fully be able to characterize the level of motivated staff in the organization, taking into account the main components of the motivation of the worker. The main components of the employee's motivation are the desire to be «part of the enterprise», to carry out work and the direction to improve the performance of work .
An important stage in assessing the effectiveness of the mechanism of motivation of staff is preparatory. The correctness of the data depends on the correct setting of the purpose, the chosen evaluation methods, the toolkit, and the technology for collecting and processing information. The peculiarity of the stage of evaluation of the effectiveness of the mechanism of motivation of staff is the combination of information, analytical and practical components. The information component provides data collection and processing for meeting needs; analytical – evaluation of results and comparison according to certain criteria; practical – making a decision on the results of the evaluation on the need to make adjustments to the existing mechanism.
There are a number of methods by which you can get all the necessary data on the level of achievement of the goals of the company and its employees. Each method has its drawbacks and advantages.
However, one of the most acceptable methods for achieving research goals is the method of interviewing experts .
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Experts can be employees of the management system organization, which has all the necessary information about the level of satisfaction of the objectives of the enterprise .
At the preparatory stage of the study, it is necessary to develop criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the motivational mechanism. Under the criterion of effectiveness should be understood as a measure of efficiency, which selected certain means to achieve the task. When developing a criterion, one should take into account a number of rules: first, the name of the criterion should correspond to its essence; and secondly, the criterion should be clear and understandable, and it should be consistent with a specific goal and promote the support of certain strategies or initiatives .
In addition, it is worth determining whether the definition of this aspect of effectiveness is possible. If so, then with the help of which methods. It is advisable to establish whether it is possible to express a criterion in mathematical terms, to write a formula, to understand the measurement system, or whether it is clear what data are necessary for calculations. It is also necessary to establish how accurate the data will be obtained, whether some loss of their detail is permissible, to determine how often such calculations should be made;
determine whether this frequency is sufficient to track the impact of measures to improve metrics; According to the criterion of completeness it is necessary to create such a number of parameters that would fully characterize the motivation level of the company's workforce, that is, it covered three main components of motivation: the desire to be an employee of this organization, to carry out its work and to try to perform it as high quality as possible.
Results and discussion. Motivation of labor can be regarded as one of the main means for increasing the efficiency of using enterprise resources. The purpose of the motivation is to obtain the maximum returns from the company's labor resources, which, in turn, can lead to increased productivity and increased profitability of the company. Material factors do not always play a major role for workers, but in this period, the monetary compensation can be considered the most effective way of motivating.
One of the reserves for improving the efficiency of the system of motivation is the improvement of wage systems, since wages play an important role in the system of motivational mechanism. However, pay is a motivating factor only when it is directly related to the results of labor. The application of this method may be useful in achieving short-term increases in labor productivity. Further, some overlays or addictions to this kind of influence may occur. Motivated payment systems based on cash benefits and the most widely used in Ukrainian enterprises are: incentive systems based on wages and rewards; system of employee interest in financial results.
Another reserve for improving the efficiency of the motivational system is improving the organization of work. Improving the organization of work involves setting goals, enriching labor, applying flexible schedules and improving working conditions.
Enrichment of labor involves providing a person with such work that would enable growth, creativity, responsibility, self-actualization, the inclusion in his duties of some functions of planning and control of product quality. Improving working conditions is one of the most acute problems of this time. The working conditions are not only a need, but also a motive that forces them to work with a certain return, can be both a factor and a consequence of a certain productivity of labor and its efficiency. Work in unsatisfactory sanitary conditions for a long period is unrealistic for a person. Correct organization of workplaces helps to increase labor productivity.
The next reserve for enhancing the effectiveness of the system of motivation is to improve the system of social privileges and guarantees that are of particular importance and complement the fulfillment of those obligations traditionally set aside for wages. Funds aimed at ensuring the social and domestic needs of workers, they are of great importance to them, since they are intended to satisfy the most essential needs, which would otherwise have to be paid independently. In this case, it is important to take into account the fact that, along with the satisfaction of these needs, the psychological impact on the worker creates additional motives, the strength of which depends on how confident he receives the benefits mentioned above the average norms established at the same time.
Non-material factors influence the formation of a proper attitude to work, for example, the content of labor, sanitary and hygienic conditions of work, etc. Significant role also belongs to status motivation. It is the internal motive power of behavior associated with the desire of the employee to take a higher position, to perform more complex and responsible work, to work in the field of activity that is considered prestigious or socially significant.
One more recommendation to improve the motivation of the personnel is the formation of the interest of employees in the delegation of their authority. It is necessary to establish the dependence of the remuneration of workers with the strategic objectives of the enterprise, since in this case, the employees will work to achieve the goals set by the company and will be personally interested in their achievement.
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The existing system of motivation is more based on the use of penalties and fines for shortcomings in the work. Of course, such methods can be considered the best way to regulate the workforce behavior of staff, but they can lead to staff turnover, conflicts and misunderstandings between management and employees.
Therefore, the enterprise needs to pay more attention to positive methods of motivation.
In order to improve the motivation system, a model that could be used to improve motivation means can be applied. The proposed model is shown in Fig. 3.
The basic means of motivation contribute to satisfying the needs of the first level, and additional means provide the opportunity to realize the spiritual and intellectual potential of the employee. Based on the developed concepts and models of improvement of the means of motivation, it is possible to create a complex program, whose mission will be to create an effective system of personnel motivation that would be able to increase the business activity of employees on the basis of their disclosure potential.
Fig. 3 – Model of improvement of means of motivation of labor Source: own development
The main goal of the program is to increase the interest of the personnel in high-performance work and to develop the system of compensatory payments. In the process of realization of this model, it is possible to get results in the areas of personnel assessment and remuneration. Thus, the implementation of the program will make it possible to link the material incentive of the employee with his contribution to the final result; will increase the share of indirect compensation and non-traditional remuneration.
The development of such a program is designed for a long-term period. The whole program should take several stages. At the first stage, it is necessary to plan the development and further implementation of the program for improvement of the basic means of motivation of the personnel of the enterprise. The first stage also includes the development of a program for improving the basics of motivation, the implementation of the program within the department, the revision of the program to eliminate all identified deficiencies and the implementation of the program throughout the enterprise.
Well established relationships in the team – this is the main condition for the success of the company.
A properly constructed system of employee labor motivation can lead to a number of positive results: to increase responsibility for decision-making; to improve the quality of work in the group; to improve the efficiency of labor; to improve the psychological readiness of workers to work in stressful conditions.
When motivating employees, it is worth paying attention to working conditions, although they are not a motivating factor according to the theory of F. Hertzberg. Nevertheless, good working conditions are capable of creating a positive psychological mood of workers, inducing them to work. In addition, poor working conditions lead to a sharp decline in labor motivation.
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Consequently, the motivation of the work of staff is an actual and complex process that requires adoption of a complex of decisions, requires a systematic approach and the application of a number of methods of material and immaterial nature. Ensuring economic sustainability of the company is based on the application of material and moral motives and incentives to enhance the work of staff. Such events will help increase the productivity and profit growth of enterprise, which will improve the financial position of the company's employees.
The essence of labor motivation is to create a system of incentives that would be able to best meet all staff needs and interest employees in improving their activities. A good system of motivation includes creating good working conditions, fair wages and a number of non-material incentives.
Сonclusion. The essence and significance of the problem, its place in the management system were studied; popular approaches to solving the problem of personnel motivation have been analyzed, which have become widely used at domestic and foreign enterprises; the main methods of assessing the effectiveness of a company's motivational system are described and summarized. It can be argued that the motivation problem for personnel is a complex category that is diverse in scope, which makes it impossible to create a universal approach to its solution.
Now the problem of motivation of personnel is given considerable attention in large companies by developing a system of incentives of material and immaterial nature. Over time, the motivational system evolved. Initially, the emphasis was mainly on material incentives as the main driving force, which makes people improve the efficiency of their work. Subsequently, the material nature of the stimulus came from non- material factors, which began to pay even more attention than material, arguing that after some time the employee will begin to take material reward as due, reducing his productivity. It should be noted that the tangible and intangible factors of the motivation of the work of the staff do not exclude each other. Therefore, all this together demands from enterprises the development of such a system of motivation, which would combine elements of tangible and intangible incentives.
Thus, a good system of personnel motivation at the enterprise should include elements of material incentives, not forgetting about non-material incentives. When creating an effective motivational system, social and economic conditions should be taken into account. The unstable economic situation in which Ukraine is located cannot but affect the motives of people, so when creating a system of incentives, more attention should be paid to material incentives.
Regarding the non-material motivation of the labor collective, it is often represented in the enterprise in the form of a reprimand. Despite this, the workers point out that the team has a good atmosphere, even despite the presence of a conflict situation. The company is encouraged to pay more attention to the status of employees' motivation, as many emphasize the importance of career advancement, which is completely absent from the enterprise.
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