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Қ АР АҒ АН Д Ы У Н И В Е Р С И Т Е Т I Н I Ң

ÕÀÁÀÐØÛÑÛ ÂÅÑÒÍÈÊ

К АР АГ АН Д И Н С К О Г О У Н И В Е Р С И Т Е Т А

ISSN 0142-0843

БИОЛОГИЯ. МЕДИЦИНА.

ГЕОГРАФИЯ сериясы

№ 3(79)/2015

Серия БИОЛОГИЯ.

МЕДИЦИНА. ГЕОГРАФИЯ Шілде–тамыз–қыркүйек

30 қыркүйек 2015 ж.

1996 жылдан бастап шығады Жылына 4 рет шығады Июль–август–сентябрь

30 сентября 2015 г.

Издается с 1996 года Выходит 4 раза в год Собственник РГП

Карагандинский государственный университет

имени академика Е.А.Букетова

Бас редакторы — Главный редактор

Е.К.КУБЕЕВ,

академик МАН ВШ, д-р юрид. наук, профессор

Зам. главного редактора Х.Б.Омаров, д-р техн. наук Ответственный секретарь Г.Ю.Аманбаева, д-р филол. наук

Серияның редакция алқасы — Редакционная коллегия серии

М.А.Мукашева, редактор д-р биол. наук;

Р.Г.Оганесян, д-р PhD по биотехнол. (США);

Д.В.Суржиков, д-р биол. наук (Россия);

К.-Д.Конерт, д-р биол. наук (ФРГ);

М.Р.Хантурин, д-р биол. наук;

М.С.Панин, д-р биол. наук;

Ш.М.Надиров, д-р геогр. наук;

Г.Г.Мейрамов, д-р мед. наук;

А.Е.Конкабаева, д-р мед. наук;

Г.О.Жузбаева, ответственный секретарь канд. биол. наук

Адрес редакции: 100028, г. Караганда, ул. Университетская, 28 Тел.: (7212) 77-03-69 (внутр. 1026); факс: (7212) 77-03-84.

E-mail: vestnick_kargu@ksu.kz. Сайт: vestnik.ksu.kz

Редактор И.Д.Рожнова Редакторы Ж.Т.Нұрмұханова Техн. редактор В.В.Бутяйкин

Издательство Карагандинского государственного университета

им. Е.А.Букетова 100012, г. Караганда,

ул. Гоголя, 38, тел.: (7212) 51-38-20 e-mail: izd_kargu@mail.ru Басуға 28.09.2015 ж. қол қойылды.

Пiшiмi 6084 1/8.

Офсеттік қағазы.

Көлемi 18,62 б.т.

Таралымы 300 дана.

Бағасы келiсiм бойынша.

Тапсырыс № 273.

Подписано в печать 28.09.2015 г.

Формат 6084 1/8.

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Объем 18,62 п.л. Тираж 300 экз.

Цена договорная. Заказ № 273.

Отпечатано в типографии издательства КарГУ

им. Е.А.Букетова

© Карагандинский государственный университет, 2015 Зарегистрирован Министерством культуры и информации Республики Казахстан.

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МАЗМҰНЫ СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ТІРШІЛІКТАНУ БИОЛОГИЯ

Зернке Б., Мұқашева M.A., Мұқашева Г.Ж., Тыкежанова Г.M., Қазимова A.E. Экология- лық сапаны басқарудағы экологиялық-гигие- налық бақылаудың рөлі ... 4

Zernke B., Mukasheva M.A., Mukasheva G.Zh., Tykezhanova G.M., Kazimova A.E. The role of ecological-hygienic monitoring in the manage- ment of environmental quality... 4 Қоңқабаева А.Е., Баранова Т.И., Тыкежано-

ва Г.М., Нұрлыбаева Қ.А., Қанафина Б.А., Бү- гембаева А.Т., Расол М. Спортпен үнемі шұ- ғылданатын жəне шұғылданбайтын студент- тер ағзасының регуляторлық жүйесінің функ- ционалдық күйіне баға беру ... 9

Konkabaeva A.E., Baranova T.I., Tykezhano- va G.M., Nurlybaeva K.A., Кanafina B.A., Bu- gembaeva A.T., Rasol M. Comparative estimation of regulatory systems’ functional state of regular- ly exercising and not exercising sports students .... 9 Айтқұлов А.М., Соколенко Я.Ю. Қарағанды

облысы территориясындағы қатты тұрмыстық қалдықтар шығындарының кешенді бағытта- луы мен тиімділігі сараптамасының жүзеге асырылуы ... 15

Айткулов А.М., Соколенко Я.Ю. Анализ выгод и затрат реализации комплексного управления твердыми бытовыми отходами на территории Карагандинской области ... 15

Гаврилькова Е.А., Додонова А.Ш. Криоконсер- вациядан кейінгі Rhapоnticum carthamoides тұ- қымдарының өсу қарқындылығының биоло- гиясы ... 21

Гаврилькова Е.А., Додонова А.Ш. Биология прорастания семенного материала Rhapоn- ticum carthamoides после криоконсервации ... 21 Мусина А.А., Рахметова Б.Т., Сүлеймено-

ва Р.Қ. Студенттердің тəжірибелік дағдыла- рын бағалау барысында виртуалды интерак- тивті тренажерларды қолданудың тиімділігі ... 27

Мусина А.А., Рахметова Б.Т., Сулеймено- ва Р.К. Эффективность применения виртуаль- ных интерактивных тренажеров при оценке практических навыков студентов ... 27 Абукенова В.С., Качур О.Г. Е.А.Бөкетов атын-

дағы ҚарМУ Табиғат мұражайының жинағын- дағы мұртты-қоңыздардың зоогеографиялық құрылымы... 31

Abukenova V.S., Kachur O.G. Zoogeographical structure of Cerambycidae beetles family from the collection of KarSU Nature Museum ... 31 Жұмина А.Г. Нуклеин қышқылдарының іл-

мекті изотермді амплификациясы: принципі жəне қолданылуы ... 37

Жумина А.Г. Петлевая изотермическая ам- плификация нуклеиновых кислот: принцип и применение ... 37 Иманбаева А.А., Ишмуратова М.Ю., Дүйсено-

ва Н.И., Тұяқова А.Т. Маңғыстау облысының флорасындағы мəдени өсімдіктердің жабайы туыстарының түр құрамын айқындау ... 44

Иманбаева А.А., Ишмуратова М.Ю., Дуйсено- ва Н.И., Туякова А.Т. К изучению видового состава диких сородичей культурных расте- ний Мангистауской области ... 44 Старикова А.Е., Зернке Б. Өндірістік ауланың

топырақ жəне өсімдік жамылғыларының жағ- дайына «Киров» шахтасының əсерін бағалау .. 53

Starikova A.Ye., Zernke B. The assessment of impact of «Kirovskaya» mine on the state of a soil and plant cover of the industrial site ... 53 Нұрлыбаева К.А., Бөдеева Р.Т., Əбдиева А.А.,

Расол М. Дəстүрлі дамытып оқыту бағдарла- масы бойынша оқитын бастауыш сынып оқу- шыларының ағзасының самотометрикалық көрсеткіштерінің салыстырмалы сипаттамасы 58

Нурлыбаева К.А., Бодеева Р.Т., Абдиева А.А., Расол М. Сравнительная характеристика са- мотометрических показателей детей младше- го школьного возраста, обучающихся по тра- диционной развивающей программе ... 58 Абукенова В.С. Жобалау микроскоп көмегімен

топырақ микрофаунасын теңдестіру ерекше- ліктері туралы ... 64

Абукенова В.С. Об особенностях идентифика- ции почвенной микрофауны при помощи про- екционного микроскопа ... 64 Тілеукенова С.Ү., Ишмуратова М.Ю., Гав-

рилькова Е.А., Əлімбаева А.Е. Жабық топы- рақта ылғал сорбенттерді қолдану негізінде гүлді жəне көкөністі дақылдардың морфоло- гиялық көрсеткіштері мен өнімділігін зерттеу 74

Тлеукенова С.У., Ишмуратова М.Ю., Гав- рилькова Е.А., Алимбаева А.Е. Изучение мор- фологических показателей и урожайности овощных культур на фоне внесения влагосор- бентов в закрытом грунте ... 74

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Содержание Имашева Б.С., Аленай У. Тұрмыстық қатты

қалдықтарды жоюдың экологиялық тəсілі ... 83 Имашева Б.С., Аленай У. Экологический под- ход к утилизации твердых бытовых отходов .... 83 Жұмағалиева Ж.Ж. Artemisia gracil. Krasch.

(жұқа жусан) өсімдігінен алынған сантонин туындыларының микробқа қарсы белсенділігі 93

Жумагалиева Ж.Ж. Антимикробная актив- ность производных сантонина, выделенных из растения Artemisia gracil. Krasch. ... 93 Нұрлыбаева К.А. Отандық жəне импорттық

мал шаруашылығы өнімдерінің антибиотик- тердің қалдық мөлшерімен ластану дəрежесін зерттеу ... 99

Нурлыбаева К.А. Изучение степени загрязне- ния остаточным количеством антибиотиков животноводческий продукции отечественного и импортного производства ... 99 Крайнюк В.Н. Орталық Қазақстанда су алабұ-

ға Perca fluviatilis L., 1758 (Percidae) морфо- физиологиялық көрсеткіштерінің жыныстық өзгермелілігі ... 104

Крайнюк В.Н. Половая изменчивость морфо- физиологических индексов у окуня Perca fluviatilis L., 1758 (Percidae) из водоемов Цен- трального Казахстана ... 104 Спанбаев А.Д., Бисенғалиева А.Т. Астана қала-

сының Жерұйық саябағындағы қайың жəне терек ағаштарының фитопатогенді саңырау- құлақ ауруларын геоақпараттық жүйелер тех- нологияларын қолдана отырып зерттеу ... 112

Спанбаев А.Д., Бисенгалиева А.Т. Изучение фитопатогенных грибов и поврежденных ими частей деревьев — березы и тополя в парке Жеруйык г. Астаны с использованием геоин- формационных систем ... 112

МЕДИЦИНА МЕДИЦИНА

Мусина А.А., Сүлейменова Р.Қ., Татаева Р.К., Сембиева Ф.Т., Керуенова З., Юсупова А., Сə- кенова А. Астана қаласының жасөспірімдері- нің девиантты жағдайын дамытудағы басты факторды бағалау ... 117

Мусина А.А., Сулейменова Р.К., Татаева Р.К., Сембиева Ф.Т., Керуенова З., Юсупова А., Са- кенова А. Оценка ведущих факторов в разви- тии девиантных состояний у подростков г. Астаны ... 117 Қойгелдинова Ш.С., Ыбыраев С.А., Жүзбае-

ва Г.Ө., Қасымова А.К. Хризотил-асбесттің əсерінен өкпенің кəсіби аурулары мəселесіне қазіргі уақыттағы көзқарас ... 122

Койгельдинова Ш.С., Ибраев С.А., Жузбае- ва Г.О., Касымова А.К. Современный взгляд на проблему профессиональных заболеваний легких от воздействия хризотил-асбеста ... 122 Серікбай А.Т., Қыстаубаева З.Т. Экстракорпо-

ралды ұрықтандыру нəтижесінде дүниеге кел- ген бір жұмыртқалы жəне екі жұмыртқалы егіздердің физиологиялық-психологиялық ерекшеліктері ... 132

Серикбай А.Т., Кыстаубаева З.Т. Физиолого- психологические особенности одно- и двуяй- цевых близнецов, появившихся на свет путем экстракорпорального оплодотворения ... 132 Нұғыманова Ш.М. Сыртқы орта факторлары-

ның əсерінен болатын балалардың науқасты- лығын зерттеу ... 137

Нугуманова Ш.М. Изучение заболеваемости детского населения при воздействии факторов внешней среды ... 137

ГЕОГРАФИЯ ГЕОГРАФИЯ

Жанғожина Г.М. Нұра өзені алабының ласта-

нуына антропогендік факторлардың əсер етуі . 142 Жангожина Г.М. Влияние антропогенных факторов на загрязнение бассейна реки Нуры . 142 АВТОРЛАР ТУРАЛЫ МƏЛІМЕТТЕР ... 148 СВЕДЕНИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ ... 148

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БИОЛОГИЯ

UDC 631.4:546.3:001.18

B.Zernke1, M.A.Mukasheva2, G.Zh.Mukasheva2, G.M.Tykezhanova2, A.E.Kazimova2

1«Schwarze Kiefern» business park, FRG;

2Ye.A.Buketov Karaganda State University (E-mail: manara07@mail.ru)

The role of ecological-hygienic monitoring in the management of environmental quality

The questions on the ecological projects with use of methodology of an estimation of risk and economic effi- ciency are surveyed at acceptance of the decisions about unhealthy industrial emissions. Thus it is necessary to give attention to systems of long-term observations including: research of spatial — temporary distribution of chemical substance; optimization of a network of observation; optimization of parameters and agents of observation; automation of system of monitoring; organization of flows of the information reports.

Key words: industrial facilities, carcinogenic substances, monitoring system, optimization network surveil- lance.

Currently hygienic science in Kazakhstan is in its infancy in terms of new economic relations. There- fore, it is necessary not only to develop new methodological approaches for the regulation of chemicals in separate environments: chemical pollution in water, air, soil, air, industrial residential, public buildings, and on this basis to develop a methodology of a single hygienic standards. Should the coverage of issues relating to hygienic bases of the development and distribution of productive forces and the territorial-industrial com- plexes. It is necessary to take a very active role in ensuring the most favorable conditions of life and labour of the population and to actively participate in policy formation in the field of environmental protection. At the same time one of the important methodological task is the characterization of the contamination of envi- ronmental objects in assessing its effects on the body and establishing their distribution on the different groups of the population (in percent) level affecting concentrations as in the specific conditions of settle- ments and regions and the country as a whole [1]. It is necessary to consider the level of impact of emissions (certification) of industrial enterprises depending on location, specific significance in the formation of specif- ic health situation analysis of the specific features of the natural environment of the region. Based on the eco- logical-hygienic monitoring to divide the whole area into areas with different pollution levels and to map sanitary zoning. Based on the analysis of data on the level of environmental pollution, population exposed to adverse factors, the forecast changes in the environment due to the economic development of the region. Ear- lier studies have shown that destabilization of the metabolic status of an individual is the consequence of a sufficiently high level of chemical contamination, which shows the need for search and analysis of the litera- ture on the biochemical mechanisms of action of certain substances on the body and biotransformation pro- cesses.

The main goal for the near future is tested in conditions of full-scale research methodology study on the improvement of the environment on the basis of its comprehensive assessment using multi-criteria models.

Expressed the multifactorial nature of the environment necessitates the evaluation of its States through health as an integral indicator of its quality. To improve the sanitary situation of the industrial regions of Kazakh- stan and solve problems in bioremediation of environmental objects important programming on the basis of legal, sanitary and sanitary blocks of activities. In recent years, Kazakhstan has become one of the countries actively extracting oil.

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The role of ecological-hygienic …

The problem of pollution by oil is extremely relevant [2]. The greatest danger from oil contamination occurs during production, storage, transportation and processing of oil. When soil contamination by crude oil at a level of about 100 mg/kg, a marked reduction of self-purification processes, and at 300 mg/kg — their almost complete cessation. Among the many remediation technologies for cleaning of natural environments from petroleum products, it is important to use biodestruction as an independent method, or in combination with mechanical, phyto-reclamation methods [3]. The number of microorganisms capable of using to power the carbon alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, are included with crude oil. It's basically the microorganisms Acinetobacter, Candida, Rhodococcus, which clone on selected environments and get the strains with the given parameters. When deciding about the use of biologics in bioremediational technolo- gies, the main requirements strains of microorganisms are: absolute epatajnosti, lack of virulence, toxicity.

The strains should not be able to dissemination to internal organs of humans and animals, and to restrict irri- tants. Hygienic competence in the use of biodestruction order bioremediation of environmental objects (wa- ter-soil) should be based on a comprehensive examination of the results of laboratory and pilot tests, and the decision about the use of the drug.

However, it is necessary to improve methods for integrated assessment of environmental quality. In this approach, you must determine the actual loading of the entire variety of anthropogenic impact. This takes into account that remote and cumulative effect of changes in the environment in General prevail over the di- rect and acute effects. With this in mind, you must focus on tracking subtractive situations using biochemi- cal, cytogenetic, immunological indicators reflecting early changes in the body. It requires the creation of information technology for analytical epidemiology of mass non-communicable diseases due to exposure to toxic compounds. You need to create a model of causality with regard to sanitary conditions. One of the ac- tivities designed to achieve the Kazakhstan law «About sanitary and epidemiological happiness of popula- tion» is the certification of industrial enterprises in harmful emissions. Unfortunately, the number of toxic, carcinogenic hazardous substances into the environment cannot be described using the data given in the

«Passport» industrial enterprises of Kazakhstan. In this regard, the data are uncertainties associated primarily with the lack of monitoring of carcinogenic substances in the environment. To address questions about the contamination of environmental objects are developed environmental projects using the methodology of risk assessment and cost-effectiveness when making decisions about the harmful emissions of pollutants with respect to each of the production cycle. The first phase of the project is detailed quantitative assessment of important chemicals in the target company. To further determine the geographic coordinates of polluting sites, taking into account the number of sources and the exposed population, i.e. the population residing in the area of the sources of industrial emissions. To assess the impact of contaminants use of the dispersion model to break up emissions in the air, it is necessary to consider it average concentrations, and not the max- imum impact indicators that lead to chronic diseases, and especially to the rise of cancer and other chronic diseases with a high probability of a fatal outcome [3]. Noteworthy is the development of an automated sys- tem of management of ecological risks on the example of Aksu Ferroalloy plant, where for the first time in Kazakhstan was implemented automated system to track the impact of industrial emissions on the environ- ment, to develop a database, select the monitoring scheme, to build a computer card, to determine the zone of influence enterprises [4]. According to the international standards ISO 14001 is one of the highest priorities is the management of environmental quality, based on the requirements of the legislative acts and environ- mental aspects associated with the activities of the organization, its products and services. Surveillance sys- tem, existing in Kazakhstan to establish causation in general cannot be considered as fully established, per- manently adjusted and quite effective. This is largely the consequence of the fact that Kazakhstan still does not exist a unified approach to the monitoring of environmental objects and what goals should be achieved during the formation of the observations. You need organized in an optimized regulation system long-term observations of the environment and sources of anthropogenic impact on her. In this case, the «optimization»

is acceptable in all respects and with the positions of existing economic opportunities [5]. The basis of the risk assessment methodology can be put to the algorithm, which is implemented from interrelated areas: the zoning of the city based on the study of spatial-temporal distribution of chemical substances; optimization of network monitoring; performance tuning and monitoring tools; automation monitoring system; organization of flows of information messages. Evaluation of combined action is based on their concentrations, where the total risk does not exceed acceptable risk. The combined effect of non-carcinogenic substances is estimated by the change in the toxicity of the mixture components with the determination of biologically equivalent concentrations, which suggests the presence or absence of a certain effect [6]. However, further work is also

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needed questions combined action as a scientific basis of preventing and mitigating the adverse effects of multicomponent air pollution on population health.

Ecological projects with use of methodology of an assessment of risk and economic efficiency at decision-making about unhealthy emissions of the polluting substances taking into account each production cycle are developed for the solution of questions of pollution of objects of environment. The first stage of the project is the detailed quantitative assessment of especially significant chemicals at the studied enterprise.

For a choice of priority substances use the following criteria: the volume of emission and toxicity of substances taking into account frequency rate of excess of maximum concentration limit. In the subsequent determine geographical coordinates of the polluting sites, taking into account quantity of sources and the exhibited population, i.e. the population which is constantly living in an area of coverage of sources of industrial emissions. For an assessment of influence of the polluting substances use dispersive model of dispersion of emissions in air, thus it is necessary to consider average concentration, but not the maximum indicators of influence which lead to chronic diseases, first of all to developing of cancer tumors and other chronic diseases with high probability of lethal outcomes [6]. The received average concentration are included into model of calculation of concentration of air pollutants. Judge meteorological data from supervision posts. In the USA the complex (long-term) model of calculation of emissions from industrial sources [The Industrial Source Complex (Lond Term) I SCLT 3] which gives the chance to predict the concentration of the polluting substances average in a year in any set influence point with use of data on issue and local meteorological data is used.

Development of an automated control system for environmental risks on the example of Aksusky plant of ferroalloys where for the first time in the conditions of Kazakhstan the automated system allowing to trace influence of production emissions on environment, to form a database, to choose the scheme of monitoring, to build computer cards, to define zones of influence of the enterprises [6] was introduced deserves attention.

According to the international ISO 14001 standards one of the highest priorities is quality management of environment, on the basis of requirements of the acts and ecological aspects connected with activity of the organization, its production and services.

At the same time carrying out an assessment of an environmental risk requires existence of primary medico-ecological information. The leading hygienists of the CIS paid attention to need of the interfaced analysis of ecological and sanitary and hygienic researches as interdisciplinary work. It is necessary to be determined by the obtained data in carrying out systematization and synthesis of all data, estimating the general and local «chemical» situation and a tendency of its change in time and thus to carry out forecasting of a situation. At the same time to define information for adoption of administrative decisions.

The next direction is the optimization of the network state monitoring of environmental objects, includ- ing the representativeness of the results, the validity of the conclusions and minimizing the number of meas- urements. Representative results are achieved by forming a network monitoring (sampling), allowing to ac- curately describe all items, polluting the area. Observations are performed on a regular network, where the density or the adequacy of the number of measurements is determined by statistical evaluation, referred in general to the city area. An important element of the monitoring system are the areas directly adjacent to the enterprises, where necessary, a detailed scope of work — territorial and local levels of monitoring. Im- provement of regulations monitoring is ensured by selection of the control parameters, monitoring tools and periodicity.

One of the objects of ecological risk determines the quantity and quality of the biosphere is the soil. The deterioration of soil quality, reduction of its biological value, the ability to cleanse itself cause a chain reac- tion that can create the conditions to activate it pathogenic, dangerous in epidemiological against microor- ganisms. Among the numerous anthropogenic environmental pollutants should be distinguished from petro- leum products. The oil entering the soil in large quantities primarily affect the biological properties of the soil: changes the total number of microorganisms, narrows their species composition, changing the structure of microcensus, decreases the intensity of the main microbiological processes and the activity of soil en- zymes. All this leads to a partial, and in some cases a complete loss of soil fertility. However, it is important to bear in mind the considerable spatial and temporal variation in biological characteristics of the soil, which requires a lot of repetition of observations. In connection with the above, when monitoring the environment and human health is a fundamental principle remains the establishment of causal relations and development for the further implementation of the methodology for the assessment of public health for the purpose of sci- entific study of options for management decisions. On the issue of environmental protection: to identify common patterns and characteristics of the toxicity of substances for different routes of exposure necessary

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The role of ecological-hygienic …

to substantiate the quantitative criterion is the coefficient of relative toxicity. It is important to note that the risk assessment methodology is a practical tool for comparative assessment of possible damage to the health of the population and aims to forecast possible changes in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement economic instruments for management of the health of the population, based on different forms of compensation for damage to health of individuals and populations associated with anthropogenic pollution. This is particularly true for Kazakhstan, where large industrial enterprises are privately owned. In modern conditions, with the advent of various forms of ownership is important to the implementation of a mechanism of economic responsibility, compelling to meet the requirements of the legislation. However, one of the mechanisms for the rehabilitation of the negative impact of industrial enterprises can be directly fund- ing projects for remediation of pollutants territories.

Thus, the improvement of sanitary-hygienic assessment of the living conditions of the population in the modern industrial development should be implemented in the new legal, economic and organizational deci- sions, priorities which would be determined by the state of the environment and public health.

References

1 Борсук Э.Л. Защита здоровья человека от воздействия факторов окружающей среды // Здравоохранение и окружающая среда. — 2002. — T. 106, № 1. — С. 11–15.

2 Голдикова Х.И., Харчевникова Н. В., Полякова Е.Е. Экспериментальная оценка и прогнозирование образования хлор- органических соединений во время хлорирования воды, содержащей промышленные загрязнения // Гигиена и санитария. — 2002. — №3. — С. 26–29.

3 Кулибаев A., Наматбаева Х.И. Эколого-гигиенический мониторинг как одна из основ менеджмента качества охраны окружающей среды в промышленном регионе // Биотехнология. Теория и практика. — 2002. — № 1. — С. 108–112.

4 Рахманинов Ю.А., Румянцев И., Новиков С.М. Методологические проблемы диагностики и профилактики заболева- ний, связанных с воздействием факторов окружающей среды // Гигиена и санитария. — 2001. — №5. — C. 3–7.

5 Ревич А.Б., Коррик С., Алчул П. Полихлорированные дифенилы — суперконсистенция ХХ века. — M., 2000. — Т. 5.

— С. 104–116.

6 Святов Б. А., Слажнева Т. И., Корчевский А.А. Управление экологическим риском при производстве ферросплавов.

— Алматы, 2001. — 263 с.

Б.Зернке , M.A.Мұқашева, Г.Ж.Мұқашева, Г.M.Тыкежанова, A.E.Қазимова

Экологиялық сапаны басқарудағы

экологиялық-гигиеналық бақылаудың рөлі

Мақалада қауіп-қатерді бағалау əдіснамасы жəне экономикалық тиімділікті экологиялық жобаларда қолдану мəселелерінде зиянды өндірістік қалдық туралы сұрақтар зерттелді. Сол себепті ұзақ бақылау жүйелеріне, оның ішінде кеңістік-уақыт өлшемінде химиялық заттарды үйлестіруді зерттеуді, бақылау жүйелерін оңтайландыру, өлшемдер жəне бақылау құралдарының тиімділігі, автомат жүйелерінің мониторингі, ақпараттық хабарламалар ағынын ұйымдастыруға аса назар аудару қажет.

Б.Зернке, M.A.Мукашева, Г.Ж.Мукашева, Г.M.Тыкежанова, A.E.Казимова

Роль эколого-гигиенического контроля

в управлении экологическим качеством

В статье отмечено, что вопросы об экологических проектах с использованием методологии оценки риска и экономической эффективности наблюдаются при принятии решения о вредных промышлен- ных выбросах. Таким образом, подчеркивают авторы, необходимо уделить внимание системам дли- тельного наблюдения, в том числе: исследованию пространственно-временного распределения хими- ческих веществ; оптимизации сети наблюдений; оптимизации параметров и средств наблюдения; ав- томатизации системы мониторинга; организации потоков информационных сообщений.

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References

1 Borsuk E.L. Public health and the environment, 2002, 106, 1, p. 11–15.

2 Goldikova Kh.I., Harchevnikova N.V., Polyakova Ye.Ye. Hygiene and sanitation, 2002, 3, p. 26–29.

3 Kulibaev A., Namatbaeva Kh.I. Biotechnology. Theory and practice, 2002, 1, p. 108–112.

4 Rachmaninov Yu.A., Rumyantsev I., Novikov S.M. Hygiene and sanitation, 2001, 5, p. 3–7.

5 Revich A.B., Korrik S., Alсhul P. Polychlorinated biphenyls — superconsistency of the twentieth century, Moscow, 2000, 5, p. 104–116.

6 Svyatov B.A., Slazhneva T.I., Korchevskiy A.A. Automated environmental risk management in ferroalloy production, Al- maty, 2001, 263 p.

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UDC 612

A.E.Konkabaeva1, T.I.Baranova2, G.M.Tykezhanova1, K.A.Nurlybaeva1, B.A.Кanafina1, A.T.Bugembaeva1, M.Rasol1

1Ye.A.Buketov Karaganda State University;

2Saint Petersburg State University, Russia (E-mail: fizio210@mail.ru)

Comparative estimation of regulatory systems’ functional state of regularly exercising and not exercising sports students

The article presents the results of survey of two groups of male students (mean age 20 ± 2) from the Depart- ment of Physical Culture and Sports as well as the biology and geography departments. The heart rate varia- bility was examined using a computerized complex «Varikard» (Russia). Estimation of heart rate variability was performed using mathematical statistics method of R.M.Baevsky. Cardiovascular system’s fitness was estimated by determining the type of response to the diving reflex using the method of cold-hypoxia- hypercanic effect (CHE). There was a substantial stress and strain of regulatory systems at the majority of students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, what shows a decline of adaptive reserves of the body, caused by excessive loads.

Key words: diving reaction; heart rate; activity of regulatory systems; students, the type of reactivity.

Regular physical loads lead to specific changes in the unit of circulation and in autonomic regulation of the heart rhythm which occur during both muscular work and period of relative calm [1, 2]. These changes are associated with the length of training, the intensity of training load and other factors [3]. Long-term exer- cising of physical culture and sport contributes to the increased productivity of the cardiovascular system and to the formation of a physiological «athlete's heart», a characteristic feature of which is the triad:

bradycardia, arterial hypotension and myocardial hypertrophy [4]. Inconsistency between the level of prepar- edness of athletes and load requests leads to the development of overstrain of cardiovascular system, the emergence of pre- and pathological changes in organs and systems.

Investigating the mechanisms of heart rate regulation, you can get an objective picture of the functional state of the body, the adaptive capabilities of the regulatory systems, as well as the dynamics of their devel- opment. According to some authors [5, 6], the objective criteria for estimating the current functional status and physical fitness of athletes are physiological indicators, reflecting the state of mechanisms of vegetative regulation of cardiac activity.

In this regard, when examining the athletes the particular interest is presented by stress tests that concider indicators of HRV as a criterion for evaluation of early and latent changes in the functional state of the cardiovascular system. At the present time, during trainings a variety of training and competition loads are used, the volume and intensity of which vary depending on the goals and objectives of the stages of train- ing and competition schedule. Their impact significantly affects the degree of tension of adaptation mecha- nisms [7]. The correct and rational use of physical activity causes significant changes of morphology and functioning of the cardiovascular system. The relationship between the type of vegetative regulation of heart rate and the level of functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of athletes, regardless of sports specialization was revealed [8].

According to data [9] activity of parasympathetic influences of the autonomic nervous system increases with the increase of total cyclic loads volume and speed training work. The activity of the sympathetic influ- ences of the autonomic nervous system is enhanced with increasing number of starts and scope of the compe- tition loads.

The rational organization of the training process is the leader in the training of athletes in higher educa- tion institutions, where they have both the training and the studying loads. For the proper construction and correction of training process it is necessary to have sufficient information about the dynamics of changes in the functional state of the organism occurring during trainings and about physical fitness of athletes. Physical activity has an effect on all body systems, so inconsistency between training loads and capabilities of an ath- lete, can lead to the breakdown of the processes of adaptation, development of prenosological states and pathological processes. Generally accepted methods for estimation of the functional state and physical fitness do not fully reflect the ongoing changes in the body of an athlete in the course of a year cycle of train-

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ings [10]. Most, informative and sensitive method for estimation of the functional state and physical fitness can be considered an analysis of heart rate variability in rest and during functional tests.

Estimation of the functional state of the organism in which a significant role belongs to the level of ad- aptation of the cardiovascular system (CVS), is one of the major problems of athletes [11, 12].

In connection with the foregoing, the purpose of this study is: a comparative estimation of the regulato- ry systems' functional state of regularly exercising and not exercising sports students.

Research methods

Work was carried out on the basis of biological and geographical faculty of the E.A.Buketov Karaganda State University in the framework of the agreement on cooperation with the department of general physiolo- gy of biological faculty at St. Petersburg State University.

The study involved 44 male students with no bad habits at the age of 18–22 (20 ± 2) years old from the faculties of biology and geography and of physical culture and sports. Students were divided into two groups: one group consisted of students who exercise sports regularly with duration of training from 3 to 5 years. The second group — the control one, consisted of students, that are not regularly involved in sports.

Diving Reflex was imitated by CHE, which was carried out three times consecutively, with calm expi- ration immersing face in water with temperature 12–14 ºC. The interval between dives was 2 min. The dura- tion of the first dive was limited by the first urge to breath, subsequent dives were made by willed effort [13].

During state of rest, before the dive, during the dive and in the process of recovery after cessation of apnea, ECG (in the second standard deviation), blood pressure and pulse were registrated. ECG was implemeted on a computerized complex for analysis of heart rate variability «Varikard» (Russia). Estimation of heart rate variability was performed by mathematical statistics method of R.M.Baevsky [14].

Type of reaction to diving was determined by the character of reflex bradycardia's development during apnea with face diving in water. Depending on the individual characteristics of the cardiovascular system to CHE examined students were divided into 4 types: highly reactive, reactive, paradoxical, unresponsive [15].

To characterize diving reaction the following indicators were used:

T — apnea time (dive — CHE);

(RR) max — interval (CI — cardiointerval)

(RR) max b — maximum cardiointerval in a background (record of initial state) (RR) min b — minimum cardiointerval in a background;

(RR) max che — maximum cardiointerval during the dive;

l — the latent period of bradycardia — is determined from the start of dive to R — Rche > R-Rmax b;

tmax che — time from the start of dive until (RR) max che (maximum CI during the dive);

BI — bradycardia intensity = (RR) max che / (RR) max b;

Vbr — the rate of increase of bradycardia; it is calculated by the formula — Vbr = (RR) max che – (RR) max b / tmax che;

(R–R) min b > R–R < (R–R) max b; sometimes ECG can be stabilized with (R–R)-intervals that may be somewhat larger than (R–R) max b. In this case, the determining factor is stabilization of the ECG (Table).

T a b l e Diving reaction type

Characteristics l BI Vbr

Highly reactive l < 9s BI > 1,25 Vbr => 0,025 Reactive l > 9s BI > 1,12 Vbr > 0,01 Unresponsive 0,9 < BI < 1,1

Paradoxical – 0,89 < BI –

Complex estimation of heart rate variability was made in accordance with activity index of regulatory systems (AIRS). It was calculated in points (0 to 10) using special algorithm that takes into account the sta- tistical parameters, histogram indicators and data of cardio intervals’ spectral analysis. AIRS allows to dif- ferentiate varying degrees of tension of regulatory systems [16].

Statistical data processing was performed using Microsoft Excel.

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Diving reaction of a person ha used to estimate the organism's resi ment caused by the reactivity of the sion of regulatory systems of the bod

According to data obtained dur group had reactive type of diving re second group (Fig. 2). Reactive t bradycardia. Long latent period and old of tactile and cold receptors of t vere tension of regulatory systems [

Highly reactive type of respon type of response are characterized b low. The short latent period of deve of activation of tactile and cold rece sympathetic component of vegetati systems [19].

Unresponsive type was found a at 41 % of students who don't do reg of any changes in response to CHE sistance» of the vagal stimulation an which disappears immediately after ly [19].

Among students of the first gro the second group of students this ty are characterized with tachycardia normocardia, then, by the end of T.I.Baranova (1994) physical trainin There is a higher percentage of repre

Figure 1. Type of impleme of diving reaction among a According to data obtained in t revealed that normocardia (70±6,16) students from the second group (70 the control group (80±2,11) and at 2 students from the first group had se had severe tachycardia (96,5±6,3).

Comparative

Research results

as a number of features connected with vegetativ istance to stress. Depending on the nature of refl e vagus nerve, four types of diving reaction, refle

dy were revealed [17].

ring performing CHE, it was revealed that 23 % o eaction (Fig. 1), similar reaction was observed at type is characterized by the gradual and rathe d the gradual nature of bradycardia’s developmen the skin, and generally indicates the body's resist

18].

nse was met in both groups in 24 % of cases. Peo by the rapid development of bradycardia, while lopment and high rate of increase of bradycardia eptors of the face and nasal passages, which is typ ve nervous system and is an indirect indicator at 35 % of students regularly engaged in physica gular exercises. Unresponsive type of reaction, is E that can be caused by a predominance of intr nd by the end of apnea a slight slowing of the hea r apnea is ceased. At the same time blood pressu oup 18 % of examined had paradoxical type of re ype of response was not found. People with para at the beginning of sleep apnea, which is gra f apnea, or after its cessation bradycardia m ng affects the character of the implementation of esentatives paradoxical type among the well-train

entation

athletes Figure 2. Type of im of diving reaction in the result of researches of an overall effect of he ) composed 41 % of students from the first group 0±4,14) (Fig. 4). Mild tachycardia was detected a 23 % of the students of the experimental group ( evere tachycardia (92,3±3,2) while in the second

e estimation of regulatory …

ve regulation and can be lex bradycardia develop-

ecting the degree of ten- of students from the first t 35 % of students of the er long development of nt indicate a high thresh-

ance to cold and less se- ople with highly reactive

the duration of apnea is indicate a low threshold pical for activation of the of tension of regulatory al culture and sports, and s displayed with absence racardiac factors of «re- art rate may be observed, ure increases significant- esponse to HBV while in adoxical type of reaction adually transformed into may develop. According f diving reaction doubly.

ned athletes [20].

mplementation control group

art rate regulation it was p (Fig. 3), and of 82 % of at 6 % of the students in (84,5±2,38). 24 % of the d group 12 % of students

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Figure 3. The overall effect of regulation among athle Regular and methodically prop heart rate during rest. In our resear who exercise sport regularly in 6 % control group. The slow pace of he result of adaptation [21].

Thus, the studies of the overal 12 % of examined students that are tory systems, we also determined int

In our studies, the optimal tens ined students who do sports (Fig. 5) regulatory systems was noted at 41 53 % (Fig. 6). Severe stress (5,3±0 group and at 29 % students in contr dents involved in sports, and in the c of regulatory systems was not identi

Figure 5. Activity ind of regulatory systems of a Thus, the research showed that gaged in regular exercises, function terioration of the general current fu students, due to regular phisycal loa

f heart rate

etes Figure 4. The overall ef regulation in con perly constructed sport exercising leads in most rches, moderate and severe bradycardia (48±) w

% of cases respectively. Bradycardia was not fou artbeat of well trained, accustomed to great phy ll effect of heart rate regulation suggest that hea engaged in regular exercises. To estimate the deg tegrative activity index of regulatory systems of t sion (1,8±0,2) of regulatory systems was observ ), and at 18 % students in the control group. Mod

% of the students involved in sports, while in t 0,4) of regulatory systems was detected at 35 % rol group. Overstrain of regulatory systems was f control group overstrain of regulatory systems wa ified in any group.

dex

athletes Figure 6. Activ of regulatory systems i t the regulatory systems of the majority of exami

in the state of expressed stress and overstrain. T unctional state and decreasing of adaptation rese

ds, which can be viewed as excessive.

ffect of heart rate ntrol group

t cases to a reduction of was found from students und from students of the ysical loads people is the art rate decreases only at gree of tension of regula-

the organism (AIRS).

ed at 12 % of the exam- derate stress (3,5±0,5) of

the control group it was

% of students of the first found at 12 % of the stu-

as not found. Exhaustion

vity index in control group

ned students that are en- This demonstrates the de- erves of the organism of

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Comparative estimation of regulatory …

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А.Е.Қоңқабаева, Т.И.Баранова, Г.М.Тыкежанова, Қ.А.Нұрлыбаева, Б.А.Қанафина, А.Т.Бүгембаева, М.Расол

Спортпен үнемі шұғылданатын жəне шұғылданбайтын студенттер ағзасының регуляторлық жүйесінің функционалдық күйіне баға беру

Мақалада биология-география жəне дене тəрбиесі мен спорт факультеттерінде білім алатын екі топқа бөлінген ұл балаларға жүргізген (орта жасы 22±2) зерттеу нəтижелері қарастырылды. Жүрек соғысының вариабелділігі «Варикард» (Россия) компьютерлік кешеннің көмегімен зерттелді. Жүрек соғысының өзгергіштігі Р.М.Баевскийдің математикалық əдісі бойынша бағаланды. Студенттер ағзасының ЖҚЖ-нің қаншалықты жаттықандығын сүңгу рефлекс типін суық-гипокси- гиперкапникалық əсер ету əдісі арқылы анықталды. Дене тəрбиесі мен спорт факультетінде білім алатын студенттердің көпшілігінде регуляторлық жүйенің ширығуы жəне ширығудың жоғарғы мəні анықталды. Бұл ағзаның бейімделгіштік қорының төмендеуін көрсетеді. Осы жүргізілген зерттеуде спортпен шұғылданатын студенттерге берілетін физикалық жүктеменің мөлшерден тыс екендігі байқалды.

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А.Е.Конкабаева, Т.И.Баранова, Г.М.Тыкежанова, К.А.Нурлыбаева, Б.А.Канафина, А.Т.Бугембаева, М.Расол

Сравнительная оценка функционального состояния регуляторных систем организма студентов, регулярно занимающихся и не занимающихся спортом

В статье представлены результаты обследования двух групп студентов мужского пол

Сурет

Figure 1. Type of impleme of diving reaction among a According to data obtained in t revealed that normocardia (70±6,16) students from the second group (70 the control group (80±2,11) and at 2 students from the first group had se had severe tachycardia (96
Figure 3. The overall effect of regulation among athle Regular and methodically prop heart rate during rest
Figure 5. Activity ind of regulatory systems of a Thus, the research showed that gaged in regular exercises, function  terioration of the general current fu students, due to regular phisycal loa

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