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If the Submission contains material for which you do not own the copyright, you represent that you have obtained the copyright owner's unrestricted permission to grant NU the rights required by this license, and that such material in Third party ownership is clearly identified and acknowledged within the text or content of the submission. As a result of qualitative analysis, the study revealed how teachers reflect, how they think about reflection, what difficulties they encounter and how these difficulties can be overcome.


  • Introduction
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Significance of the Study and Intended Audiences
  • Outline of the Paper

In addition, one of the priority directions set by the NIS recommendations is "the organization of teachers' reflective practices that promote their professional development" (Recommendations, 2015). This study explored teachers' experiences of RP, and the main argument of the study based on the findings is threefold.

Literature Review

  • Introduction
  • Conceptualizations of Reflection and Reflective Practice in Teaching
  • Approaches to Pre- and In-Service Reflective Teacher Development
  • Specific Tools of Reflective Practices
  • Conclusion

They emphasize the human nature of the reflective process by describing “the challenge of incorporating ideas about reflection, which . The term "reflective teaching" has been used extensively in recent discussions of the nature and guiding principles of teacher education and in-service professionals. The developmental tradition "prioritises reflection on students, their thinking and understanding, their interests, and their developmental growth" as it is based on "the assumption that the natural development of the learner provides the basis for determining what to teach students and how it should be taught" (Zeichner, 1994, p.16).

SCHOOL IN KAZAKHSTAN. changed?) (p. 566), “the degree to which an approach specifies a set of specific components for the reflective process or steps to be taken toward the goal of reflection” (approaches range from the use of reflective journals to “specific . provisions and types of thinking) (p. 567), "the degree to which an approach is explicitly justified by reference to a particular theoretical position" (eg learning theories, critical theory) (p. 567). As a result of this analysis, Zeichner (1987) identified six key strategies that are claimed to "enhance prospective teachers' reflective skills": (1) action research; (2) ethnography; (3) writing; (4) supervisory approaches; (5) curriculum analysis and development; and (6) the methodology of 'reflective teaching' (p. 568). Based on the idea that "reflection is an abstract construct with its existence assumed on the basis of observed performance and expressed beliefs," the researcher suggests an assessment tool that provides "standard indicators of key behaviors of reflective practitioners" (Larrivee, 2008, p. 345).

As a result of a study conducted among teachers of adult English learners based on an action research approach, Farrell (2008) asserts that "the use of reflective practice in teacher professional development is based on the belief that teachers can improve the teaching of them by consciously and systematically reflecting on their learning experiences" (p. 1). For example, Chitpin and Simon (2009) examined the role of a professional portfolio in pre-service teacher development. The focus of the next category of studies is the use of technology in the development of RP.

The findings suggest that reflective practice in the online space “offers an opportunity to engage beginning teachers in meaningful reflection about their teaching practice” (p. 171). According to the researcher, technology can be used to reflect on teaching in the following ways: (a) seeking and analyzing feedback; (b) providing feedback to students; (c) recording and reviewing learning activities and lectures; (d) capture and review personal notes in diaries and blogs; (e) adapting class activities and resources as needed; (f) monitoring student progress and reviewing student understanding through participation, exercises, discussion contributions, and assessments; (g) communicating with students; (h) interaction and exchange of ideas through online learning communities; and (i) archiving and organizing curricular information (Brent, 2010).


  • Introduction
  • Research Design
  • Research Site
  • Participants
  • Instruments
  • Data Collection Procedures
  • Data Analysis
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Limitations
  • Conclusion

To eliminate the negative implications of the convenient sampling, the researcher fully informed the participants of the possible risks and assured them of data. Since the researcher was interested in the participants' experiences and perceptions, a semi-structured open-ended one-on-one interview was selected as the main data collection method, and a corresponding method. The interview protocol was translated into the Russian language, as most participants felt most comfortable speaking this language.

Consequently, all the research instruments (the interview protocol, the informed consent form) and a description of the investigation procedure were submitted to the GSE Ethical Review Committee for approval. Once the approval was obtained, a request was submitted for the permission of the principal, who is the gatekeeper for the research site. Since the volume of the data was quite small, they were analyzed using color coding in the Microsoft Word basic word processing program.

The summary of findings was sent to each of the participants for a peer check to ensure their accuracy. Participants were selected on a voluntary basis and were fully informed about the purpose and nature of the study. Most important is the fact that its results cannot be generalized due to the limited number of participants who all represented one school, though.


  • Introduction
  • Participants
  • Perceptions of Reflection and Reflective Practices
    • Retrospective analysis
    • Improvement of practice through a cycle of actions
    • Development of reflective thinking
  • Use of Reflective Practices
    • The role of writing
    • The content of reflection
    • The role of administration and colleagues
  • Difficulties in Reflective Practices
  • Conclusion

An unexpected theme that emerged during the interviews was the development of reflective skills. Finally, three main aspects of the perception of RP by the participants were identified. Moreover, the content of the RP varies from the emotional aspects of a lesson to the quality of curriculum delivery.

However, not all participants used each form of writing regularly, the general trend being towards more experienced teachers using the written form of reflection. For example, P4 stated that she uses “reflection to solve problems in understanding the topic”. Most of them talked about the requirement to complete the reflective part of the curriculum and “to be reflective.

One of the research questions was about the difficulties faced by the participants in their RP. Another issue that worries the PSH of the participants is "fear of the new". Most participants would like some time set aside in the weekly schedule for reflection.

Figure 1. The Cycle of Reflection  Source: created by the author.
Figure 1. The Cycle of Reflection Source: created by the author.


  • Introduction
  • Perceptions of Reflection and Reflective Practices
  • Use of Reflective Practices
  • Difficulties in Reflective Practices
  • Conclusion

The findings clearly show that participants perceive reflective skills that develop naturally with experience. However, participants' perception that reflective skills develop naturally is at odds with current scholarly views. It is important to note that the participants in this study did not use any strategies other than writing.

However, the participants of this study did not report any data on the use of As a result, it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of writing or any other reflection strategy in the context of the participants. Furthermore, the participants place a high value on the school environment in terms of the development of their PSH.

This study also aimed to build an understanding of the difficulties faced by participants in their RP. Surprisingly, the results indicate that there are no significant barriers to participants' RP apart from lack of time. However, participants suggested several ways to improve their RP, which are consistent with the suggestions of the existing literature.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary of the Research Findings

  • How do teachers perceive their RP and themselves as reflective
  • How do teachers use RP in their work and professional development?
  • What are the difficulties that teachers face in their RP?

Informal conversations with colleagues are also experienced by participants as an important contribution to their RP. Regarding the content of participants' RP, two types were identified: emotional/psychological problems and curriculum-related problems. The main difficulties faced by participants are lack of time and training in RP.

It can be concluded that despite the fact that the participants perceive reflection as a very important element of pedagogical practice and their understanding of the nature of reflection is in accordance with scientific definitions, the lack of policy, either at school or at the national level, negatively interferes with the effective use of RP. Challenges such as a lack of knowledge in reflective strategies can also arise from a lack of clear, understandable policy. In general, we can consider that the purpose of the research task has been achieved, because now we know how teachers at a certain school reflect, how they think about reflection and what problems they face in their RP.

First, the teachers who participated in the research are now more aware of their PSH and the potential of reflection to improve their teaching practice and professional development. Furthermore, they can share this knowledge with their professional community, including beyond the school. Second, policy makers at the level of school administration, NIS senior management and the Ministry of Education and Science now have a starting point for further research in order to develop teacher reflection on policies across the education system. of the country.


Implications for further research

You can be assured that the recording and your answers will be kept confidential and used solely for research purposes. Do you have any kind of journal where you write down your thoughts about your teaching. You can be sure that your answers will be kept confidential and the recording will be electronically protected.

DESCRIPTION: You are invited to participate in the study of teachers' experiences related to the use of reflective practices, conducted by Ksenija Artamonova, 2nd year MA. You will be invited to participate in an individual interview, which will not last more than one hour, at a time and place convenient for you. Your name will not be revealed at any stage (a code will be used instead) so your anonymity will be protected.

All data will be kept confidential on a password-protected computer and deleted upon completion of data analysis. The potential risk may be related to sharing information about your professional life and an opinion about the organization of teachers' reflective practices in your school. You can be assured that all information will be treated confidentially and used for research purposes only.

I understand how the collected data will be used and that any confidential information will only be seen by the researchers and will not be disclosed to anyone else;. I think it will be useful for senior teachers as well, because some of them may not forget this maybe, something like that.


Figure 1. The Cycle of Reflection  Source: created by the author.

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