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ИЗВЕСТИЯ

НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК РЕСПУБЛИКИ

КАЗАХСТАН Satbayev University

N E W S

OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN Satbayev University ISSN 2224-5278 (Print)

ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ ҰЛТТЫҚ ҒЫЛЫМ АКАДЕМИЯСЫ

Satbayev University

Х А Б А Р Л А Р Ы

SERIES

OF GEOLOGY AND TECHNICAL SCIENCES

3 (453)

MAY – JUNE 2022

THE JOURNAL WAS FOUNDED IN 1940 PUBLISHED 6 TIMES A YEAR

ALMATY, NAS RK

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Index, a new edition of Web of Science. Content in this index is under consideration by Clarivate Analytics to be accepted in the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Social Sciences Citation Index, and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index. The quality and depth of content Web of Science offers to researchers, authors, publishers, and institutions sets it apart from other research databases. The inclusion of News of NAS RK. Series of geology and technical sciences in the Emerging Sources Citation Index demonstrates our dedication to providing the most relevant and influential content of geology and engineering sciences to our community.

Қазақстан Республикасы Ұлттық ғылым академиясы «ҚР ҰҒА Хабарлары. Геология және техникалық ғылымдар сериясы» ғылыми журналының Web of Science-тің жаңаланған нұсқасы Emerging Sources Citation Index-те индекстелуге қабылданғанын хабарлайды. Бұл индекстелу барысында Clarivate Analytics компаниясы журналды одан әрі the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Social Sciences Citation Index және the Arts & Humanities Citation Index-ке қабылдау мәселесін қарастыруда. Webof Science зерттеушілер, авторлар, баспашылар мен мекемелерге контент тереңдігі мен сапасын ұсынады. ҚР ҰҒА Хабарлары. Геология және техникалық ғылымдар сериясы Emerging Sources Citation Index-ке енуі біздің қоғамдастық үшін ең өзекті және беделді геология және техникалық ғылымдар бойынша контентке адалдығымызды білдіреді.

НАН РК сообщает, что научный журнал «Известия НАН РК. Серия геологии и технических наук» был принят для индексирования в Emerging Sources Citation Index, обновленной версии Web of Science. Содержание в этом индексировании находится в стадии рассмотрения компанией Clarivate Analytics для дальнейшего принятия журнала в the Science Citation Index Expanded, the Social Sciences Citation Index и the Arts & Humanities Citation Index. Web of Science предлагает качество и глубину контента для исследователей, авторов, издателей и учреждений. Включение Известия НАН РК. Серия геологии и технических наук в Emerging Sources Citation Index демонстрирует нашу приверженность к наиболее актуальному и влиятельному контенту по геологии и техническим наукам для нашего сообщества.

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«ҚР ҰҒА Хабарлары. Геология және техникалық ғылымдар сериясы».

ISSN 2518-170X (Online), ISSN 2224-5278 (Print)

Меншіктеуші: «Қазақстан Республикасының Ұлттық ғылым академиясы» РҚБ (Алматы қ.).

Қазақстан Республикасының Ақпарат және қоғамдық даму министрлiгiнің Ақпарат комитетінде 29.07.2020 ж. берілген № KZ39VPY00025420 мерзімдік басылым тіркеуіне қойылу туралы куәлік.

Тақырыптық бағыты: геология, мұнай және газды өңдеудің химиялық технологиялары, мұнай химиясы, металдарды алу және олардың қосындыларының технологиясы.

Мерзімділігі: жылына 6 рет.

Тиражы: 300 дана.

Редакцияның мекен-жайы: 050010, Алматы қ., Шевченко көш., 28, 219 бөл., тел.: 272-13-19 http://www.geolog-technical.kz/index.php/en/

© Қазақстан Республикасының Ұлттық ғылым академиясы, 2022 Типографияның мекен-жайы: «Аруна» ЖК, Алматы қ., Мұратбаев көш., 75.

Бас редактор

ЖҰРЫНОВ Мұрат Жұрынұлы, химия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, ҚР ҰҒА академигі, Қазақстан Республикасы Ұлттық Ғылым академиясының президенті, АҚ «Д.В.

Сокольский атындағы отын, катализ және электрохимия институтының» бас директоры (Алматы, Қазақстан) H = 4

Ғылыми хатшы

АБСАДЫКОВ Бахыт Нарикбайұлы, техника ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, ҚР ҰҒА жауапты хатшысы, А.Б. Бектұров атындағы химия ғылымдары институты (Алматы, Қазақстан) H = 5

Р е д а к ц и я л ы қ а л қ а:

ӘБСАМЕТОВ Мәліс Құдысұлы (бас редактордың орынбасары), геология-минералогия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, ҚР ҰҒА академигі, «У.М. Ахмедсафина атындағы гидрогеология және геоэкология институтының» директоры (Алматы, Қазақстан) H = 2

ЖОЛТАЕВ Герой Жолтайұлы (бас редактордың орынбасары), геология-минералогия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, Қ.И. Сатпаев тындағы геология ғылымдары институтының директоры (Алматы, Қазақстан) Н=2

СНОУ Дэниел, Рһ.D, қауымдастырылған профессор, Небраска университетінің Су ғылымдары зертханасының директоры (Небраска штаты, АҚШ) H = 32

ЗЕЛЬТМАН Реймар, Рһ.D, табиғи тарих мұражайының Жер туралы ғылымдар бөлімінде петрология және пайдалы қазбалар кен орындары саласындағы зерттеулердің жетекшісі (Лондон, Англия) H = 37

ПАНФИЛОВ Михаил Борисович, техника ғылымдарының докторы, Нанси университетінің профессоры (Нанси, Франция) Н=15

ШЕН Пин, Рһ.D, Қытай геологиялық қоғамының тау геологиясы комитеті директорының орын- басары, Американдық экономикалық геологтар қауымдастығының мүшесі (Пекин, Қытай) H = 25 ФИШЕР Аксель, Ph.D, Дрезден техникалық университетінің қауымдастырылған профессоры (Дрезден, Берлин) Н = 6

КОНТОРОВИЧ Алексей Эмильевич, геология-минералогия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, РҒА академигі, А.А. Трофимука атындағы мұнай-газ геологиясы және геофизика институты (Новосибирск, Ресей) H = 19

АГАБЕКОВ Владимир Енокович, химия ғылымдарының докторы, Беларусь ҰҒА академигі, Жаңа материалдар химиясы институтының құрметті директоры (Минск, Беларусь) H = 13

КАТАЛИН Стефан, Рһ.D, Дрезден техникалық университетінің қауымдастырылған профессоры (Дрезден, Берлин) H = 20

СЕЙТМҰРАТОВА Элеонора Юсуповна, геология-минералогия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор, ҚР ҰҒА корреспондент-мүшесі, Қ.И. Сатпаев атындағы Геология ғылымдары институты зертханасының меңгерушісі (Алматы, Қазақстан) Н=11

САҒЫНТАЕВ Жанай, Ph.D, қауымдастырылған профессор, Назарбаев университеті (Нұр- Сұлтан, Қазақстан) H = 11

ФРАТТИНИ Паоло, Рһ.D, Бикокк Милан университеті қауымдастырылған профессоры (Милан, Италия) H = 28

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«Известия НАН РК. Серия геологии и технических наук».

ISSN 2518-170X (Online), ISSN 2224-5278 (Print)

Собственник: Республиканское общественное объединение «Национальная академия наук Республики Казахстан» (г. Алматы).

Свидетельство о постановке на учет периодического печатного издания в Комитете информации Министерства информации и общественного развития Республики Казахстан № KZ39VPY00025420, выданное 29.07.2020 г.

Тематическая направленность: геология, химические технологии переработки нефти и газа, нефтехимия, технологии извлечения металлов и их соеденений.

Периодичность: 6 раз в год.

Тираж: 300 экземпляров.

Адрес редакции: 050010, г. Алматы, ул. Шевченко, 28, оф. 219, тел.: 272-13-19 http://www.geolog-technical.kz/index.php/en/

© Национальная академия наук Республики Казахстан, 2022 Адрес типографии: ИП «Аруна», г. Алматы, ул. Муратбаева, 75.

Главный редактор

ЖУРИНОВ Мурат Журинович, доктор химических наук, профессор, академик НАН РК, президент Национальной академии наук Республики Казахстан, генеральный директор АО

«Институт топлива, катализа и электрохимии им. Д.В. Сокольского» (Алматы, Казахстан) H = 4 Ученный секретарь

АБСАДЫКОВ Бахыт Нарикбаевич, доктор технических наук, профессор, ответственный секретарь НАН РК, Институт химических наук им. А.Б. Бектурова (Алматы, Казахстан) H = 5

Р е д а к ц и о н н а я к о л л е г и я:

АБСАМЕТОВ Малис Кудысович, (заместитель главного редактора), доктор геологомине ра ло- гических наук, профессор, академик НАН РК, директор Института гидрогеологии и геоэкологии им.

У.М. Ахмедсафина (Алматы, Казахстан) H = 2

ЖОЛТАЕВ Герой Жолтаевич, (заместитель главного редактора), доктор геологоминерало- ги ческих наук, профессор, директор Института геологических наук им. К.И. Сатпаева (Алматы, Казахстан) Н=2

СНОУ Дэниел, Ph.D, ассоциированный профессор, директор Лаборатории водных наук универ- ситета Небраски (штат Небраска, США) H = 32

ЗЕЛЬТМАН Реймар, Ph.D, руководитель исследований в области петрологии и месторождений полезных ископаемых в Отделе наук о Земле Музея естественной истории (Лондон, Англия) H = 37

ПАНФИЛОВ Михаил Борисович, доктор технических наук, профессор Университета Нанси (Нанси, Франция) Н=15

ШЕН Пин, Ph.D, заместитель директора Комитета по горной геологии Китайского геологического общества, член Американской ассоциации экономических геологов (Пекин, Китай) H = 25

ФИШЕР Аксель, ассоциированный профессор, Ph.D, технический университет Дрезден (Дрезден, Берлин) H = 6

КОНТОРОВИЧ Алексей Эмильевич, доктор геолого-минералогических наук, профессор, академик РАН, Институт нефтегазовой геологии и геофизики им. А.А. Трофимука СО РАН (Новосибирск, Россия) H = 19

АГАБЕКОВ Владимир Енокович, доктор химических наук, академик НАН Беларуси, почетный директор Института химии новых материалов (Минск, Беларусь) H = 13

КАТАЛИН Стефан, Ph.D, ассоциированный профессор, Технический университет (Дрезден, Берлин) H = 20

СЕЙТМУРАТОВА Элеонора Юсуповна, доктор геолого-минералогических наук, профессор, член-корреспондент НАН РК, заведующая лаборатории Института геологических наук им. К.И.

Сатпаева (Алматы, Казахстан) Н=11

САГИНТАЕВ Жанай, Ph.D, ассоциированный профессор, Назарбаев университет (Нурсултан, Казахстан) H = 11

ФРАТТИНИ Паоло, Ph.D, ассоциированный профессор, Миланский университет Бикокк (Милан, Италия) H = 28

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News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series of geology and technology sciences.

ISSN 2518-170X (Online), ISSN 2224-5278 (Print)

Owner: RPA «National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan» (Almaty).

The certificate of registration of a periodical printed publication in the Committee of information of the Ministry of Information and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. KZ39VPY00025420, issued 29.07.2020.

Thematic scope: geology, chemical technologies for oil and gas processing, petrochemistry, technologies for extracting metals and their connections.

Periodicity: 6 times a year.

Circulation: 300 copies.

Editorial address: 28, Shevchenko str., of. 219, Almaty, 050010, tel. 272-13-19 http://www.geolog-technical.kz/index.php/en/

© National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2022 Address of printing house: ST «Aruna», 75, Muratbayev str, Almaty.

Editorial chief

ZHURINOV Murat Zhurinovich, doctor of chemistry, professor, academician of NAS RK, president of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, general director of JSC “Institute of fuel, catalysis and electrochemistry named after D.V. Sokolsky» (Almaty, Kazakhstan) H = 4

Scientific secretary

ABSADYKOV Bakhyt Narikbaevich, doctor of technical sciences, professor, executive secretary of NAS RK, Bekturov Institute of chemical sciences (Almaty, Kazakhstan) H = 5

E d i t o r i a l b o a r d:

ABSAMETOV Malis Kudysovich, (deputy editor-in-chief), doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, professor, academician of NAS RK, director of the Akhmedsafin Institute of hydrogeology and hydrophysics (Almaty, Kazakhstan) H=2

ZHOLTAEV Geroy Zholtaevich, (deputy editor-in-chief), doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, professor, director of the institute of geological sciences named after K.I. Satpayev (Almaty, Kazakhstan) Н=2

SNOW Daniel, Ph.D, associate professor, director of the labotatory of water sciences, Nebraska University (Nebraska, USA) H = 32

ZELTMAN Reymar, Ph.D, head of research department in petrology and mineral deposits in the Earth sciences section of the museum of natural history (London, England) H = 37

PANFILOV Mikhail Borisovich, doctor of technical sciences, professor at the Nancy University (Nancy, France) Н=15

SHEN Ping, Ph.D, deputy director of the Committee for Mining geology of the China geological Society, Fellow of the American association of economic geologists (Beijing, China) H = 25

FISCHER Axel, Ph.D, associate professor, Dresden University of technology (Dresden, Germany) H = 6 KONTOROVICH Aleksey Emilievich, doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, professor, academician of RAS, Trofimuk Institute of petroleum geology and geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia) H = 19

AGABEKOV Vladimir Enokovich, doctor of chemistry, academician of NAS of Belarus, honorary director of the Institute of chemistry of new materials (Minsk, Belarus) H = 13

KATALIN Stephan, Ph.D, associate professor, Technical university (Dresden, Berlin) H = 20 SEITMURATOVA Eleonora Yusupovna, doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, professor, corresponding member of NAS RK, head of the laboratory of the Institute of geological sciences named after K.I. Satpayev (Almaty, Kazakhstan) Н=11

SAGINTAYEV Zhanay, Ph.D, associate professor, Nazarbayev University (Nursultan, Kazakhstan) H = 11

FRATTINI Paolo, Ph.D, associate professor, university of Milano-Bicocca (Milan, Italy) H = 28

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NEWS of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan SERIES OF GEOLOGY AND TECHNICAL SCIENCES

ISSN 2224-5278

Volume 3, Number 453 (2022), 6-16 https://doi.org/10.32014/2022.2518-170X.176

R.A. Abdulvaliyev, M.N. Kvyatkovskaya, L.M. Imangalieva*, A.I. Manapova

Satbayev University, JSC Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

E-mail: leila.imangalieva@mail.ru

KAOLINITE RAW MATERIALS OF KAZAKHSTAN AND THE METHOD OF THEIR BENEFICIATION

Abstract. The only enterprise in the Republic of Kazakhstan that produces alumina is the Pavlodar aluminum plant, where low-quality bauxites of the Krasnogorsky mine of the Krasnooktyabrsky deposit serve as raw materials.

Bauxites have a low flint modulus and high concentrations of iron and carbonates impurities, which complicates the processing technology.

Kaolinite clays can serve as an additional source of alumina in Kazakhstan, both as an additive to improve the sintering process of red sludge by reducing the iron content, and for self-processing into alumina. The most promising are kaolinite clays of the Alekseevsky deposit, however, when using standard techniques, satisfactory enrichment results were not achieved.

Kaolinite clays are subjected to gravity enrichment before processing into alumina, to increase the efficiency of which preliminary hydrothermal treatment is used.

This study presents the results of gravitational beneficiation of kaolinite clays of Alekseevskoe deposit, which includes hydrothermal pre-treatment in a solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate. It is determined that after hydrothermal treatment the yield of kaolinite fraction increases with increasing temperature, duration and concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and does not depend on L:S ratio.

After hydrothermal pre-treatment of clay the yield of kaolinite fraction increased from 41.4 % to 59.3 % and dispersion of material.

The maximum yield of kaolinite fraction was obtained at temperature 150

оС, ratio L:S=10.0, duration of 300 minutes and concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution 120 g/dm3.

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Key words: kaolinite, quartzite, fraction, silica module, hydrothermal treatment, product yield.

Р.А. Абдулвалиев, М.Н. Квятковская, Л.М. Имангалиева*, А.И. Манапова

Satbayev University, Металлургия және кен байыту институты АҚ, Алматы, Қазахстан.

E-mail: leila.imangalieva@mail.ru

ҚАЗАҚСТАННЫҢ КАОЛИНИТ ШИКІЗАТЫ ЖӘНЕ ОНЫ БАЙЫТУ ӘДІСІ

Аннотация. Қазақстан Республикасында глинозем өндіретін жалғыз кәсіпорын Павлодар алюминий зауыты, мұнда шикізат ретінде Краснооктябрь кен орны Красногор кенішінің төмен сапалы бокситтері.

Бокситтердің құрамы төмен кремний модулі және темір мен карбонат қоспалары жоғары болғандықтан бұл өңдеу технологиясын қиындатады.

Қазақстанда глиноземнің қосымша көзі ретінде каолинитті саздар темірдің құрамын төмендету арқылы қызыл шламды жентектеу процесін жақсарту үшін, сондай-ақ глиноземде өз бетінше өңдеу үшін қоспа ретінде қолдануға болады. Алексеев кен орнының каолинитті саздары ең перспективалы болып табылады, бірақ стандартты әдістерді қолдану кезінде байытудың қанағаттанарлық нәтижелеріне қол жеткізілген жоқ.

Каолинитті балшықтар глиноземге өңдеуден бұрын гравитациялық байытуға ұшырайды, оның тиімділігін арттыру үшін алдын-ала гидро- термиялық өңдеу әдісі қолданылады. Бұл жұмыста натрий гидрокарбонат ерітіндісінде алдын-ала гидротермиялық өңдеуді қамтитын каолинит саздарының гравитациялық байыту нәтижелері көрсетілген. Гидро тер- миялық өңдеуден кейін каолинт фракциясының шығуы температураның, уақыттың және концентрациясының жоғарылауымен жоғарылайды және С:Қ арақатынасына байланысты болмайды.

Балшықты алдын ала гидротермиялық өңдеуден кейін, каолинт фракциясының шығуы 41,4% -дан 59,3% -ға өсті, материалдың дис- персиясы артты. Каолинт фракциясының максималды шығуы 150 оС температурада, С:Қ = 10,0 қатынасында, уақыты 300 минут және натрий гидрокарбонаты ерітіндісінің концентрациясы 120 г / дм3 алынды

Түйін сөздер: каолинит, кварцит, фракция, кремний модулі, гидро- термалды өңдеу, өнім шығару.

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Р.А. Абдулвалиев, М.Н. Квятковская, Л.М. Имангалиева*, А.И. Манапова

Satbayev University, АО Институт металлургии и обогащения, Алматы, Казахстан.

E-mail: leila.imangalieva@mail.ru

КАОЛИНИТОВОЕ СЫРЬЕ КАЗАХСТАНА И СПОСОБ ЕГО ОБОГАЩЕНИЯ

Аннотация. Единственным предприятием в Республике Казахстан, которое производит глинозем является Павлодарский алюминиевый завод, где в качестве сырья служат низкокачественные бокситы Красногорского рудника Краснооктябрьского месторождения. Бокситы имеют низкий кремневый модуль и повышенные содержания примесей железа и карбонатов, что усложняет технологию переработки.

Дополнительным источником глинозема в Казахстане могут служить каолинитовые глины как в виде добавки для улучшения процесса спекания красного шлама путем снижения содержания железа, так и для самостоятельной переработки на глинозем. Наиболее перспективными являются каолинитовые глины Алексеевского месторождения, однако при использовании стандартных приемов не было достигнуто удовлетворительных результатов обогащения.

Каолинитовые глины перед переработкой на глинозем подвергают гравитационному обогащению для повышения эффективности которой применяют предварительную гидротермальную обработку.

В настоящей работе представлены результаты гравитационного обогащения каолинитовых глин Алексеевского месторождения, вклю- чающего предварительную гидротермальную обработку в растворе гидрокарбоната натрия. Установлено, что после гидротермальной обработки выход каолинитовой фракции возрастает с увеличением температуры, продолжительности и концентрации раствора гидро- карбоната натрия и не зависит от отношения Ж:Т.

После предварительной гидротермальной обработки глины увеличился выход каолинитовой фракции с 41,4% до 59,3% и диспергация материала.

Максимальный выход каолинитовой фракции получен при температуре 150оС, отношении Ж:Т=10,0, продолжительности 300 минут и концентрации раствора гидрокарбоната натрия 120 г/дм3.

Ключевые слова: каолинит, кварцит, фракция, кремниевый модуль, гидротермальная обработка, выход продуктов.

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Introduction. The analysis of global alumina production shows that the rate of development of alumina production capacity is lagging behind that of primary aluminium production (http://www.aluminalimited.com/uploads/

ASX-announcement-2017-27-Half-Year-Results-presentation. pdf). The lack of capacity has become one of the major factors behind the rising price of alumina and the main reason for increasing raw material shortages at aluminium smelters. One of the reasons holding back the development of alumina production capacity is the deterioration of raw material quality and lack of effective technologies for processing alternative raw material sources, among which kaolinite clays occupy one of the leading places (https://minerals.usgs.

gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/bauxite/; Zhang et all., 2018; Abdulvaliyev et all, 2019; https://www.marketing-magazin.ru/ imgs/goods/826/ru_kaolin.pdf;

https://docplayer.ru/116077422-Rossiyskiy-i-mirovoy-rynokgliny-i-kaolina- syrevaya-baza-v-2018-godu-russian-andworld-market-of-clay-and-kaolin- raw-materials-base-in-2018).

The world reserves of kaolinite are estimated at 16 billion tonnes. The modern mining and processing of kaolinite raw materials has an established infrastructure, is provided with raw material resources and can be adapted to the production of alumina and by-products in the future. Currently, kaolin is mined in the USA, UK, China, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Arab Republic of Egypt, etc. (Abdulvaliyev et all, 2018; Youssef et all, 1994; Brichkin et all, 2019; Bazhin et all, 2017; Arsentiev et all, 2017). The use of standard techniques of gravity concentration of kaolinite raw materials has not achieved satisfactory results (Kovzalenko et all, 2018).

In order to increase beneficiation efficiency, hydrothermal treatment of kaolinite materials at elevated temperature (350оС) in water was studied (Sysa, 2008). Hydrothermal treatment does not change their crystal structure but leads to formation of less strong coagulation structures with increased plasticity, consisting of particles with average grain size increased by 10 – 20%. As a result, the intensity of interaction between particles is reduced, which increases the efficiency of beneficiation and hydrochemical processing. Kaolinite was found to be the most resistant mineral to hydrothermal treatment.

In the studies carried out, a solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate was used to provide more severe conditions in the hydrothermal treatment of kaolinite clay. The choice of sodium hydrogen carbonate is due to the fact that this reagent has proven itself for the selective separation of components of raw materials (Patent RK 335383, 2019; Patent RK 32333, 2017). The kaolinite concentrate obtained as a result of clay beneficiation is intended for alumina production and therefore part of the unwashed sodium bicarbonate after treatment will not interfere in the further alkaline technology.

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As an alternative source of raw materials for alumina production in the Republic of Kazakhstan the most promising is Alexeyevskoe kaolinite deposit located 22 km north-west of Kokshetau city and processed by “AraiPro” LLP.

Balance reserves of kaolin of the deposit by category B - 13,665 mln. tons, by category С1 - 67,228 mln. tons, category С2 – 174,261mln. tons. The average stripping ratio is not more than 1 m3/t.

Currently, “AraiPro” produces about 300 thousand tonnes of raw kaolin, which is exported to the Russian Federation.

Statement of the problem. The aim of the study was to increase the beneficiation efficiency of kaolinite clays through hydrothermal pretreatment in a solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate.

Methods and methodology of the study. X-ray fluorescence, chemical, X-ray phase and thermal analyses were used in the studies.

X-ray fluorescent analysis was carried out on Venus 200 spectrometer with wave dispersion (PA Nalyical B.V., Holland).

Chemical analysis of samples was performed on optical emission spectro- meter with inductively coupled plasma Optima 2000 DV (USA, PerkinElmer).

Semi-quantitative X-ray phase analysis was carried out on D8 Advance diffractometer (BRUKER) on copper Cu-Kα radiation at accelerating voltage 36 kV, current 25 mA.

The pre-thermal treatment of kaolinite clays was carried out in a solution containing 40 – 120 g/dm3 NaHCO3with L:S=2 – 10,0, at 90 - 230оС and for 30 – 300 minutes using a thermostatically controlled plant with 6 autoclaves rotating through the head and having a working volume of 250 cm3 (Figure 1). The maximum sodium hydrogen carbonate content of 120 g/dm3 in the solution was taken to its solubility limit.

Figure 1 – Thermostatically controlled unit with autoclaves

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The kaolinite fraction of the clay was separated by washing with running water at room temperature.

The silica modulus, μsi, was calculated from Al2O3÷SiO2 ratio.

Study results. The initial product for the study was a representative sample of kaolinite clay Alexeyevskiy deposit, provided by “Araipro” LLP, cor res- ponding to the standard of the organization ST LLP 101240014515-01-2019.

The appearance of kaolinite clay sample is loose sand of whitish colour, den- sity of 2.06 g/cm3, bulk density of 1.36 kg/cm3, the average grain size of 2 mm.

Chemical composition of kaolinite clay sample from Alexeyevskiy deposit wt.%: Al2O3 – 26.9; SiO2 – 56.6; Fe2O3 - 0.537; Na2O – 0.07; SO3 – 0.028; K2О – 1.31; p.p.s. 14.555, µsi – 0.47.

The dispersion and chemical composition of fractions and distribution of elements by size classes of kaolinite clay sample from Alexeyevskiy deposit are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 - Dispersion and chemical composition of fractions in a representative sample of kaolinite clay from the Alexeyevskiy deposit

Granularity

class, mm Yield, % Contents, % μsi Distribution, %

Аl2ОЗ SiО2 2ОЗ p.p. Аl2ОЗ SiО2 2ОЗ

+0.05 58.6 14.18 60.85 0.69 24.28 0.233 30.9 58.46 55.48

-0.05+0.02 38.06 30.89 49.8 0.597 18.71 0.62 65.08 38.53 41.27 -20 + 10 μm 3.05 32.07 48.09 0.631 19.209 0.67 3.6 2.7 2.9 -10 μm 0.29 30.35 46.59 0.689 22.37 0.651 0.42 0.31 0.35

Total 100 100 100 100

From the results it follows that kaolinite fraction of clay is mainly included in the composition of size classes equal to – 0.05.

Chemical composition of kaolinite fraction of clay, wt.%: Al2O3 - 31.2; SiO2 – 51.6; Fe2O3 – 0.53; CaO 0.43; Na2O – 0.095; MgO 0.2; SO3 0.02; K2О – 1.5;

TiO2 1.05; Cl0.02; p.p. 13.355; µsi – 0.6.

Chemical composition of quartzite fraction, wt.%: Al2O3, 7.65; SiO2, 65.5;

Fe2O3, 0.68; CaO 0.29; Na2O, 0.031; MgO 0.08; SO3 0.05; K2O, 0.39; TiO2 0.9;

Cl-0.016; p.p. 24.413; µsi – 0.12.

X-ray patterns of kaolinite and quartzite fractions of clay from Alexeyevskiy deposit are shown in Figures 2, 3.

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Figure 2 - X-ray diagram of the kaolinite clay fraction of the Alexeyevskiy deposit

Figure 3 - X-ray diagram of the quartzite fraction of the Alexeyevskiy clay deposit

The yield of the kaolinite fraction in clay beneficiation was investigated as a function of temperature, duration, L:S ratio and concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution during hydrothermal pre-treatment (Table 2).

Table 2 – Dependence of the kaolinite yield of the beneficiation fraction on the hydrothermal pretreatment conditions

Treatment conditions Beneficiation results, % Temperature, оС L:S Time

duration, min Concentration

NaHCO3 Yield of

kaolinite fraction Yield of Al2O3 to kaolinite fraction

Without processing 41.4 72.6

Processing in water,

230°C 10 180 - 47.5 76.8

90 10 60 120 41.6 74.6

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120 10 60 120 47.6 76.9

150 10 60 120 47.6 79.39

180 10 60 120 42.4 79.0

230 10 60 120 42.4 76.93

150 10 30 120 47.4 76.0

150 10 90 120 49.8 83.3

150 10 120 120 58.0 88.67

150 10 300 120 59.3 89.8

150 2 120 120 48.0 86.9

150 4 120 120 48.1 87.0

150 6 120 120 48.3 87.9

150 8 120 120 48.6 87.6

150 10 120 40 48.9 80.3

150 10 120 60 49.3 82.7

150 10 120 80 49.35 83.2

150 10 120 100 49.6 85.6

As a result of studies it was found that the yield of kaolinite fraction increases with increasing temperature, duration and concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution after hydrothermal pretreatment and practically does not depend on the ratio L:S.

The maximum yield of kaolinite fraction of 59.3% was obtained after hydrothermal pre-treatment of clay at 150°C, ratio L:S = 10.0, time of 300 minutes and concentration of sodium bicarbonate solution of 120 g/dm3. The yield of Al2O3 in kaolinite fraction was 89.8%.

The phase composition of kaolinite fraction of clay, obtained in these conditions is presented, %: kaolinite – 57.0; quartz 25.4; muscovite 8.9;

aluminosilicate sodium 4.9 and magnetite 3.7 (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - X-ray of the kaolinite clay fraction after hydrothermal pre-treatment

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The chemical composition of the kaolinite fractions after hydrothermal pre- treatment is shown in Table 3.

Table 3 - Dispersion, chemical composition of kaolinite clay fractions after hydrothermal pre-treatment

Granularity class,

mm Yield,

% Contents, % μsi Distribution, %

Аl2ОЗ SiО2 2ОЗ p.p. Аl2ОЗ SiО2 2ОЗ +0.05 40.7 5.83 77.7 0.98 15.49 0.075 10.2 62.09 61.75 -0.05+0.02 54.89 30.03 48.58 0.61 20.78 0.62 75.37 29.3 29.01 -0.02 + 0.01 μm 4.0 29.76 46.4 0.63 23.21 0.642 14.12 8.49 9.09

-0.01 + 0 μm 0.41 29.73 45.14 0.69 24.44 0.659 0.31 0.13 0.15

Total 100.0 100 100 100

Analysis of obtained results of dispersion composition shows that after hydrothermal treatment of clay in sodium hydrogen carbonate solution in kaolinite fraction the content of – (0.05 + 0.02) mm class increased, i.e.

average particle size increased by 19.9 %. The obtained result corresponds to the conclusions of theoretical investigations of the mechanism of behaviour of kaolin during hydrothermal treatment (Kenzhaliyev et all, 2021).

According to the known method of hydrothermal pre-treatment in water, the yield of kaolinite fraction was 47.5% with an Al2O3 yield of 76.8%, i.e.

the use of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution increased the efficiency of beneficiation.

Conclusions. The conditions of hydrothermal pre-treatment of kaolinite clay from Alexeyevskiy deposit of the Republic of Kazakhstan in solution of sodium bicarbonate for kaolinite fraction extraction at enrichment were investigated. The yield of kaolinite fraction due to treatment increased from 41.4% to 59.3%. Extraction of Al2O3 in kaolinite fraction was 89.8%.

As a result of hydrothermal treatment, the average particle size of the kaolinite fraction increased, which ensured better selectivity of the concentration operation.

The work was carried out with the financial support of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan under grant funding No.

AP09259345.

Information about authors:

Abdulvaliyev Rinat Anvarbekovich – Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of the Laboratory. Satbayev University, JSC Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, Almaty, Kazakhstan, rin-abd@mail.ru, Development of the theoretical part, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6747-6984;

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Kvyatkovskaya Marina Nikolaevna – Satbayev University, JSC Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, Almaty, researcher laboratories of physical methods of analysis, m.kvyatkovskaya@satbayev.university, https://

orcid.org/0000-0002-3686-6370;

Imangalieva Leila Manarbekovna – junior researcher. Satbayev University, JSC Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, Almaty, Kazakhstan, leila.

imangalieva@mail.ru, experimental research, https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 0159-9970;

Manapova Alfiyam Iliyaevna – junior researcher. Satbayev University, JSC Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, Almaty, Kazakhstan, alfiya_0603@mail.ru, experimental research, https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 3258-7948.

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R.A. Abdulvaliyev, M.N. Kvyatkovskaya, L.M. Imangalieva, A.I. Manapova

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ISSN 2518-170X (Online), ISSN 2224-5278 (Print)

Редакторы: М.С. Ахметова, А. Ботанқызы, Р.Жәлиқызы, Д.С. Аленов Верстка на компьютере Г.Д.Жадыранова

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ISSN 2518-170X Online, ISSN 2224-5278 Print Owner: RPA "National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan" Almaty The certificate of registration of a periodic printed

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