problem of sustainable and efficient functioning of agro-industrial production and development of the food market in the context of interstate integration.
It should be noted that in conditions of development of market relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the above-mentioned trends also take place in the retail food trade, although the dynamics of development of these factors and the degree of their influence on marketing are ambiguous and are in constant motion.
In order to improve the quality of scientific and technological forecasting in the conduct of marketing research, it is important to use the method of foresight research. The methodology determines the procedure for conducting a marketing research on long-term scientific and technological forecasting of the development of the market of the agro industrial complex in the conditions of economic integration by foresight research.
Modern conditions of management require a qualitative improvement of the methodology of marketing research of scientific and technological forecasting for the long-term period.
Technological, industry and regional forecasts should become important elements of the marketing forecasting system. However, it is not enough to accumulate various forecasts – their methodology should meet international trends. One of the management tools that unites the positive aspects of the planned and market economy can be attributed to the foresight method, widely used in many developed and developing countries in the formation of scientific and technical policy .
Foresight researches can serve as a basis in the selection of priorities implemented within the framework of major national and international programs of scientific, technical and innovative development of the agribusiness sectors. In the world practice, foresight has already turned from an instrument aimed at identifying technological trends into an independent, actively developing scientific activity covering a wide range of research methods.
The following algorithm for carrying out foresight research on the development of the agro- industrial complex in the conditions of the EAPS is suggested, and it can be represented as a chain:
the goal – tasks – condition – alternatives – execution.
The purpose of conducting foresight research of the development of the agroindustrial complex branches is to identify a spectrum of necessary technologies and technological solutions that correspond to potentially probable variants of the “vision” of the future shape of the key sectors of the agro-market, to identify directions for inter-sector development taking into account integration trends.
In carrying out foresight research of scientific and technological forecasting of the development of the agribusiness sectors under the conditions of integration, it may include the following tasks:
a picture of the likely trends in the future development of the agribusiness sector, the challenges and opportunities for their resolution;
an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the scientific and technological development of the agro-industrial complex in the context of integration;
attracting new players to the process of discussing the problems of the development of the agribusiness sectors in the context of integration and the development of state policy in this area;
increasing the effectiveness of agrarian policy by better informing decision-makers about the long-term prospects for the development of industries;
an assessment of the technological capabilities of selected areas to improve the competitiveness of the agroindustrial complex in the world and domestic markets and the formation of sectoral strategies.
Fulfillment of works on carrying out foresight researches of agroindustrial complex branches in the conditions of integration requires the implementation of the following organizational measures:
definition of the long-term scientific and technological forecast operator for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the EEU;
creation of expert working groups on the research direction, formation and approval of the regulations of the work of expert working groups;
conducting activities aimed at the interaction of representatives of the scientific community, education, the real sector of the economy, business and government in the implementation of the study;
interaction of participants in the study of the evaluation of the efficiency of development of the agroindustrial complex branches in the conditions of the EEU with foreign experts in the field of long-term forecasting.
Further a combination of methods and tools for foresight research into the development of the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the EEU is determined:
an overview of information and literary sources;
an analysis of global trends, SWOT-analysis, structural analysis, determination of mega-trends;
questioning of experts, dolphi method, focus groups;
the construction of scenarios for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the EEU;
identification of priority technologies for the development of agro-industrial sectors in the conditions of the EEU;
development of technological road maps for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the EEU.
Based on the results of the foresight projects, road maps are being developed to determine the strategic priorities for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the conditions of the EEU – a structured set of indicators and tasks, the achievement of which leads to the achievement of a common goal and allows tracking the implementation of program activities.
Foresight is a relatively new marketing tool in Kazakhstan. The first scientific and technological foresight, which is unique in its content and tasks, was carried out by JSC “National Agency for Technological Development” in the period of 2010–2011. with the purpose of determining the strategic directions of development of Kazakhstan until 2020.
There is no sustainable practice of developing long-term priorities in the context of integration in the country yet. In order to concentrate available resources on the strategic priorities of the country, within the identified priority technological areas, that technologies are identified which can give an impetus to the further development of the agribusiness sectors and will allow them to be brought to a qualitatively new level.
The specificity of any national marketing, considered systematically, is determined by a complex of objective-subjective conditions that form the economic, political and social life of the country.
Such objective factors include: the size of the country’s territory, population, natural resources, economic, spiritual, historical and political potential. Subjective factors include the national character, historical events, type of family, national interests, ideals, other spiritual values, social achievements, preferential communication, national consumption and religion. Thus, each national marketing model has an original objective-subjective corridor, within which it is formed. This definitely applies to agromarketing systems of countries too.
There are American, Japanese, Scandinavian national marketing models. In the post-Soviet space, the Russian model of marketing activity was also recognized. The use of marketing in Kazakhstan also has more than 20 years of history and similar in content to the Russian model due to similar starting conditions and development conditions. This state of marketing meets the requirements of the integration process taking place within the framework of the EEU, when it usually involves states with approximately the same level of development .
The use of agromarketing led to the transition of the agrarian sphere of the economy to market relations, which, in turn, required the formation of a new economic mechanism of economic management that was adequate to the market. In marketing activities, the main role of the production and marketing activities of agribusiness enterprises, regardless of the form of ownership, should be determined by the consumer.
Practice shows that the complexity of the problems of getting out of the crisis is determined not only by the lack of experience in managing in the new conditions, but also by the weak validity of the conceptual support for transformations in the agrarian sphere. So far, even in the Russian marketing model recognized in the post-Soviet space, there are no well-developed approaches to the creation and development of federal and regional agromarketing systems, methodological developments in rational planning of marketing activities in the agribusinesses themselves, methods for assessing the economic effectiveness of marketing strategies implemented, etc. These circumstances have as a consequence large miscalculations in the strategies of agrarian policy of the state, regions and serious aggravation of social contradictions . At the same time, the provision of agricultural products by examples of Moscow and St. Petersburg is indicative, when almost every district of megacities owns retail trade
enterprises that offer agrofirm products. Wherein, the assortment of dairy products differs in their comparative variety. In these enterprises there is a choice of bakery products and pastries.
In the context of imposing sanctions of European countries on the supply of food products to Russia, there are proposals for a revival of consumer cooperation. This, in our view, is a tried and tested way in both Soviet and foreign practice not only to saturate the food market, but also the possibility of attracting the population’s funds, especially the rural population, in investing in the production of goods for it, on the one hand, and the broader formation of a layer of proprietors in the economy. It should also be considered as a way to expand the middle class in the country, which is in line with the strategic goals of sustainable development of countries in the world economy, the priority of stabilizing economic growth in the conditions of building a global economy. After all, as world practice shows, states and territories with average per capita income, allocated to a separate group according to the official analytical classification of the World Bank, are more stable in both political and economic development. It is noteworthy that this classification is not dogmatic and its methodology fixes changes during the fiscal year and is updated annually (updated statistics are usually published in October–November) .
The most important change in the classification of 2013 (2014 fiscal year – f.y.) is the transition of the Russian Federation to a group of high-income countries. Lithuania, Uruguay and Chile were also included for the first time to this group (Latvia was already a member of the group of high-income countries in 2011 f.y. and Antigua and Barbuda in 2010 f.y.) while Hungary returns to the group of countries with incomes above the average after staying in the group of high-income countries since in 2009 f.y. It is also noteworthy that after a large-scale revision of the data on Iraq, this country has risen to a group of countries with incomes above the average level .
October 7, 2015 in Lima (Peru) on the presentation of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund “The world at the stage of a major demographic transition with far-reaching consequences in the field of migration, poverty and global development” Shawn Nolan, who is a Deputy Director of the IMF Department for Strategy, Policy and Analysis, said: “The world economic environment is becoming less stable. Forecasts of economic growth were again revised downward, and this confirms our fears that the rate of economic growth may significantly decrease in many countries. To restore productivity growth, reforms are needed to increase the supply, while the main measures must be adapted to the situation in the country”.
To solve the problem of Kazakhstan joining the group of high-income countries, it was necessary to ensure the annual growth rate of the domestic economy at precisely 7% in real terms. It is noteworthy that oil prices were forecasted at the level of $ 80 in 2011, $ 70 per barrel in 2012–2015.
The similarity of the situation with the use of marketing in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan does not mean that there are no marketing methods for the branches of agriculture in the Republic of Kazakhstan. So, in the mid-1990s, the republic was working with the EU TACIS program, which resulted in monitoring prices for agricultural products. The marketing planning methodology at the fruit and vegetable enterprises was presented at one of the seminars of this project in and was included in the candidate’s thesis. The need for information and consulting support for domestic agricultural producers became the basis for the establishment on the basis of the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 28, 2003, № 220 JSC “Kazagromarketing”.
The main goal of JSC “Kazagromarketing” is to improve the level of agribusiness efficiency by providing broad access to agricultural information producers for information and consulting services.
To implement the state policy on the formation and development of a competitive and export-oriented agro-industrial complex in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 11, 2006 № 220 “On some issues of development of the agro-industrial complex” JSC
“National managing holding “Kazagro” was established. In December 2008, the commodity exchange
“Eurasian commodity system” was established in the Republic of Kazakhstan, where the exchange trade in grain takes place.
Nevertheless, the importance and relevance of theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the formation of marketing systems is still growing because in the agrarian sector of the economy it is traditionally difficult to implement anti-crisis programs, there is no proper assessment of the impact of structural transformations in the agro-industrial complex on the marketing activities of enterprises.
Until now, the interests of suppliers, intermediaries, agricultural producers and consumers of products have not been balanced .
Differences between agro-marketing systems of Kazakhstan and Russia from the agricultural system of Belarus justified the holding of the XII forum of interregional cooperation of the first two countries, the main theme of which was cooperation in the agro-industrial complex and ensuring food security.
The similarity of Kazakh marketing with the Russian one, which is also the integration basis of the economy of the two countries, means that the Russian model, a market management system developing at three levels, is acceptable in its implementation within the framework of the EEU agro- marketing system:
1) macroeconomic, ensuring the regulation of proportions between producers, consumers and needs in order to determine on this basis the priority directions of the agrarian policy of the integration grouping, including food security as a component of its economic and environmental security;
2) regional, ensuring the development of regional and interregional markets able to meet the needs of both the region and the EEU countries as a whole, on the basis of free equivalent exchange;
3) microeconomic, providing conditions for competitive marketing of individual firms and enterprises, both large, small and medium.
This model assumes that the agro-marketing of the EEU should integrate the commodity strategy with satisfying the needs for food and agricultural raw materials for other branches of the economy of the integration group.
As in all activities, national and international marketing models should be based in their development on the constant study and creative assimilation of world practical experience. From this point of view, the experience of EU agricultural policy is of interest.
The risk nature of the agricultural business can be considered justified in agro-marketing systems of PPPs. Even at the WTO level, this is taken into account when working out customs policies by individual regions and member countries of this organization. For the countries which are members of the Eurasian Economic Union, public-private partnership represents a new area of activity, the methodological foundations of which for the successful implementation of projects have not yet been sufficiently developed. At the same time, the effectiveness of the development of the Republic of Kazakhstan at present in many sectors will depend on this new instrument of economic development and modern models of interaction between business structures and state subjects.
As a result of the development of public-private partnership projects, problems arise in assessing the degree of socio-economic significance of projects, the level of their effectiveness with a view to making decisions on their implementation. This is also true for the agrarian sector of the economy that provides food security for the country.
Today, basic PPP models for the infrastructure sectors of the EEU have been developed. On their basis, a large number of combinations of their individual elements are possible. In each concrete case, when concluding an agreement for building a PPP model, it is necessary to proceed from the goals set by the partners, and their capabilities, primarily resource ones. Attention should be given to the ability of partners to attract new resources, their experience in successful implementation of projects, as well as the level of responsibility and trust of partners.
To integrate agromarketing systems, to ensure their balanced development, to prevent risks of introducing trade restrictions and to move towards partnership competition within the framework of the EEU, it is necessary: to substantiate the system and mechanism of effective marketing activity in the agrarian sphere of production at the level: enterprise – region of the country – country – ЕEU;
to develop scientific and practical recommendations on the introduction of effective methods for managing agro-marketing at the level of the EEU and a specific enterprise.
LIST OF LITERATURE
1 A Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Leader of the Nation Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan «Strategy «Kazakhstan–2050»: new political course of the state». – Astana, 2012. – December 14.
2 Sokolov А.V., Chulok А.А. Long-term forecast of scientific and technological development of Russia for the period up to 2013: key features and first results // Foresight. – 2012. – V. 6. – № 1. – Р. 12.
3 Padalkina L.S., Klochkov V.V., Tarasova S.V. and others. World Economy: stud. / published by I.P. Nikolayeva. – М.: Avenue, 2010. – 340 p.
4 Meshkova G.V. The development of agromarketing systems: the territorial and branch aspect:
abstract. … cand. econ. science – 08.00.05. – SPb: St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, 2008. – 19 p.
5 Vashanov V.A. Russia and the CIS: economic relations. – М.: Publishing house «ALVO», 2002. – 328 p.
6 Press release «New classification of countries». – [Electronic Resource]. – Access mode: http://www.
Аграрлық нарық басқа нарықтарға қарағанда неғұрлым күрделі, себебі аграрлық азық-түлік тауарлары- ның еркін қозғалысын ғана емес, сондай-ақ, технология, еңбек құралдары және басқалардың да еркін қозғалысына жағымды жағдай қалыптастыруды білдіреді. ЕЭО – өзара сауда-саттықта кедергілер жойылатын және біріздендірілетін интеграция нысаны. Мұндай жағдайда маркетинг заманауи аграрлық нарық, ша- руашылық етудің экономикалық механизмі және біріктірілген өзара қарым-қатынастың жаңа талаптарына сәйкес келетін маңызды элементі болып табылады, аталған жағдайда меншік нысанына қарамастан АӨК кә сіпорындарындағы маркетингтің өндірістік-өткізушілік рөлі тұтынушылармен анықталады. Тәжірибе көр сетіп отырғанындай, дағдарыстан шығу мәселелерінің күрделілігі, жаңа жағдайда шаруашылық ету тәжірибесінің болмауы ғана емес, сондай-ақ аграрлық салада қайта құруды қалыптастыратын тұжы- рымдамалық негіздің әлсіз болуы. Осы уақытқа дейін агромаркетингтің көп деңгейлі жүйесін құру және дамытуда пысықталған тәсілдер, АӨК кәсіпорындарында маркетинг қызметін рационалды жоспарлау бойынша әдістемелік әзірлемелер, жүзеге асырылатын маркетинг стратегиялардың экономикалық тиімділі гін бағалайтын әдістемелер және басқалар жоқ. Аграрлық ішкі кешені жүйесінің күрделілігі, серпінділігі және көпфункционалдығы, агронарықтың тұрақтылығын қамтамасыз ету процесіндегі шешілмеген аспектілердің болуы зерттеудің өзектілігін сипаттайды және оның қызмет ету тиімділігін жоғарылату бойынша бағыттарды әзірлеудің қажеттілігін негіздейді. Сәйкесінше, агроөнеркәсіптік өндірістің тұрақты және тиімді қызмет ету мәселелерін шешуде және мемлекетаралық интеграция жағдайында азық-түлік нарығын дамытуда жүйелі кешенді маркетингтік тәсілді талап етеді.
Кілт сөздер: агромаркетинг, агромаркетингтік жүйе, агробизнесті басқару, экономикалық интеграция, азық-түлік қауіпсіздігі.
Аграрный рынок – более сложный, чем другие рынки, так как подразумевает создание благоприятных условий для свободного продвижения не только агропродовольственных товаров, но и технологий, средств труда и др. ЕАЭС – это тесная форма интеграции, при которой барьеры во взаимной торговле будут от- менены и унифицированы. В этих условиях важнейшим элементом формирования нового, адекватного тре- бованиям современного аграрного рынка, экономического механизма хозяйствования и интеграционных взаимоотношений является маркетинг, при котором основная роль производственно-сбытовой деятельности предприя тий АПК независимо от форм собственности определяется потребителем. Практика показывает, что сложность проблем выхода из кризиса определяется не столько отсутствием опыта хозяйствования в новых условиях, сколько слабой обоснованностью концептуального сопровождения преобразований в аг- рар ной сфере. До сих пор нет проработанных подходов к созданию и развитию многоуровневой системы агромаркетинга, методических разработок по рациональному планированию маркетинговой деятельности в самих предприя тиях АПК, методики оценки экономической эффективности реализуемых маркетинговых стратегий и т.д. Сложность, динамичность и многофункциональность системы аграрного подкомплекса, наличие нерешенных аспектов в процессе обеспечения устойчивости агрорынка характеризуют актуальность исследования и обусловливают необходимость разработки направлений по повышению эффективности его функционирования. Следовательно, требуется системный комплексный маркетинговый подход к решению проблемы устойчивого и эффективного функционирования агропромышленного производства и развития продовольственного рынка в условиях межгосударственной интеграции.
Ключевые слова: агромаркетинг, агромаркетинговая система, управление агробизнесом, экономическая интеграция, продовольственная безопасность.