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advertising and promotion of tobacco bans among parents and expert group: a cross-sectional study in Astana, Kazakhstan.

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MPOWER Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies; Protect people from tobacco smoke; Offer help to quit tobacco use; Warns about the dangers of tobacco; Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; Raise taxes on tobacco. The study objectives include: (1) determining parents' perceptions of PoS advertising and tobacco ban promotion; (2) assessment of parents' and experts' knowledge about PoS TAPS prohibition definitions and regulations. Statistical analyzes showed that regardless of smoking status, regardless of whether parents perceived PoS tobacco product to show motivated youth to smoke, regardless of whether parents perceived PoS displays of tobacco products as advertising or not, and regardless of how parents rated the level of importance of exposure to PoS tobacco product displays to influence the youth The vast majority of parents are not in favor of displaying tobacco products at PoS.

INTRODUCTION

Background

In India and the United States, tobacco manufacturers pay store owners to demonstrate advertisements (Chaudhry et al., 2007 and Paynter, 2009). TAPS exposure is associated with higher smoking prevalence rates, particularly adolescent smoking initiation and continuation (Saffer and Chaloupka, 2000 and Yang T et al., 2012). Additionally, exposure to TAPS results in a third of youth experimenting with smoking (Emery et al., 1999).

Aims of the study

In both Canada and the United States, greater in-store promotion has been associated with either a greater proportion of underage shoppers or proximity to an elementary or secondary school (Henriksen et al., 2004, Schooler et al., 1996, and Cohen et al., 2008). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine parents' perceptions of the PoS TAPS ban. The study has the following objectives: (1) to determine parents' attitudes and perceptions about PoS advertising and tobacco ban promotion; (2) assessing parents' knowledge of prohibition definitions and PoS TAPS regulations.

METHODS

  • Study Population
  • Data Collection
  • Data Preparation
  • Study Measures
  • Statistical Analyses

Smoking status. We assessed the participants' smoking status by asking a question: "What is your smoking status?". PoS tobacco is displayed as advertisements by asking a question: "Do you think PoS screens are advertisements?". Chi-square analyzes were used to test the statistical associations between attitudes towards displaying tobacco products on PoS in three countries and smoking status, attitudes towards PoS TAPS bans, whether parents perceived that PoS tobacco products display motivated young people to smoke, regardless whether or not. not parents perceived PoS displays of tobacco products as advertising, and how parents perceived the degree of importance of exposure to PoS tobacco products to influence young people, and attitudes towards children's exposure to tobacco products at PoS.

RESULTS

Frequencies and Descriptive Statistics

We assessed the participants' knowledge of the term/term “point-of-sale display of tobacco products” and the results showed that a majority of 62.8% did not know the term, compared to 37.2% who did. Attitudes towards a law that would completely ban the display of tobacco products at points of sale. In addition, we assessed the importance for parents of their own child's level of exposure to the display of tobacco products at points of sale.

Bivariate Analyses

Most (47.2%) of those who feel negatively about children being exposed to the display of tobacco products at PoS opposed the type of tobacco display in Russia. Most (50.9%) of those who feel neutral about children being exposed to the display of tobacco products at PoS answered "don't know" about the type of tobacco display in Russia. Most (68.4%) of those who feel positive about children being exposed to display of tobacco products at PoS prefer type of tobacco display in Russia.

Most (38.1%) of those who feel negatively about children being exposed to the display of tobacco products at PoS opposed the type of tobacco display in Norway. Most (45.4%) of those who feel neutral about children being exposed to the display of tobacco products at PoS answered "don't know" about the type of tobacco display in Norway. Most (63.2%) of those who feel positive about children being exposed to display of tobacco products at PoS prefer type of tobacco display in Norway.

Respondents' attitudes towards children's exposure to tobacco products at PoS were consistent with their views on the Kazakh type of tobacco display. The majority (78.4%) of those who feel negatively about children being exposed to tobacco display at sales points opposed the type of tobacco display in Kazakhstan. Many (46.3%) of those who believe that children are exposed to the display of tobacco products at sales points are neutral, answered "don't know" regarding the type of tobacco display in Kazakhstan.

The majority (63.2%) of those who feel positive about children's exposure to tobacco product exposure in PoS favored the type of tobacco exposure in Kazakhstan.

DISCUSSION

Likewise, a study among Nigerian adolescents found that cumulative TAPS exposure was significantly associated with increased odds of cigarette use (AOR=1.73) and ever cigarette use (AOR=1.29); along with increased susceptibility to smoking (AOR=1.18) among non-smokers (Chido-Amajuoyi et al., 2017). The review authors conclude that tobacco advertising and promotion increases the likelihood of adolescent smoking initiation based on evidence of a dose-response relationship, the homogeneity of findings across different observational studies, the strength and specificity of this association, together with theoretical credibility regarding the effect of advertising (Lovato et al., 2011). Two experimental studies examined the effect of changing the location or visibility of a cigarette energy wall in a life-size replica of a convenience store on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette use.

According to the study conducted in 2015, hiding the tobacco power wall significantly reduced young people's. Similarly, more recent study suggests that attention to the tobacco power wall was found to be significantly related to future smoking susceptibility with p=0.046, while adjusting for baseline cigarette smoke susceptibility and other potential confounders (S.C. Martino et al., 2018) . Results indicate that regardless of gender, the enforcement of a PoS display ban was associated with a 15% decrease in the odds of regular smoking (OR=0.85), but was not significantly linked to perceived accessibility of tobacco (OR= 0.97) (Van Hurck et al. al., 2018).

After implementation, a study was conducted to assess the short-term effects of the ban. After the legislation, 14% of adult smokers thought the law had made it easier to quit, 38% of teenagers thought the law would make it easier for children to quit smoking (Mc Neill et al., 2010) . During the seventh session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2016 at the WHO FCTC adopted the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, together with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3, to “ensure healthy lives healthy and to promote well-being for all at all ages".

Furthermore, objective 3A of the goal is to “strengthen implementation of the WHO FCTC throughout.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Currently, the RC's Advertising Act of 2003 (as amended in June 2007 by the Advertising Legislative Proclamations Amendment Act) is the main law in the republic governing the advertising of tobacco products; it provides a general ban on the advertising of tobacco and tobacco products, as well as the forms of sponsorship and promotion. Strong support from parents strengthens the position of the government to regulate PoS TAPS by building public awareness, advocacy with stakeholders and law enforcement. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: Findings from a cohort study of school students.

The association of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure and cigarette use among Nigerian youth: implications for current practices, products and policies. Astana, Kazakhstan: Ministry of Health Care and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan RSE «NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTHY LIFESTYLE». Almaty, Kazakhstan: Ministry of Health Care and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan RSE «NATIONAL CENTER FOR PROBLEMS OF HEALTHY LIFESTYLE DEVELOPMENT».

Best practices in the implementation of bans on tobacco advertising and display at the point of sale (WHO FCTC Article 13) Four country study: Ireland, Norway, Finland and the United Kingdom (Rep.). 31. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (November 25, 2006). Concern for the degree of exposure of one's own child to tobacco products at the point of sale Tobacco display.

In favor of Point of Sale advertising and promotion of tobacco ban Display of tobacco products at PoS in.

Table 1. Demographics of respondents (univariate analysis)
Table 1. Demographics of respondents (univariate analysis)

APPENDICES

Questionnaires

Do you know about the existence of Article 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control? WHO FCTC) (Guidelines for its implementation require the introduction of a complete ban on all forms of advertising of tobacco products, including their display at points of sale). 10. Would you be for or against a law that would completely ban the display of tobacco products at points of sale? 12. Are you in favor of Point of Sale (PoS) advertising and tobacco ban promotion?

13. In the last 30 days, have you seen any advertisements or promotions of tobacco products at points of sale (such as shops, kiosks, etc.)? 14. Do you think that displays at tobacco sales points (in shops, kiosks, shopping centers, etc.) motivate young people to smoke? 16. How do you think students are exposed to the display of tobacco products at points of sale?

17. How important is the level of exposure of your child to tobacco product displays at the point of sale to you. 18. How do you feel about/would you support or oppose the following types of tobacco display bans? 19. How do you feel about/would you support or oppose the following types of tobacco display bans?

20. Қазіргі уақытта сауда нүктелерінде темекі өнімдерінің көрсетілуіне қалай қарайсыз? 13. Соңғы 30 күн ішінде бөлшек сауда орындарында (мысалы, дүкендер, дүңгіршектер, т.б.) темекі өнімдеріне арналған жарнамаларды немесе жарнамаларды көрдіңіз бе. 13. Соңғы 30 күн ішінде сіз сауда орындарында (мысалы, дүкендер, дүңгіршектер және т.б.) темекі өнімдерін жарнамалау немесе жарнамалау науқандарын көрдіңіз.

Informed Consent

Осы зерттеуге қатысты сұрақтарыңыз болса немесе қосымша ақпарат алғыңыз келсе, Арайлым Нұрмашеваға немесе arailym.nurmasheva@nu.edu.kz электронды поштасына хабарласуыңызға болады. «Ата-аналар мен сарапшылар тобының сауда орындарында темекі өнімдерін жарнамалауға, насихаттауға және көрсетуге тыйым салуды білуі, көзқарасы және қабылдауы» тақырыбына зерттеу жұмысын жүргізіп жатырмын. Мен «Білім беру, коммуникация және сауда нүктелерінің жарнамасын, темекіні насихаттауды және ата-аналар мен сарапшылар панельдерін орналастыруды» зерттеп жатырмын.

Дегенмен, «Ата-аналар мен кәсіби топтар арасында темекіні жарнамалауды, насихаттауды және сатуға тыйым салуды» жақсырақ түсінудің арқасында, темекіге қатысты мәселелер бойынша зерттеушілер және басқалар, болашақ зерттеу, насихаттау және саясатты әзірлеу үшін жағдайларды жақсарта алады.

Сурет

Table 1. Demographics of respondents (univariate analysis)
Table 2. Bivariate analysis –associations between independent variables and outcome variable (display of  tobacco products at Point of Sale in Kazakhstan)

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