This paper thus aims to review the influence of heavy metals on the gastrointestinal microbiome diversity in common carp. High concentrations of heavy metals caused histopathological damage in the gill structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) compared to control groups; damage included fusion of primary lamella and thinning and shortening of secondary lamella . Moreover, common carp is very resistant to water polluted with heavy metals  and it is an interest of this study how the diversity of the gut microbiome changes due to heavy metal pollution.
Changes in gut microbiome composition induced by heavy metal exposure help to estimate threshold concentrations of heavy metals in freshwater. The effects of heavy metals interacting with other environmental factors may affect the gut microbiome composition of fish differently.
The locations of the evaluations are characterized by a continental climate (large daily and annual air temperature fluctuations, characterized by cold winters and long hot summers), the air temperature reaches its lowest values in January (-32 -350С) and its highest values in July (37-430С ). Taking into account the above, we studied the influence of organic and biological methods of fertilization on the beginning of the main phenological phases of development and biometric parameters of melon plants. According to the results of the research, it was found that the biometric indicators of the plants in variants with different combinations of organic and biological fertilizers exceed the first (unfertilized) control in all parameters.
In order to assess the influence of different types and combinations of organic and biological fertilizers on the quality indicators of the melon, we performed biochemical analyzes of the fruits in the laboratory. The influence of organic fertilizers on the productivity and quality of vegetables in the system of "green" vegetable agriculture under the conditions of the south-eastern part of Kazakhstan.
Materials and Methods
- Statistical Data Processing
The experiment used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from 6 healthy donors (without acute diseases and severe chronic diseases), men and women aged 28 to 38 years, and monocytes isolated from the PBMC fraction of the same donors by by means of immunomagnetic separation. The non-monocyte PBMC fraction – lymphocytes (LYM) was obtained after the isolation of monocytes on an immunomagnetic separator (positive fraction – non-monocytes). The work was performed according to the World Medical Association's code of ethics (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving human subjects.
Isolation of mononuclear fraction of cells Heparinized human peripheral blood was premixed with 6 % dextran to precipitate erythrocytes. After the incubation time, the supernatant was centrifuged at 300 g for 10 min at room temperature to obtain a cell suspension. Isolation of monocytes from the PBMC fraction was performed using the Monocyte Isolation Kit II, according to the manufacturer's protocol (Miltenyi Biotec, Germany).
Isolation was performed using the "Deplete" program, which performs negative selection by releasing enriched monocytes. In all experiments, a suspension of monocytes with a proportion of living cells greater than 90% was used. R” culture in experiments , 2) a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (ATCC), designated as “S” culture  and 3) a revertant subculture of Escherichia coli was obtained under experimental conditions previously [16, 17].
The bacteria were grown on solid nutrient medium at a temperature of 37 ± 1°C until the middle of the logarithmic growth phase. The exposure time of bacterial cells to formalin was determined based on the results of microbiological monitoring of cultural survival . At the end of the incubation time, the plates were centrifuged at 300 g for 10 min at room temperature and the supernatant was collected for analysis.
Results and Discussion
The study of the threshold production of IL-6 by immunocompetent cells under the influence of fixed cells in test cultures did not reveal a significant differential response of immunocompetent cells (Figure 3). The study of the threshold production of TNF-α by immunocompetent cells showed a reliable (P-differential response to the induction of PBMC and MON of living cells only using E. Analysis of the level of TNF-α production by immunocompetent cells in response to a stimulus from live and fixed cells revealed that the vitaPAMP constructs of the test cultures are significantly more immunogenic than their PAMP constructs (Figure 6).
In general, it is known that the activation of the mechanisms of innate immunity and the induction of the production of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines is caused by the interaction of both PAMP and molecules associated with virulence with the PRR receptors of the cells of the natural immune system. thus inducing a protective inflammatory response for effective control of infections [24-26]. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the threshold levels of cytokines produced by immunocompetent cells in response to a stimulus of E. Such a change in the levels of early mediators of the acute phase response may indicate a differential response of cellular receptors and signaling pathways of immunocompetent cells against antibiotic-resistant and sensitive bacteria.
The orchestration of the cytokine response is probably associated with the mechanisms of induction and the characteristics of the regulation of signaling pathways. All authors have read and are familiar with the content of the article and have no conflict of interest. As well as employees of the immunology laboratory who participated in this study.
All experimental procedures and publication expenses were financed by the grant BR09458960 provided by the Industrial Development Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Infrastructure Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The immune response is initiated by dendritic cells via interaction with microorganisms and interleukin-2 production // J. Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response // Nature. 2010) Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom: a molecular, biological and epidemiological study. 2007) Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. 2013) Vita-PAMPs: signatures of microbial viability. 2004) Issues in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infectives: death curves versus MIC.
БИОЛОГИЯ ЖӘНЕ ГЕНЕТИКА
BIOLOGY AND GENETICS
БИОЛОГИЯ И ГЕНЕТИКА
Результаты и их обсуждение
False negative results can occur in two cases: in the absence of actual nucleic acid (NA) in the sample or due to suppression (inhibition) of the PCR reaction . We isolated DNA samples of muscle tissue for: edible frog (Pelophylax esculentus), salmon (Salmo salar), pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). BLAST analysis of the reference 18S rRNA gene was performed for the presence of minimal polymorphism among vertebrates (Vertebrata).
For each of the classes of modern chordates, a separate BLAST analysis of a selected region of the 18S rRNA gene was performed (the original sequence belonged to the human 18S rRNA gene). The general results of the analysis of the selected region of the 18S rRNA gene in six classes of modern vertebrates are shown in Figure 1. The region of the 18S rRNA gene complementary to the fluorescent probe for all classes of vertebrates was the most conservative: there were no polymorphic variants in it.
The generalized data (number of replicates n = 10) for the study of group specificity for the determination of 18S RNA are shown in Table 1. In the upper part of the figure, the target sequence of 18S rRNA is shown: forward primer (primer . F), reverse primer (primer R) and fluorescent probe (probe). Thus, the specificity of the primers and the probe set for the detection of the 18S rRNA gene in a number of vertebrates turned out to be absolute (the desired sequence was detected in 100% of the studied samples).
Moreover, there were no problems with the determination of the 18S rRNA gene for species from the classes of bony fish (salmon, pollock) and amphibians (edible frog), despite the fact that their 18S rRNA gene sequence is complementary to the former. the primer contains the SNP (Figure 1). The exact copy number of the 18S rRNA gene in the pig genome has not yet been established ; number of clusters 45S. The ability of the developed array to detect 18S rRNA in vertebrates from the classes of mammals, sauropsids (including birds), amphibians and bony fishes was confirmed by the qPCRs performed.
The Caspian Sea is the richest reservoir in the world in terms of the abundance and number of sturgeon species. Of the 26 known species of sturgeon, 6 live here - beluga (Huso huso), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser güldenstädtii), Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), star sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus), star sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus), (Acipenser nudiventris). Osmoregulatory abilities of zander (Sander lucioperca) fingerlings in different salinities of the Caspian seawater.
On the new findings of the sea pike Sander marinus in the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Contradictions were identified between the structure of zooplankton communities and the chemical variables of the studied reservoirs. The composition of the dominant species in the zooplankton of RSC 8 was more distinct and variable.
The content of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu) in the sewage from the city of Almaty." Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University 4. Selevinia 1, 4. Comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of sewage reservoirs in the Sorbulak canal system on the right bank. ”.
АДАМ ЖӘНЕ ЖАНУАРЛАР ФИЗИОЛОГИЯСЫ
HUMAN AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
ЧЕЛОВЕКА И ЖИВОТНЫХ
Осыған байланысты бұл жұмыстың мақсаты Rumex tianschanicus L. L. тамыры мен тамырсабағынан бөлініп алынған биологиялық белсенді кешендердің қасиеттерін бағалау болды. Өсімдік шикізатындағы антрагликозидтер негізіндегі биологиялық белсенді кешен біз әзірлеген әдіспен алынды. : Rumex tianschanicus L.
1-кестеге сәйкес, Rumex tianschanicus сығындысын қабылдаған барлық созылмалы уыттылық топтарында лимфоциттердің абсолютті құрамы бойынша интактілі және бақылау топтарымен салыстырғанда статистикалық маңызды айырмашылықтар болды (p ≤ 0,05). Ал біздің зерттеуімізде тәжірибелік жануарлардағы мочевина мен креатининнің биохимиялық көрсеткіштерінің нәтижесі анық емес, сондықтан созылмалы уыттылық тәжірибелік топтарындағы Rumex tianschanicus L. 3-кестеде көрсетілген (Rumex tianschanicus L. сығындысы 10 мг/кг, 25 мг). /кг, 50 мг/кг және триглицеридтер, жалпы холестерин, HDL холестерині, 100 мг/кг қабылдаған жануарлардың липидті алмасуының нәтижелері бойынша).
Біздің зерттеулеріміздің нәтижелері билирубин мен оның фракцияларының деңгейінің гематологиялық және биохимиялық көрсеткіштеріне, сондай-ақ in vivo липидтер алмасуының көрсеткіштеріне негізделген. Grewia tiliaefolia дәстүрлі үнді дәрілік өсімдіктің in vitro және in vivo қауіпсіздік профилін бағалау // Токсикология және реттеуші фармакология.
Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents // Journal Ethnopharmacol. Kasi P.D., (2015) Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo safety profile of the Indian traditional medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia. 14 Mukinda J.T., Syce J.A., (2007) Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents.