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ӘЛ-ФАРАБИ атындағы ҚАЗАҚ ҰЛТТЫҚ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІ

ХАБАРШЫ

Дінтану сериясы

КАЗАХСКИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ имени АЛЬ-ФАРАБИ

ВЕСТНИК

Серия Религиоведение

AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

EURASIAN JOURNAL

of Religious Studies

№4 (28)

Алматы

«Қазақ университеті»

2021

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ХАБАРШЫ

ISSN 2413-3558 eISSN 2521-6465

ДІНТАНУ СЕРИЯСЫ №4 (28) желтоқсан

29.07.2015 ж. Қазақстан Республикасы Инвестициялар және даму министрлігі Байланыс, ақпараттандыру және ақпарат комитеті

Куәлік №15490-Ж

Журнал жылына 4 рет жарыққа шығады (наурыз, маусым, қыркүйек, желтоқсан)

Жоба менеджері Гульмира Шаккозова Телефон: +77017242911

E-mail: Gulmira.Shakkozova@kaznu.kz Редакторлары:

Гүлмира Бекбердиева, Ағила Хасанқызы Компьютерде беттеген

Ұлболсын Қалиева РЕДАКЦИЯ АЛҚАСЫ:

Байтенова Н.Ж., филос.ғ.д., профессор – ғылыми редактор (Қазақстан)

Абжалов С.Ү., филос.ғ.к., доцент – ғылыми редактордың орынбасары (Қазақстан) Құрманалиева А.Д., филос.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан)

Мейрбаев Б.Б., филос.ғ.к., қауымдастырылған профессор (Қазақстан)

Альджанова Н.Қ., PhD доктор, доцент м.а.

(Қазақстан)

Сатершинов Б.М., филос.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан)

Затов Қ.А., филос.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан) Муминов Ә.Қ., т.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан) Демеуова А.А., филос.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан)

Лусиан Турсеску, Конкордиа университетінің профессоры, PhD, дінтанушы (Канада) Луиза Райан, Шеффилд университетінің профессоры, дінтанушы (Ұлыбритания) Мухаметшин Р.М., саяс.ғ.д., профессор (Татарстан, РФ)

Челеби И., Мармара университетінің профессоры, исламтанушы (Түркия)

Хизметли С., Шет тілдер және іскерлік карьера университетінің ректоры, PhD, профессор (Қазақстан, Түркия)

ТЕХНИКАЛЫҚ ХАТШЫ Байжума С., магистр (Қазақстан) ЖАУАПТЫ ХАТШЫ

Борбасова Қ.М., филос.ғ.д., профессор (Қазақстан)

Тел.: +7 701 272 1704 E-mail: relvestnik@gmail.com

ВЕСТНИК

ХАБАРШЫ Д І Н Т А Н У С Е Р И Я С Ы С Е Р И Я Р Е Л И Г И О В Е Д Е Н И Е

O F R E L I G I O U S S T U D I E S КАЗАХСКИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ имени АЛЬ-ФАРАБИAL-FARABI KAZAKH

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY ӘЛ-ФАРАБИ атындағы ҚАЗАҚ ҰЛТТЫҚ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІ

4(28) 2021

ISSN 2413-3558 • eISSN 2521-6465

EURASIAN JOURNAL

Дінтану сериясы журналында қоғам үшін өзекті діни мәселелерді арқау еткен зерттеулер жарияланады

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Әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университетінің

«Қазақ университеті» баспа үйі.

050040, Алматы қаласы, әл-Фараби даңғылы, 71.

«Қазақ университеті» баспа үйінің баспаханасында басылды.

© Әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ, 2021

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СЕРИЯ РЕЛИГИОВЕДЕНИЕ

RELIGIOUS STUDIES SERIES

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© 2021 Al-Farabi Kazakh National University 4

ISSN 2413-3558 eISSN 2521-6465 Хабаршы. Дінтану сериясы. №4 (28) 2021 https://bulletin-religious.kaznu.kz

IRSTI 21:41:45 https://doi.org/10.26577//EJRS.2021.v28.i4.r1

K. Begalinova1* , M. Ashilova2 , A. Begalinov3

1Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan, Almaty

2 Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages, Kazakhstan, Almaty

3International IT University, Kazakhstan, Almaty

*e-mail: kalima910@mail.ru

TARIQA SPECIFICITY – THE PATHS OF MYSTICAL ATTAINMENT OF TRUTH

The problem of tariqa, associated with the comprehension of Allah in the phenomenal, material world, is the key one in Sufism. It reveals the essence of «I» and «You», the relationship between man and God. According to Sufism, a person is a sensual, suffering being and the cause of this suffering is nafs, which means passions, lusts, attachment to earthly existence. And the task of a person is to free himself from nafs, for which tariqa is necessary – the path of self-improvement of a person. The article reveals the peculiarities of tariqa, its stages – sharia, tariqa, maarifa and haqiqa. Each of these stages has its own forms of cognition, which are transmitted in symbolic form through various liquids – water, milk, honey and wine. These forms of cognition are analyzed in close connection with the stages and maqams, sta- tions, each of which symbolizes certain moral and psychological states on the path of knowing the God.

Various approaches to tariqa that exist in the scientific literature are considered. Particular attention is paid to the principles and methodology of considering this complex problem. When investigating the path of mystical comprehension of the God, the authors also relied on source literature. The value of this research and its practical significance are revealed.

Key words: Sufism, tariqa, sharia, maarifa, haqiqa.

Қ. Бегалинова1*, М. Әшілова2, Ә. Бегалинов3

1Әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университеті, Қазақстан, Алматы қ.

2Абылай хан атындағы Қазақ халықаралық қатынастар және әлем тілдер университеті, Қазақстан, Алматы қ.

3Халықаралық ақпараттық технологиялар университеті, Қазақстан, Алматы қ.

*e-mail: kalima910@mail.ru

Тариқаттың ерекшелігі – шындықты мистикамен ұғыну жолы

Алланы феноменальды және материалдық әлемде түсінуге байланысты тариқат мәселесі сопылықтың түйіні болып табылады. Ол «Мен» және «Сен» мәнін, сондай-ақ адам мен Құдай арасындағы қарым-қатынасты ашады. Сопылық іліміне сәйкес, адам сезімтал, азап шеккен тіршілік иесі болып табылады және оған лайық болған осы азаптың себебі – нафс деп аталады.

Бұл құмарлық, қорқыныш, жердегі тіршілікке деген сүйіспеншілік. Адамның міндеті – өзін нафс- тен босату, ол үшін тариқат, яғни адамның өзін-өзі жетілдіру жолы қажет. Мақалада тариқаттың ерекшеліктері, оның кезеңдері – шариғат, тариқат, маарифат және хақиқат терминдері кеңінен ашылады. Осы кезеңдердің әрқайсысының өзіндік таным формалары бар, олар символдық түрде әртүрлі сұйықтықтар – су, сүт, бал және шарап арқылы беріледі. Білімнің бұл форма- лары кезеңдер мен мақамамен, тұрақтармен тығыз байланысы талданады, олардың әрқайсысы Құдайды білу жолындағы белгілі бір моральдық-психологиялық жағдайларды білдіреді. Ғылыми әдебиеттерде бар тариқатқа әртүрлі көзқарастар қарастырылады. Осы күрделі мәселені қарастыру принциптеріне, әдіснамасына ерекше назар аударылады. Құдайды мистикалық түсіну жолын зерттеу кезінде авторлар деректану әдебиетіне сүйенді. Осы зерттеудің құндылығы, оның практикалық маңыздылығы ашылады.

Түйін сөздер: суфизм, тариқат, шариғат, мәрифат, ақиқат.

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К. Бегалинова1*, М. Ашилова2, А. Бегалинов3

1Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, Казахстан, г. Алматы

2 Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков имени Абылай хана, Казахстан, г. Алматы

3Международный университет информационных технологий, Казахстан, г. Алматы

*e-mail: kalima910@mail.ru

Специфика тарикат – пути мистического постижения истины

Проблема тариката, связанная с постижением Аллаха в феноменальном, материальном мире, является узловой в суфизме. Она раскрывает сущность «Я» и «Ты», взаимоотношения человека и Бога. Согласно суфизму, человек является чувственным, страдающим существом и причина этих страданий – нафс, под которым понимаются страсти, похоти, привязанность к земному бытию.

И задачей человека является освобождение от нафс, для чего и необходим тарикат – путь само- совершенствования человека. В статье раскрываются особенности тариката, его этапы – шариат, тарикат, маарифат и хакикат. Каждому из этих этапов присущи свои формы познания, которые в символической форме передаются посредством различных жидкостей – воды, молока, меда и вина. Анализируются эти формы познания в тесной связи с этапами и макамами, стоянка- ми, каждая из которых символизирует определенные морально-психологические состояния на пути познания Бога. Рассматриваются различные подходы к тарикату, существующие в научной литературе. Особое внимание уделяется принципам, методологии рассмотрения этой сложной проблемы. При исследовании пути мистического постижения Бога авторы опирались и на ис- точниковедческую литературу. Раскрываются ценность данного исследования, ее практическая значимость.

Ключевые слова: суфизм, тарикат, шариат, маарифат, хакикат.

Introduction

The problem of Sufism is associated with the study of human problems, his capabilities and un- disclosed essence, which is relevant at all times.

In this respect, our time is no exception. Having faced tough problems, the person of the digital age is often prone to irrational interpretation of reality.

Therefore, the demand for Sufism and mysticism in general is primarily explained by the spiritual crisis of society, the lack of faith and the search for new values. It is becoming even more relevant since, in the traditions of modern science and philoso- phy, this aspect of the human problem was reduced mainly to rational. In practice, this led to the human unawareness and unforeseen difficulties in the per- sonality formation. Ignorance of the differences in human thinking in terms of rational and irrational, ethno-national and other characteristics had a nega- tive impact on the practice of social development.

Therefore, today, in the conditions of sovereign Ka- zakhstan, there is a unique opportunity to study hu- man thinking and psychology, taking into account his lifestyle and mentality.

Justification for the choice of topic, goals and objectives

The choice of the topic is due to the significance of the Sufi personal development issue, implicitly related to the human’s perception of Allah through feelings, mind and intuition. The connection of the

person with supernatural is revealed through such knowledge, which is individual, singular, and inter- nalized. Therefore, Sufism was skeptical about such human study, which was not aimed at comprehen- sion of the human’s inner world, but the external one, the individual’s connection with the universe as a whole. Bringing in to the picture the knowability problems of the diversity of the universe, the world, Sufism developed a tariqa, a way of personality ad- vancement; put forward various schemes of epiph- any, which enrich philosophical, religious and psy- chological knowledge about a person. Disclosure of the mystical path of the person’s self-improvement, definition of Sufism as a multifaceted phenomenon of spiritual culture is the goal of this article. In ac- cordance with this goal, the following tasks are solved: identifying the originality and specificity of the tariqa, defining the problems of «I» and «You», God-man and knowledge of God, etc., which help to comprehend the content, essence of Sufi knowledge at a deep level.

Scientific research methodology

The methodological basis was formed by dia- lectical, concrete-historical, comprehensive ap- proaches to the consideration of Sufism, its theory and practice. One of the main principles of writing this article was the Hegelian principle of unity and coincidence of ontology and epistemology, which provides for the consideration of epistemological

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Тariqa specificity – the paths of mystical attainment of truth

problems based on unity with ontological ones.

The ideas of human multidimensionality and mul- tilevelness, the world, the problem of macro– and microspace were used. In addition, other general philosophical, scientific methods and principles are also used.

Main part

In many Sufi concepts, the human acts as a sen- sual, suffering being. Sufis teach that human suffer- ing does not depend on natural, social or biologi- cal reasons, but on the person himself. The cause of suffering lies primarily in the sinful nature of a man, in his passions, nafs (desiring soul). «Nafs is considered as an evil founding in human, a place of passion and lust, and mortification of nafs is the main task of the wanderer» (John, 2005: 56). The human can free himself from suffering, this should be the goal of any person – the soul liberation from the evil of physical body, from mortal, earthly exis- tence and its introduction to celestial life. This can- not be achieved by mind. The only way to reach it is ecstasy, a state in which a person stops to be aware of himself as something individual. In addition, the soul liberation from nafs can also be achieved through food fasting, silence and loneliness, which are based on the process of «dying inside». Thus, the goal of Sufi is to attain unity with God, the Ab- solute. E.E. Bertels correctly notes that «Knowledge of God falls into two types: the first is knowledge that penetrates to the very substance, separating the emanation of names, attributes and the veils of ex- ternal world. It is accessible only to the God himself, as the God is shielded from the world by the veil of greatness. Trying to expound the substance of the God is useless. The second type: cognition of God in its various manifestations. It, in turn, falls into two subspecies: knowledge in the broad sense of the word – human comprehends the God, but does not know that he exactly comprehends his being, and complex cognition – the human thinks about what he comprehends and realizes that his discoveries re- late exactly the God’s being in its manifestations»

(Bertels, 1995: 453-454).

Sufism theorists divide the path of compre- hending the Absolute, the path of mystical self- improvement, mainly into three stages: sharia, i.e.

tariqa and haqiqa. Most Sufis have four stages: 1) Sharia – «law», i.e. «Pious» life, according to the provisions of Muslim religion common to all believ- ers; for the Sufis, this stage was considered only as preparation for the mystical path; 2) tariqa – «the mystical path, which consists in voluntary poverty,

torture, withdrawal from the world and from one’s own will; the Sufi had to become a murid of the cho- sen sheikh – murshid; 3) marifa – (mystical) knowl- edge, at this stage the Sufi, who renounced sensual desires, was claimed to be capable of getting some temporary communication – vasil (connection – in one of the meanings – «connect, tie with a single God») at some certain moments of ecstasy (chol); 4) haqiqa (truth) – the stage which can be reached by rarely few Sufis, when the Sufi was in constant and intimate communication with the «absolute truth» – God» (Mamatov, 2011: 80). As Lynn Wilcox says,

«Sharia is a wax, tariqat – a wick, haqiqah – light»

(Lynn Wilcox, 2005: 198).

Each of these paths of self-improvement has its own forms of cognition, which are revealed in symbolic form in literature through various types of liquid. Thus, for the first form it is perception, which studies the world with the help of five sens- es and mind, the symbol is water, which is easily absorbed by a human body. For the second form it is intuitive knowledge, where imagination plays an essential role, the symbol of cognition is milk, a more nutritious substance than water. The third form is connected with mystical knowledge, Sufism, honey, a nutritious and tasty product, is a symbol of it. For the fourth form, related to the experience of the highest reality – revelation, the symbol is wine, which destroys the human’s individual borders (al- Hallaj, al-Bistami).

Let’s have a closer look at these stages.

The first stage – Sharia – still cannot fully re- late only to Sufism, it is obligatory for every faithful Muslim. The Sharia stage means literal fulfillment of the God’s law. The essence of this stage can be conveyed in the following words: «God is our only deity (ilah), that is, only He is our sovereign, Master and Helper. We worship only God and we ask only Him for help in everything we desire: «We wor- ship only You, we ask for help only from You» (The world of Validdin, 2004: 16). For the Sufi, the stage of Sharia is obligatory if he wants to embark on the second path of self-improvement, as it presupposes the assimilation of basic dogmas of Islam.

At the second stage – tariqa (word-for-word translation: «way», «road»), a person’s moral and psychological self-improvement takes place. The Sufis compare tariqa to a wick representing the in- ner parts of a human’s body. At this stage, the con- cepts of stations, so-called maqams, which a person must pass through, are introduced. «Maqam (Ara- bic, derived from the word ikoma) means abidance, life, deed, stations. For Sufis, maqam is considered a certain step on the way to knowledge of the truth,

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where the traveler is at the moment» (Mukhammed- hodjaev, 1990: 30). Each of the maqams represents a certain mental state. Sufi authors do not have com- plete unity in the classification of stations. But the main of them are called as seven states.

This is tauba (repentance) – the beginning of the path, which means the determination to aban- don the usual formal attitude to Sharia and give in to real self-improvement. The concept of «tauba» is often found in Sharia and it means a human’s un- derstanding of his sin, his repentance. For the Sufi, it is unacceptable to reflect on his sins, because sin recognition means recognition of his individual’s re- ality, and this is the deepest delusion. According to Sufism, there is no true reality apart from the God.

On the second path, maqam of wara’, which means discretion, there is a distinction between what is permitted (halal) and what is forbidden (ha- ram) by the Sufis. This discretion leads to zuhd, ab- stinence, which is characteristic of the third path. In this regard, it should be noted that all Sufis were as- cetics by their way of life. They were told to abstain from sin and excess, from everything that separates from God. The consequence of abstinence is fakr (poverty), which is characteristic of the fourth stage.

At this stage, there is a voluntary dooming of one- self to adversity, a rejection of earthly goods, which leads to the fifth and sixth stages – tawakkul, which means «trust in God.» It means that, at these stages, the human completely surrenders to the power of God, he throws away all worries about tomorrow, is content only with the current moments. Therefore, the extreme interpretation of tawakkul posed a so- cial danger, because a man was turned into unneces- sary inactive ballast. In later Sufism, this concept is already being rethought.

Shukr (gratitude) is also characteristic of this stage. With the aid of his tongue and heart, the traveler expresses his gratitude to the God. At the same time, two groups of shukra are distinguished:

mubtillon (fruitless), expressing gratitude for extra- neous goodness and earthly goods, muhiqon (do- ing the right thing), showing gratitude for both this worldly and otherworldly benefits.

Eventually, the final stage of tariqah is rida, obe- dience. At this stage, for a person, the surrounding reality loses its whole sense, he practically does not feel it, does not perceive it, since he is absorbed by the highest mission – comprehension of the Absolute.

It is followed by the stage of maarifat. This is how this process of knowledge of God at the maari- fat stage proceeds in the understanding of al Ju- nayd: «Know that the beginning of worshiping God (‘ibāda) is knowledge about Him (ma’rifa) and the

basis (‘ asl) of knowledge about God is the assertion of His oneness and unity (tawhid). Thanks to Him they seek the way to Him, and the reason for seek- ing the way to Him through Him was His assistance (taufik). Thanks to His assistance, there is an affir- mation of oneness and unity for Him (tavhud). From the affirmation of His oneness and unity comes the belief in His truth (tasdik), from the belief in His truth comes the attainment of His truth (tahkik), and from the attainment of His truth comes the knowl- edge of Him (ma’rifa). From the cognition of Him (ma’rifa) comes the answer to Him which He called for, and from the answer to Him there is an ascent to Him (tarakkin), from the ascent to Him there is a union with Him (ittasal bi hi), from the union with Him happens clarity (explanation) for a human (bayan), from clarity for a person there is a «whirl- pool» (hira) [or confusion]. From confusion (hira), the human loses clarity (bayan), and because of the disappearance of his clarity, a description of the God becomes inaccessible to him. Because of the disap- pearance of the ability to describe, the human falls into the truth of existence for the God, and because of falling into the truth of existence for the God, he falls into the truth of contemplation because of dis- appearance from his existence. Thanks to the loss of his existence, his being becomes pure, and thanks to its purification, the man purifies of his qualities of his being, and thanks to this, he appears in the pres- ence of the [God] with his entire totality. The man was existent (mavjud) and «lost» (mafkud), nothing and existent, he existed and at the same time did not exist, and he did not exist when he existed. Then he existed after he did not – he was as he was. And after he was not, it was him. And he is being (mavjud), existent after being existent-non-existent (mavjud mafkud), for he came out of the state of intoxication of being overpowered [by his God] to the clarity of

«sobriety» (sahv)» (Mukhammedhodjaev, 1990: 73).

This understanding is characteristic of the last third stage – haqiqa, which means «real authentic being». When analyzing haqiqa, Sufism develops the phenomena of spiritual sphere in great detail, also including short-term states – hal. Hal is sent down from above for a moment, therefore it is a di- vine compassion. There is no clear classification of hal in Sufism. Many of the thinkers study nine states of hal. The following states are often mentioned:

qurb-nearness – a person in this state feels the de- ity’s gaze, directed at him; mahabba – love – dur- ing which a person is seized with ardent love for the God; shawk – passion, mushahada – contemplation – during which the human not only feels God him- self, but, as it were, sees him and other states of hal.

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8

Тariqa specificity – the paths of mystical attainment of truth

Many researchers of Sufism consider baka (eternity) as the highest state of Hal. This is the recognition of your immortality.

Having passed all the stages of tariqa, Sufi enters the last stage – haqiqa, the real divine being. At this stage, he attains and receives the truth of Light, feels the destruction of his temporary transient «I» and plunges into the sea of the Absolute, being more acutely aware of his existence as eternal as the divine essence is. This awareness of immortality is the highest of the states at- tainable for a traveler. It symbolizes Truth.

Results and discussion

There are other approaches to the steps or stages of tariqa. In the book of John A. Subhan «Sufism.

Its Saints and Shrines» there are seven stages: 1.

Ubudiyat, the stage of courage, where the traveler is eager to purify his soul and prepares for the higher stages of his journey. At this stage, the first thing that is required of him is repentance ... 2. Ishq, love, when the Divine influence inclines a soul to love the God. 3. Zuhd – self-denial. Under the influence of Divine Love, all laic desires are expelled from the heart. 4. Marifa, knowledge, or gnosis, when the one walking along the Path reflects on the Nature, Qualities and Actions of the God. 5. Wajd – ecstasy, a state in which mental excitement is caused through the contemplation of the only existing reality – God.

6. Haqiqa is a reality, now the heart is already illu- minated by the true nature of the God. 7. Vasil is a union in which a mystic as such meets face to face with the God. This stage precedes the last experi- ence of baka wa fana, dissolution and existence in God (Shure, 1997: 51-53). As we can see, in prin- ciple, there are many similarities between the two described stages of the tariqa path. There are also stations (maqamas), symbolizing the «standing» of the man on his path to the God and the fulfillment of certain duties by travelers. There are»four basic states» along this path, which are essential. This is

«1. Nasut – humanity. The natural state of every hu- man being, in which the God follower is obliged to comply with Sharia law. 2. Malakut – the nature of angels, when travelers embark on the Path of spiri- tual travel – at-Tariqa. 3. Jabarut – the possession of power for which there is a marifa. 4. Lakhut – the Divinity of dissolution state in the Divine, in which he reaches reality – haqiqa» (John, 2005: 55).

In some Sufi sources, the tariqa path is divided into three interconnected journeys: sair ilallah – «jour- ney to the God», it ends in haqiqa-i-Muhammadi;

sair fillah – «journey in the God», during which the seeker is drawn into the essence of the God.

As we can see, the Sufi path is very specific. Al- Ghazali spoke about this, noting that tariqa is not a simple path of spiritual and moral hunt and it is be- yond the power of an uninitiated murid to overcome it. Although mystical experience is a purely person- al experience and it is impossible to express it in verbal forms, because mystical is inexpressible, we will try to generalize and summarize what is in the arsenal of religious-mystical science. Many mys- tics describe the attainment and being in this state as follows: initially, the original Sound, the divine Word, which generates Light, is heard; the music of spheres, which shakes the stars and worlds, is heard.

Carried away on the waves of this harmony, they see the sparkling of the spiritual Sun, the creative Verb.

Here the highest desire for love is identified with the fiery joy of the sacred. Here everything penetrates into everything, for you can see how the time flow leaves eternity and returns to it again. Nothing is separated here, and they alltogether form the full- ness of being. Here they hover over all sorrows, for they can be transformed into joys. Here, all suffer- ings are rooted into a unique bliss, like prism colors in a sunbeam. Here one achieves peace in sublime action, and the state of a higher individuality – in ab- solute self-giving. Life is not condemned here, be- cause they drink the divine essence in their source.

Free, completely unchained and henceforth not sub- ject to the fate blows, they return here to make it even more beautiful again. The Gods descend from this sphere of Resurrection (Shure, 1997: 131).

The Sufi, having experienced such a state, hav- ing touched the secrets of the Absolute, becomes truly blissful, free, whose spirit from then on experi- ences only the harmony, beauty, greatness inherent in the deity. One of the early Sufis, Ahmad ben Isa al-Kharraz (d. in 899), describes this state in the fol- lowing way: «he approaches the God, and the God fills his heart and sets aim. Then he will speak and his heart will radiate thoughts about the God. The love of the God is hidden deep in his heart, makes its way to consciousness and does not leave him.

Then the human’s heart fills with joy, invisibly com- municating with God, talking lively with Him and diligently studying Him. This is what he is: when he eats, drinks, sleeps (and wakes up), in all his ac- tions, as the God’s proximity now wins the human heart and embraces everything else – both goals that have appeared inside and external movements. And so this person lives on; whether he comes, leaves, gives or takes – the goal that rules his conscious- ness prevails in him, namely the God’s love and His closeness» (Arberry, 2002: 91). Many researchers of Sufism call this state as a suffering soul’s return

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after the separation from the Absolute into the sea of pure and divine Light, into the bosom of the eternal Truth – the state of fana, which is the ultimate goal of tariqa. But some researchers believe that fana is also followed by the state of baka, where the «at- tachment» of the Sufi’s soul to the Absolute takes place.

Sometimes in the literature, fana is unjustifiably confused or equated with the ecstasy itself, with the help of which fana is achieved. The Sufis, following al-Junaid, distinguish between the states of fana and ecstasy, denoting the latter with the term «shath».

Based on the meaning of the verb «shataha» (to seethe, being constrained by the banks), Sufi theore- ticians defined shath as «splashing out» the feelings that seized the mystic’s soul as a result of the God’s vision (musha-hadat al-Haqq), the destruction of his own «I» in him (fana al-nafsihi), the feeling of one’s unity with him (ittihad). From our point of view, the differences between fana and shath are not so sig- nificant to draw attention to them.

One of the first to describe these states in the treatise «Mawaqif» was a medieval thinker Niffari (Xth century), who distinguished four journeys of the murid’s consciousness at the moment of immersion into the bosom of the Absolute. The first of them he calls the state of fana, the state of achieving harmo- ny with the phenomenally noumenal and transcen- dental worlds. This is followed by the baka stage (constancy), where the perfect human is no longer

«a man besotted by the God,» he is a teacher en- dowed with special rights. He bears the title «Qutb»,

«Magnetic Center». Al-Ghazali in «The Resurrec- tion of the Faith Sciences», analyzing these stages, likens them to a walnut (from Persian «possessing four essences» or «four minds»). Thus, the nut con- sists of a hard shell, inner skin, kernel and oil. The bitter-tasting shell serves as a cover for a specific period of time and is discarded when the nut kernel is removed. The skin is more valuable than the shell, but it still cannot be compared to the kernel itself.

The kernel is a goal of the one who wants to get oil;

however, even this inner pulp contains substances that are discarded after the oil extraction (Shah, 1994: 340). It should be noted that these states, es- pecially fana, baka, shath, etc., are poorly studied mental phenomena. Unfortunately, until now in the oriental scientific literature there are no monographs devoted to the study of the psychological aspect of Sufism. The work of a psychiatrist Kazansky K.

«Sufism from the modern psychopathology’s view- point», written in 1905 is an exception. Kazansky K., who once observed the joy of Turkestan der- vishes, came to the conclusion that «all types of

activities and psychological organ of the dervishes bear a pathological imprint. Masturbation is widely spread among them... But besides the anomaly of sexual desire... there are other forms of impulsive action in the dervishes, their organic motives which lie either under the influence of inherited feelings or in the habits acquired due to the social conditions.

For example, an excessive use of opium, cannabis, ecstatic exercises, a passion for vagrancy» (Kazan- sky, 1905: 108).

As it can be seen, K. Kazansky as a whole de- scribes the Sufi union with the God as a perverted physiological act. Nevertheless, he correctly defined the state of ecstasy among the Sufis as a «halluci- natory» state (Kazansky, 1905: 125). In this state, the human still «sees» the images within himself,

«hears» the inner voice as something completely re- al. One can agree with C. Jung’s assumption that «the world of gods and spirits is, in essence, is nothing more than the collective unconscious being inside me. To change this statement to the opposite, i.e., to assert that the collective unconscious is the world of gods and spirits outside me, no mental acrobatics is required, but it will take a whole human life, perhaps even many lives of increasing fullness. In addition, I do not say «increasing perfection», because those who are «perfect» make discoveries of a completely different kind» (Jung, 1998: 42-43]. This truly real mental phenomenon has, unfortunately, been stud- ied not much in the modern psychology. It seems that I.P. Petrushevsky was right, when he noted that:

«People with a neuropathic mindset, brought up in a mystical ideology, are prone to imaginary percep- tions that arise independently of real objects. These perceptions, however, are subjectively experienced as brightly and vividly as the perceptions of real ob- jects» (Petrushevsky, 1966: 315).

Conclusion and key findings

As we can see, the aim of tariqa is the union of human with the God, the knowledge of the God, which the Sufis see as the meaning of their self-improvement. This is the value of the tariqa study, its practical significance connected with the all-round development of a person, in particular, and spiritual development. As rightly noted by J.

Khujviri, in the state of fana, the spirit, liberated from earthly bonds, becomes capable of reflecting the divine light. The stages of tariqa (paths of mys- tical self-improvement) are compulsory for all Sufi orders. However, the set of methods, tariqa stations differ at Sufi schools and orders. Thus, al-Ghaza- li in his mystical system describes nine stages of

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10

Тariqa specificity – the paths of mystical attainment of truth

tariqa, based on three ideas: 1) the idea of mystical nearness to the God, 2) the paths to this proximity, where the «stations» are marked, 3) a set of certain moral and ethical standards and requirements (Al- Ghazali Abu Hamid, 1980: 78-81).

However, Ibn Arabi determinates 19 stations and up to 360 inns or stopping places. The first stations he calls trust, patience, and obedience to the God’s will and gratitude to his good deeds. Dwelling on the problem of hal, Ibn-Arabi defines 7 of his states:

with the God, in the God, next to the God, through the God, to the God, on the God and for the God’s sake (an example of verbigation or word chewing).

According to Ibn-Arabi, the two poles of Sufism are

reflections and memories of the God’s name. In the God, essence and properties are subdivided, and the traveler, passing from properties to essence, rises to union with the God (Ibn Arabi, 1980: 130). His ulti- mate goal is haqiqa.

Thus, having reached haqiqa, the Sufi intuitively cognizes a true nature of the Absolute. The human’s goal, therefore, is to cognize and unite with the di- vine Truth, the Absolute, and rise above all other mortal plain. Only through this connection, accord- ing to the Sufis, does a human receive all his bliss, the knowledge of another transcendental being. This is the highest goal of Sufi psychology, epistemology and educational theory.

References

Аль-Газали Абу Хамид (1980) Воскрешение наук веры. – М.: ГРВЛ. – 376.

Бертельс Э.Е. (1965) Суфизм и суфийская литература. – М.: Наука. – 524.

Ибн Араби (1980) Драгоценные камни мудрости. – Бейрут: Paulist Press. – 208.

Казанский К. (1905) Суфизм с точки зрения современной психопатологии. – Самарканд: «Труд». – 150.

Маматов М.А. (2011) Суть суфизма: для студентов с углубленным изучением истории и культуры ислама. – Уфа: Изд-во БГПУ. – 168.

Мухаммедходжаев А. (1990) Гносеология суфизма. – Душанбе: Дониш. – 116.

Петрушевский И. П. (1966) Ислам в Иране VII-XV вв. – Л.: Издательство Ленинградского университета. – 329.

Шах И. (1994) Суфизм. – М.: Клышников, Комаров и К. – 445.

References

Al-Ghazali Abu Hamid (1980) Voskreshenie nauk o vere [Resurrection of the sciences of faith]. – M.: GRVL. – 376. (in Russian) Arberry A.J. (2002) Sufism. The mystics of Islam. Tr. from English. – M.: Sfera. – 272.

Bertels E.E. (1965) Sufizm i sufijskaja literatura [Sufism and Sufi Literature]. – M.: Nauka. – 524. (in Russian) Ibn Arabi (1980) Gemmas of wisdom. – Beirut: Paulist Press. – 208. (in Arabic)

John A. Subhan. (2005) Sufism. His saints and shrines. / Tr. from English. – SPb.: Publishing house «DILIA». – 256.

Jung K. (1998) Psychological commentary. // The Tibetan Book of the Dead. Tr. from English. – M.: Fair-Press. – 336.

Kazansky K. (1905) Sufizm s tochki zrenija sovremennoj psihopatologii [Sufism from the point of view of modern psychopa- thology]. – Samarkand: «Trud». – 150. (in Russian)

Lynn Wilcox (2005) Sufism and Psychology. / Per. from English. – SPb.: Publishing house «DILYA». – 236.

Mamatov M.A. (2011) Sut’ sufizma: dlja studentov s uglublennym izucheniem istorii i kul’tury islama [The essence of Sufism:

for students with in-depth study of the history and culture of Islam]. – Ufa: Publishing house of BSPU. – 168. (in Russian) Mukhammedhodjaev A. (1990) Gnoseologija sufizma [Gnoseology of Sufism]. – Dushanbe: Donish. – 116. (in Russian) Petrushevsky I. P. (1966) Islam v Irane VII-XV vekah [Islam in Iran VII-XV centuries]. – L.: Leningrad University Press. – 329.

(in Russian)

Shah I. (1994) Sufism. – Moscow: Klyshnikov, Komarov and K. – 445. (in Russian)

Shure E. (1997) Divine evolution. From the Sphinx to Christ. Tr. with fr. Wackler REFL-book. – 352.

The world of Validdin (2004) Quranic Sufism. / Tr. from English – SPb.: «Publishing house» DILYA». – 224.

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IRSTI 21.01.11 https://doi.org/10.26577//EJRS.2021.v28.i4.r2

Zh. Kantarbaeva , D. Utebayeva*

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan, Almaty

*e-mail: 28_dinar@mail.ru

MANIFESTATIONS AND PREREQUISITES OF RELIGIOUS EXPANSION IN THE SPIRITUAL SPHERE OF MODERN KAZAKHSTAN

The article deals with the problem of religious expansion, which is accompanied by a wave of globalization. In particular, the analysis of its prerequisites and its place in society and consequences is carried out, which are the basis for its widespread spread in an information, «digitized» digitized society.

A description of the manifestations of evangelization and Islamization of religious expansion, which cover all spheres of spiritual life and enter through the conquest of human consciousness, is given, and the processes of their development in the information society are considered. «I’m sorry,» he said, «but I don’t know what you’re talking about, and I don’t know what you’re talking about, and I don’t know what you’re talking about, but I don’t know what you’re talking about». And the possibilities of modern technologies are the basis for changing the forms and areas of use of sites of religious organizations.

The article examines the social, economic, political, spiritual background and main objects of religious expansion of neo-Christian, new Islamic, neo-Christian movements, Religious Studies analysis of mis- sionary activities carried out in the internet space and social networks, its factors contributing to the for- mation of religious consciousness of young people. At the same time, the features of religious expansion in cyberspace are revealed and a description of their manifestation in modern Kazakh society is given.

Key words: religious expansion, evangelism, Islamization, virtual services, cyberspace.

Ж. Қаңтарбаева, Д. Утебаева*

Әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ ұлттық университеті, Қазақстан, Алматы қ.

*e-mail: 28_dinar@mail.ru

Қазіргі Қазақстанның рухани саласындағы діни экспансияның көріністері мен алғышарттары Мақалада жаһандану толқынымен қатарласып келіп жатқан діни экспансия мәселесі қарастырылған. Әсіресе оның ақпараттық, «диджитализацияланған» цифрландырылған қоғамдағы кең етек жаюына негіз болып отырған алғышарттары мен қоғамдағы орны және салдарына талдау жасалынады. Рухани өмірдің жан-жақты салаларын қамтып, адам санасын жаулау арқылы кіріп жатқан діни экспансияның евангелизация мен исламдандыру көріністеріне сипаттама беріліп, олардың ақпараттық қоғамда даму үдерістері қарастырылады. Білім беру, қайырымдылық көмек, медициналық жәрдем беру сияқты гуманистік мақсаттарды алға қойған және діни сенімді таңдау еркіндігі сияқты ұстанымдарды ұран ете отырып, діни экспансияның адам санасын жау- лауда түрлі әдістер мен тәсілдерді игеріп, жүзеге асыру үшін заманауи технологияларды да пайдалануда. Ал заманауи технологиялардың мүмкіндіктері діни ұйым сайттарының формалары мен пайдалану аумақтарының ауысып отыруына негіз болады. Мақалада неохристиандық, жаңа исламдық, неоориенталистік ағымдардың діни экспансиялауындағы әлеуметтік, экономикалық, саяси, рухани астарлары мен негізгі объектілері қарастырылып, интернет кеңістігі мен әлеуметтік желілерде жүргізетін миссионерлік әрекеттеріне, оның жастардың діни санасын қалыптастыруға ықпал ететін факторларына дінтанулық талдау жасалады. Сонымен қатар, киберкеңістіктегі діни экспансия ерекшеліктері айқындалып, олардың заманауи қазақстандық қоғамдағы көрінісіне си- паттама беріледі.

Түйін сөздер: діни экспансия, евангелизация, исламизация, виртуалды қызмет, киберкеңістік.

Ж. Кантарбаева, Д. Утебаева*

Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, Казахстан, г. Алматы

*e-mail: 28_dinar@mail.ru

Проявления и предпосылки религиозной экспансии в духовной сфере современного Казахстана В статье рассмотрена проблема религиозной экспансии, сопровождающаяся волной глобализации. Анализируются предпосылки и следствия его широкого распространения в информационном, «диджитализированном» (цифровом) обществе. Дается характеристика

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12

Manifestations and prerequisites of religious expansion in the spiritual sphere of modern Kazakhstan

проявлений евангелизации и исламизации религиозной экспансии, охватывающей все сферы духовной жизни, завоевания человеческого сознания, рассматриваются процессы их разви- тия в информационном обществе. Оперируя гуманистическими принципами благотворитель- ности, знания и образования, бесплатного медицинского обслуживания и духовной помощи, религиозная экспансия охватывает все сферы человеческой жизнедеятельности, используя различные методы и приемы миссионерской деятельности и применяя самые новейшие тех- нологии. А возможности современных технологий на сегодняшний день являются основой для изменения форм и сфер использования сайтов религиозных организаций. В статье про- водится религиоведческий анализ миссионерских методов и технологий, проводимых в ин- тернет-пространстве и социальных сетях, а также факторов влияния на формирование рели- гиозного сознания молодежи. Рассматриваются социальные, экономические, политические, духовные предпосылки и основные объекты религиозной экспансии неохристианских, новых исламских, неориенталистских течений. Кроме того, в статье выявлены особенности религи- озной экспансии в киберпространстве и дана характеристика их проявления в современном казахстанском обществе.

Ключевые слова: религиозная экспансия, евангелизация, исламизация, виртуальная деятель- ность, киберпространство.

Introduction

The expansion of the spiritual sphere in the current global situation, the expansion of the spiritual life of society, the expansion of the empty vacuum is determined by the conquest of religious consciousness. This phenomenon, which became widespread at the end of the ХХ century, is spreading through the information wave in modern post-secular society. Its mani- festations and consequences in the modern world are diverse: they are characterized by changes in the lives of individuals and their development in- to world-class conflicts or interreligious and in- terethnic conflicts. Modern religious expansion is very multidimensional: it can not only bring new religious views to the secular and religious consciousness, but also affect national, political and economic issues. In the era of globalization, in the period of Kazakhstan’s democratic transi- tion, underestimation of this phenomenon leads to the destabilization of ethno-confessional rela- tions, and on this basis, it is possible to provoke conflict and religious terrorism. Ivan Gobbo- zov in his work «Philosophy of Politics» notes,

«There are universal laws, such as repetition of events in history, but, of course, repetition on a new basis. This is especially evident in times of troubles or crises (Gobozov, 1998: 142). J. Ac- cording to Gobbozov, religious expansion often manifests itself in times of instability in society, in times of upheaval, in times of spiritual crisis.

This can be estimated that the prerequisite for this phenomenon is that it lies within the frame- work of socio-historical features of the devel- opment or exit of a particular population to the world stage.

Justification of the choice of articles and goals and objectives

At the present stage, many political and cultural changes and processes are taking place within the framework of globalization. The Universal Informa- tion space eliminates the national and cultural dif- ferences between people living in different states, contributes to the formation of a new type of iden- tity, the emergence of the idea of a «citizen of the world», which does not reflect national identity.

This issue is closely related not only to cultural and national, but also to religious identity. In the era of information technology, it is not surprising that vari- ous ideas, including religious ones, have spread.

Methods of spiritual expansion is also widely used in developed countries to subdue developing countries using modern technologies. Therefore, a comprehen- sive analysis of the missionary activities of religious organizations in the internet space, which have the sup- port of various radical groups and organizations inter- ested in expanding their influence in other countries, is a demand today. Expansionary processes on a religious basis, carried out with the help of the virtual world in modern society, have led to the need to determine the underlying nature of this phenomenon.

Scientific research methodology

The problem of religious expansion is of great interest not only in the field of religion, but also in the fields of political science, economics, cultur- al studies and history. It is clear that geopolitical, economic or cultural issues are at the core of reli- gious expansion. The following authors considered the issue of religious expansion from a geopoliti- cal point of view: I.A. Gobbozov, A. Malashenko,

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E.E. Postol, G. Almond, H. Arendt, M. Albright, from a socio-philosophical and theological point of view, E. Drinova, M.M. Mchedlova, Y. Habermas, A.; Kazakhstani researchers: A.D. Ormanalieva, A.A. Sadikhova, Sh.S. Rysbekova, E.E. Burova, A.G. Kosichenko, N.L. Seytakhmetov.

Main part

It is clear that in the past centuries, the giant States pursued their interests and sought to expand their subordinate peoples politically, economically and territorially through the spread of religion. How- ever, in the XX century, the entry of the existing states into the world stage, becoming independent states, contributed to a change in the policy of the countries that pursued the imperialist goal. Since this period, the importance of religious missionary organizations and missions has increased. A set of humanistic goals such as education, charitable assistance, and medi- cal care, and advocated principles such as freedom of choice in the religious faith emerged by religious organizations. It is clear that the Missionaries of these organizations, in the process of spreading their teach- ings, will protect the interests of the state that support them. That is, religious expansion is an «existential- transcendental breakthrough» that expands the sphere of influence of a particular state by gaining control of spiritual dimensions, which is realized through the conquest of a new religious consciousness (Drinova, 2009). «An important aspect of religious expansion is the ability of one person to create models of their actions, behavior, or the ability of one person to cre- ate images of religious behavior for another. An entity with authority creates ideal value models of behavior for others, relying on the system of coercion and their own power resources. The created model is an im- age of someone else; it is not something similar to the subject of power. In the process of introducing it into the consciousness of the object, a pattern of behavior for others developed by the subject is derived from the subject himself, his way of life and behavior.»

Historically, «we see that the growth of fanati- cism coincides with a period of change. When old systems fall apart and new ones have not yet been created, there will be an explosion of all destruc- tive forms of faith, such as bigotry, superstition and prejudice. This belief is explained by the fact that it is strengthened during periods of uncertainty as a very important ability inherent in any person» (Gu- seva, 2015: 74).

If we pay attention to the processes of religious expansion in modern society, the universality of its manifestation, and the underlying content, then we

need to consider the issue of its coverage of exist- ing geopolitical territories in a new way. Drinova, E. M. distinguishes the following typologies of reli- gious expansion: civilizational-religious, state-con- fessional and regional-confessional – in her article»

religious expansion: socio-philosophical aspect», based on historical circumstances.

«Civilizational and religious expansion is a long-term process that goes hand in hand with the conquest of vast territories, the conversion of the conquered peoples to a new faith and the formation of Christian, Islamic and Buddhist civilizations. In the late XX – early XXI centuries, the Euro-Atlantic and Islamic civilizations actively carried out civil and religious aggression. Global aggression means a struggle for the dominance of a new system of politi- cal and religious values. For example, the expansion of the Euro-Atlantic civilization presupposes the active spread and consolidation of both ideological imperatives and the values of «Protestant» ethics.

The state-confessional form of expansion is characteristic of the Middle Ages. Different ways of interpreting sacred texts and conducting religious rituals led to the emergence of denominations. Their philosophical and theological rationale played a key role in this process. The example of Christianity, in particular Orthodoxy, shows how its geopolitical ideas were implemented in the confessional space of the Eastern Church. As a result, the space of the Orthodox world was created» (Drinova, 2009). We know that the policy of Tsarist Russia to colonize Kazakhstan is at the heart of the missionary activity of baptism and Russification.

This type of regional-confessional occupation is paralleled to missionary activities. Its manifesta- tion can be stated as the widespread distribution of non-traditional religious organizations and cults in the regions of Russia, Kazakhstan and many other post-Soviet states. In short, it is a peaceful occupa- tion, carried out by a parable ideology.

«An important role in this process was played by the revival of religious values in the public life of the country, as well as the regional spread of Chris- tianity and Islam» (Drinova, 2009). Islam contrib- uted to the formation of the principles of peaceful cooperation of various religions of the Middle Volga region. The openness of borders and liberal religious legislation of Kazakhstan became the basis for the influx of non-traditional religious movements and cults, the activation of the activities of missionaries and preachers. Some of them act legally; others se- cretly carry out their thoughts on charity, education- al courses, medical care, etc. Of course, this, in turn, affects the religious consciousness of Kazakhstanis,

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Manifestations and prerequisites of religious expansion in the spiritual sphere of modern Kazakhstan

despite the fact that they are alien to their religion and mentality, traditions and realities, affects the transformation of the spiritual worldview, the denial of normal values.

It should be noted that missionary activity is aimed not only at spreading religious values, but also contributes to the formation of a positive im- age of the aggressor country. At the same time, the exporting countries of religious ideas actively use economic mechanisms:

– Financial assistance is provided for the con- struction of religious buildings;

– There are long-term programs of intensive free religious education abroad;

– Charitable organizations regularly make cash payments for missionary activities.

In modern Kazakhstan, religious expansion takes several forms. First, the spread of neo-Prot- estant movements. Neo-Protestant religious move- ments and movements were the first to realize the goals of religious expansion during the period of independence and statehood of Kazakhstan. Of course, the goals of these movements are different, some are financial and others are political. Those who know the true value and effectiveness of reli- gious factors in solving political problems prefer to skillfully channel the potential and energy of mis- sionaries in the right direction and use them calmly.

In this case, several factors are effectively used:

Periods of economic crisis and crisis in the world and in the country as a whole. Periods when people are looking for not only material, but also spiritual support. In this case, when people are in a state of existential inevitability (unemployment, scarcity), this will be the basis for people to hope in God. This situation was exploited by the neo-Protestant move- ments. They offered material assistance and spiri- tual support. Thus, the fact of religious proselytism is clearly reflected. At the same time, a particular danger is posed by the fact that a number of foreign missionaries follow non-traditional systems that are prohibited in many Western countries.

– Periods of spiritual stress. It depends not only on economic and political factors. It is characterized by the presence of an empty space in the inner spiri- tual world of people. This is especially true when there are vague hopes for the future, loneliness and loneliness. This is especially true today. The con- quest of human life with technological and informa- tion waves, confusing virtual life with real life, can also lead to spiritual stress. Then people go in search of the spiritual world. Missionary methods such as

«subjugation by love» are especially effective in this regard.

– Periods of political instability in the world, social instability, change of values, environmental disasters, and the prevalence of human fears due to unforeseen events. For example, the spread of neomyths and rumors about the «Apocalypse» and

«Apocalypse» became the basis for people to seek consolation and hope for the future in religion. It is clear that the current COVID-19 pandemic is both a cause for concern and a cause for concern. There are many religious movements that have taken advan- tage of this situation.

– The opening of information opportunities, the possibilities of social networks. On social media and the Internet, interesting content and missionary ser- vices of religious sites that cover all social statuses and are active for the whole society make it easy to attract people, especially young people.

The next religious expansion is associated with the conquest of the world by new Islamic move- ments. The above factors are also characteristic of the religious expansion of neo-Islamic movements, but the specificity of neo-Islamic expansion is char- acterized by resistance to Western globalization, on the one hand, and the introduction of the concept of globalization based on Islamic traditions, on the other. Other. This situation is reflected not only in the peaceful spread of Islam, but also in radical and extremist forms. This is evidenced by factors in the Middle East. Of course, the West, Russia and the United States are the main enemies of neo-Islamic movements, but in the implementation of their con- cepts of globalization, they effectively use both their hostile states and the peoples of Central Asia. The religious expansion of neo-Islamic movements in Kazakhstani land contradicts our traditional world- view.

– First of all, it is obvious that we are talking about the self-determination of the Kazakh people in the post-Soviet period. Self-awareness is character- ized by our mentality, religion, language and tradi- tional values. At this point, the religious position be- came a sensitive issue. Historically, many religions came to the Kazakh land and tried to spread, but Is- lam was assimilated with the nature of the Kazakh people, associated with our traditions and became an accepted religion. It should be noted that Islam was introduced peacefully, without any terror or ex- tremism. «With the arrival of Islam on the Kazakh land, the Kazakh people perform their prayers on the basis of the school of Imam Agzam Abu Hanifa and the school of religious faith of Imam Maturidi» (Ab- dumanapov, 2014). However, the Russian Empire tried to deny Islam in politics. This continued from the atheistic position of the Soviet period, and the re-

Ақпарат көздері

СӘЙКЕС КЕЛЕТІН ҚҰЖАТТАР

Kadirbayeva1,3 , A.N Nessipbayeva2 1Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling, Kazakhstan, Almaty 2Kazakh National Women’s Teacher Training University, Kazakhstan, Almaty