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Ways of leading society to mass media literacy

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БАҚ ЖӘНЕ ҚОҒАМ / THE MEDIA AND SOCIETY / СМИ И ОБЩЕСТВО

ХҒТАР 27.25.19

A.A. Irgusaeva O.I. Turzhan

L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan

*Corressponding author: onaigul_t@mail.ru

Ways of leading society to mass media literacy

in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, and other advanced countries of the world. Currently, all advanced countries pay great attention to media education, including media literacy. In the course of our research in this article, we have focused on getting certain conclusions based on logical theory or practice.

In general, the concepts of «media education»,

«media literacy», and «media culture» have developed in Kazakhstan together with Digital Kazakhstan. It should be noted that media education remains at the level of schools and universities. We do not yet fully understand the need for and importance of a new concept, a new direction. The lack of a special law in the field of media education, and the rejection of appropriate media education programs are evidence of this.

Discussion

Information civilization leads to a change in the spiritual life of a person, the ideology of society, ways to determine the content of education, and create new information educational technologies.

«Information society is a social and futurological concept that considers production and the use of scientific, technical, and other information as the main factor in the development of society; a society characterized by a high level of production and the interests of information and information services. Computer civilization, which has become one of the most cultured countries in the world, leads to changes in the human psyche, the ideology of society, ways to determine the content of education and create new information and educational technologies» [1]. At the same time, the process of creating a competent information society begins.

Researchers-scientists Z. Brzezinsky, D. Bell, A. Toffler laid the foundations of the concept of the information society. However, the concept of

«Information Society «is called by various names among scientists, such as K. Flexner» enlightened society», W. Beck,» threat Society», P. Drukker»

post-capitalist society», J. R. R. Tolkien. Soros used the meaning of «Open Society». W. Beck’s definition of» threat society» corresponds to our main point of view. Because the end of illiterate

use of information in the media space does not lead to anything good. Especially important is the formation of media literacy among young children and adolescents. After all, the future of the country is undoubtedly young people and a growing new generation.

According to Toffler, the most characteristic features of the information society are:

- elimination of all aspects of economic and social life from mass and standard characteristics;

- the intensity of changes taking place in society, and the high level of innovation [2]. That is, it is necessary to create an Air information society that can analyze the flow of news that is being exchanged in seconds, constantly changing information, find the necessary information from reliable sources and protect itself from malicious information.

In order to form a competent information society, it is necessary to address the issue of media literacy at the state level. To do this, the Ministry of Information and public development of the Republic of Kazakhstan should develop a draft «state program of mass media coverage of the population of Kazakhstan» and submit it to the government for approval and adoption of a resolution. In accordance with this adopted decree of the government, it is possible to implement the state program through the Departments of internal policy in local executive bodies, considering ways to distribute it.

Now in the country, there is a tendency to consider the sphere of media education as a direction of pedagogy. This is, in our opinion, a very erroneous, erroneous conclusion. After all, media education should be understood as an education that should be mastered only by students at school age, colleges, and universities.

«Media education is a direction in pedagogy that promotes the study of the laws of mass communication by schoolchildren. The definition of» media education «in the Explanatory Dictionary, the main task of which is to prepare the younger generation for the requirements of the modern information age, perception, and analysis of various information, to teach a person to understand it, to know its impact on the psyche, to teach methods of communication on

the basis of nonverbal forms of communication, using technical means and modern information technologies» [3]. That is, in our opinion, the sphere of media education should be education that covers the entire society, and all categories within that society. The world experience in modern advanced countries clearly demonstrates its importance and necessity.

In accordance with the resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the

«state program of patriotic education of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan» was adopted. It aims:

«understanding that educational organizations are an organic part of the state, it is necessary to constantly use updated information materials in their activities that reflect various aspects of the state’s life, in particular, Democratic directions of development, economic achievements, and achievements that allow solving social problems and maintaining political stability» [4]. But we cannot hide the fact that the state program, which includes a three-year period, did not benefit the formation of national ideology, the issue of media education, and media literacy.

In September 2019, the Ministry of information and public Development organized the week

«Astana Media Week», where the minister said:

«the media sphere plays an important role in bringing state interests to the people and forming a vision of changes in society. In this regard, the country’s media faces Great Goals and objectives»

[5]. This shows the changes in modern society, which has begun to adapt to the trends of global globalization, and the need to take into account the features and opportunities of the information age and pay special attention to them. The issue of improving media literacy in the country has not yet lost its relevance, on the contrary, it is growing every year.

As a result of the rapid development of Information Technologies, the concepts of

«Information Literacy», «Information Culture», and «media culture» came into force. These concepts reflect its relevance for modern Kazakh society and determine the need for the adoption of legislation and programs «on Media Education»

as soon as possible. After all, the main goal of media education is to prepare citizens to analyze,

weigh, and draw correct conclusions about the information that they perceive on a daily basis, without being absorbed into global information.

The degree of influence of the media on human life, especially in the lives of teenagers and young people, is increasing day by day. And this, in turn, sets new tasks for the state and requires the formation of awareness of the population about innovative technologies, the formation of skills of working with them, a certain degree of critical thinking, as well as the skills of competent use of mass communication tools, the ability to analyze messages in them, various media texts, independently engage in creative work in search, processing, and presentation of information material from reliable sources. It is clear that these needs, in turn, require systematic decision- making and revision of traditionally established systems, teaching methods, and technologies in the context of the use of various media tools in the context of social changes and information flow taking place around the world.

Due to the low media literacy among the population, there are many shortcomings. One of them is the attacks of citizens on online fraudsters under the influence of media information, and contacts with financial pyramids. This is the most common problem in modern Kazakh society and has already become a controversial issue at the state level. This is only one aspect of the consequences of media illiteracy. The damage caused by fake information itself is a separate issue. Therefore, the goal of developing a culture of awareness and critical attitude of citizens to harmful information becomes even more relevant.

The Australian university librarians «Council has developed standards similar to the US ACRL information literacy standards. There is reason to believe that this idea was much more advanced than the US version of Information Literacy. Instead of the concept of «student», Australians used the concept of a general person.

It is stated that» lifelong learning requires information literacy from a person» [6]. This was stated in detail in the reports of the Australian Information Association «Information Literacy for all Australians» and the National Library of Australia «equal access to Information Literacy».

Ways of leading society to mass media literacy Results

It should be noted that the state program

«Digital Kazakhstan» has become influential in the formation of media literacy in the country.

Communication through messenger, online payments, and electronic services all is part of the daily routine of a modern person, and ensuring the availability of these services is inextricably linked with the introduction of the Digital Kazakhstan program. Thus, digitalization, which has intensively entered the lives of Kazakhstanis, has created a new model of the economy, in which not only basic industries and businesses, but also the entire life of society are digitized.

One of them «eGov.kz» e-government portal.

It is designed for quick access of citizens to public services. It includes services and services such as submitting applications, obtaining certificates, obtaining licenses, registering, registering, and other operations. Government agencies, as well as many other organizations, such as banks and Mail, have converted their work to electronic format, getting rid of paper document management. But this does not mean that all citizens can use new technologies. This trend is especially lacking in rural areas. To solve this problem, it is necessary to teach the population to use the usual services in a new way, to quickly master new technologies. The state has taken measures to form and develop the media literacy of the population. For example, in 2018, courses on training the population in basic digital literacy skills were held in each region of Kazakhstan, i.e. in district centers, villages, and settlements.

Training courses were provided free of charge to those who wanted to improve their competence in one or four skills:

1. «Basic digital skills». They include a personal computer and laptop, mobile devices, reliable use of the Internet, and cover topics such as security and data protection.

2. «Е-government and E-public services».

The topic covers the skills of working with the e- government portal, which includes obtaining the necessary electronic public services online from the comfort of your home.

3. «Open Government». Training on this topic includes skills in using four components

of the Open Government portal: open data, open regulatory acts, open dialogue, and budgets.

4. «Е-commerce». The training block included skills in buying, selling, and promoting goods and services online» [7].

2,729 institutions participated in this course, training was conducted on the basis of schools, colleges, and libraries. In the first week of the course, more than 140 thousand Kazakhstanis studied digital literacy. Among them are many pensioners and teachers at schools. Within the framework of the state program «Digital Kazakhstan», we have seen an increase in the level of digital literacy of the population to 83%

in 2022.

Conclusion

In our country, with the introduction of the concept of «personality», it is necessary to open the way for any person to become a person. To do this, we believe that it is now necessary to systematically implement the following actions to properly establish media education in the country, including the formation of mass media literacy among the population:

1. Adoption of the law «on Media Education» or a regulatory document;

2. Develop and coordinate the draft

«State program for the opening of mass media communication of the population» with the relevant bodies and approve this program by a Government Resolution;

3. Involvement of the Ministry of Information and public development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, local executive bodies (akims of the region, city of Republican significance, district) in the Republic as bodies involved in the formation of media literacy, the implementation of the above-mentioned state program;

4. The results of the activities carried out can be achieved by keeping them under constant control.

- As for the issue of mass coverage of all categories of the population through the program, it can be divided into the following levels:

- Inclusion of preschool children, including adult groups and preparatory groups;

- Division of school-age children into three age groups, including primary school students, grades 5-7, and grades 8-12;

- Students (students with bachelor’s degrees from colleges and universities);

- Postgraduate education: individual coverage of undergraduates and doctoral students;

- Category of civil servants, employees of budgetary institutions;

- Employees of Joint-Stock Companies, and private institutions;

- Consider the use of media organizations, and social networks to cover the non-working part of the population, and create special videos for this category of citizens.

After gaining independence, since the early nineties, a special program has been developed

and systematically implemented to open mass computer literacy of the population. In the hands of citizens who have opened computer literacy, certificates and certificates confirming their knowledge were issued. This system has produced significant results. In the course of the formation of mass media literacy of the population, it was necessary to adopt a similar program and take up the issue of mass training of the above-mentioned categories.

In conclusion, the ways of forming media literacy proposed by us are an approach that has previously been used in practice in the formation of computer literacy and has given positive results. It is only necessary to act at the state level and make appropriate decisions. Media literacy is the foundation for a positive impact on the formation of a media culture society, and media culture has the potential to become an indicator of the entire culture of the country.

References

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Ways of leading society to mass media literacy

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А.А. Иргусаева, О.І. Тұржан

Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Астана, Казақстан Қоғамды жаппай медиасауаттылыққа жеткізу жолдары

Аңдатпа. Осы мақалада қазіргі ауқымды ақпарат кеңістігінде халықты жаппай медиасауаттылыққа жеткізудің жолдары қарастырылады. Осы бағытта мемлекет тарапынан қабылданған және атқарылған шараларға шолу жасайды. Соның ішінде «Цифрлық Қазақстан» мемлекеттік бағдарламасының қа- зақстандықтардың өміріне тигізген ықпалын, цифрландыру жасаған экономиканың жаңа моделін зер- делейді. Одан бөлек, қоғамда ішінара медиасауаттылықтың болмауы салдарынан орын алып жатқан кемшіліктер сараланады. Медиасауатылықты жетілдіру жұмыстарын ұйымдастыру бойынша нақты іс- әрекеттер пайымдалып, тиімді жұмыс жүргізу үшін қандай құзырлы органдарды тарту қажеттігі де тұжырымдалады. Медиасауаттылық бойынша халықтың барлық санатын қамту үшін мемлекеттік деңгейде бағдарлама қабылдау қажеттілігі және оны шешу әрекеттері де баяндалады. Мақала авторы, әсіресе дамыған елдердің медиасауаттылыққа барынша көңіл бөліп отырғанын алға тартып, медиасау- аттылықтың тұтас мемлекет пен ұлттың медиамәдениетіне тікелей әсер ететін құрал екенін дәлелдеуге тырысады.

Түйін сөздер: медиасауаттылық, медиамәдениет, ақпарат, қоғамдық сана, мемлекет.

А.А. Иргусаева, О.И. Туржан

Евразийский национальный университет им. Л.Н. Гумилева, Астана, Казахстан Пути достижения массовой медиаграмотности в обществе

Аннотация. В данной статье рассматриваются пути достижения массовой медиаграмотности в со- временном масштабном информационном пространстве. Дается обзор предпринятых государством мер в данном направлении. Также изучено влияние государственной программы «Цифровой Казахстан» на жизнь казахстанцев, новую модель цифровизации экономики. Анализируются недостатки, возникаю- щие вследствие отсутствия частичной медиаграмотности в обществе. Показаны конкретные действия по совершенствованию работы в медиапространстве, необходимость привлечения компетентных органов для эффективной работы, а также принятия программы на государственном уровне для охвата всех ка- тегорий населения по медиаграмотности и попытки ее решения. Автор статьи стремится доказать, что медиакультура является инструментом прямого воздействия на культуру государства и нации в целом, отмечая, что развитые страны уделяют медиаграмотности особое внимание.

Ключевые слова: медиаграмотность, медиакультура, информация, общественное сознание, государ- ство.

Information about authors:

Irgusaeva A.A. – Doctoral student at the Department of Journalism and Political Science, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 13 Yanushkevich str., Astana, Kazakhstan.

Turzhan O.I. – Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Journalism and Political Science, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 13 Yanushkevich str., Astana, Kazakhstan.

Иргусаева А.А. – журналистика және саясаттану факультетінің докторанты, Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Астана, Қазақстан.

Тұржан О.І. – ф.ғ.к., журналистика және саясаттану факультетінің доценті, Л.Н. Гумилев атындағы Еуразия ұлттық университеті, Астана, Қазақстан.

МРНТИ 19.31

М.О. Негизбаева А.А. Нуршаихова

Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, Алматы, Казахстан Автор для корреспонденции: nurshaikhova@gmail.com

Тема голодомора в Казахстане (1932-1933 г.г.) в науке и

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