• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ



Academic year: 2023



Толық мәтін

Attitudes of kindergarten teachers towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in Nur-Sultan. ATTITUDES OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS TOWARDS INCLUSION OF THE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN NUR-SULTAN. This research investigated teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of the children with special needs in general kindergarten programmes.



Time is also one of the factors related to the progress of children with special educational needs, as children with SEN age have access to nursery school. The third objective is to investigate the attitudes of kindergarten teachers towards the inclusion of children with special needs in the urban kindergartens of Nur-Sultan. The importance of this study is to determine the uncertain areas of the inclusion of preschool children with special educational needs by examining the attitudes of teachers and examining the current situation of inclusive preschool education in Nur-Sultan.

This research also highlights the challenges of inclusive pre-school education and highlights the importance of the inclusion of children with special educational needs in their early years.

Literature review

Inclusive culture, policy and practice create a triangle for implementing inclusive education in the early childhood setting. Understanding the role of the teacher in inclusive education is key to successful learning. The overview of the literature review would not be complete without understanding the meaning of inclusive education.

Raimbekova and Mamraimov (2016) report that the state education development program in the Republic of Kazakhstan recognizes the needs of children with special needs. Education for all in the context of inclusion also deals with pre-school education, which means ensuring access to kindergarten for children with special needs. The main problem in the implementation of inclusive education lies primarily in the core of the understanding of inclusion from the educational system.

Inclusive education does not only concern children with special needs; these are also children in a vulnerable group of the population. 2018) presented two approaches in the successful adaptation of a child with autism in early childhood. In their research in a preschool setting, 19 teachers who taught children with special needs were interviewed.

The understanding that some teachers are not ready to take on the responsibility of teaching children with special needs is a major barrier to inclusion. The literature contains modern articles that would enrich the understanding of the research topic and provide different views on the issue of inclusive education in kindergartens.

Figure 2-Bandura’s social cognitive theory
Figure 2-Bandura’s social cognitive theory


The participants in the study are teachers from local kindergartens; the selection of the participants was done by snowball sampling. Sampling is the method of selecting a part of the population to represent the whole and make a generalization in the study (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011). The reason for using snowball sampling is because the researcher does not have the contacts for kindergarten teachers throughout the city and therefore the researcher asked that the contacts from the closest circle of the subjects' co-workers participate in the research.

The researcher requested the contacts of the participants from the kindergarten director or colleagues who work in this field of education, who already had contacts with the kindergarten teachers. In recruiting participants, I emphasized the importance of research and provided a cover letter from the university. I also shared with my participants and leaders about the potential risks associated with the research, and participant confidentiality was explained before the interview began.

Participation in the interview was completely voluntary and they had the right to withdraw at any stage of the research. After the interviews were completed, the researcher thanked the participants for their outstanding contribution to the study. I understand the importance of recognizing the rights and concerns of research participants.

According to Torrance (2010), the researcher must consider the ethical aspects of the research and must provide all the conditions for the participants to feel safe so that their confidentiality will be maintained. At the beginning of the interview, I made sure that the personal data of the participants was protected as confidential data, which will not be disclosed in the research.

Table  1  Participants
Table 1 Participants


This section provides information about kindergarten teachers' attitudes towards teaching children with special educational needs, their thoughts about inclusive education in preschool organizations in Nur-Sultan and the willingness and challenges of teaching children with special needs in kindergarten. The content of the answers of the interviewees showed that the mandate of inclusive education in Kazakhstan currently has several problematic issues. The second issue is the insufficient funding and insufficient resource base for inclusive education in kindergartens (participants 4, 5).

Firstly, it is the influence of the environment and the fact that the government promotes inclusive education and creates awareness that education must be provided to all. The positive attitude of teachers towards inclusive education according to the theory of Bandura is. According to most teachers, the policy of inclusive education in Kazakhstan is in the development process and needs continued work.

The opinion of the participants about the implementation of the policy of inclusive education in Kazakhstan has a negative and positive opinion. Most of the teachers recognize that inclusive education will have a positive impact on children with special educational needs, and many teachers agreed that learning with children who need extra support will have a positive impact on society. The issue of providing quality inclusive education is based on thorough training of professional teachers who will be ready to help the child with special needs.

There is also an opinion that the introduction of inclusive education has happened at the right time. All participants wanted additional knowledge about the development of inclusive education from a practical and theoretical point of view.


Furthermore, in their practice, teachers tend to face the reluctance of some of the parents in Nur-Sultan to accept children with special needs in the regular children's class, where their healthy child goes. Some teachers doubt whether it is correct to have special children with the rest of the children in the class. They are concerned about the possible display of poor behavior on the part of children with special needs.

The results of the interview show a remarkable correlation between the main concepts of the theory and the content of the results obtained on data on preschool inclusion in the city of Nur-Sultan. The second theoretical position in Bandura's theory of the influence of the environment on a person corresponded to the real state of Nur-Sultan's kindergarten. So, preschool inclusion teachers experience, on the one hand, the influence of government policy on the social status of special children, and on the other hand, they encounter many difficulties in their professional practice.

Among them, they noticed: lack of educational and methodological support, lack of experience in solving situations that arise in communication with children with and without special needs, negative reaction of some parents and lack of moral and material incentives for their work. . Therefore, the contradiction between these two points is a factor that reduces the effectiveness of preschool integration for the participants of the learning process. Unfortunately, this fact can be consolidated in the behavioral reactions of children without special needs.

As a result, there is a desire of some teachers to spend the training of special children in specialized institutions for children, which supports the research findings of Rakap, S., & Kaczmarek, L. In the discussion, the author of the chapter presented the interpretation of results according to social cognitive theory and other literature on this topic.


An analysis of the opinions of the interviewees about the role of teachers in the quality of comprehensive education and the socialization of special children coincides with the opinion of Gezer &. It is very important for further improvement and advancement of the process of introducing inclusive education in Kazakhstan's early education system. The importance of socio-pedagogical foundations of comprehensive education allows us to make some recommendations for students of pedagogical specialties and pedagogical educational management.

The process of introducing inclusive education into the system of Kazakhstani education is at the initial stage. It is especially necessary to increase the admission of students in specialties aimed at working in inclusive education (psychologists, teachers, etc.). Determining the optimal ratio of teachers to children in classes, to maximize the effectiveness of inclusive education;.

Creation of a scientific research program for the study of comprehensive education with the involvement of biomedical scientists, social psychologists, physiologists, etc. The author's time spent delving into the problem of preschool inclusion has greatly changed the attitude toward children with special needs. their parents and teachers and confirmed my desire to prove myself in work in the field of comprehensive education. Striving for Inclusive Education in North and South: Educators' Perceptions of Inclusive Education in Finland and Zambia.

Analysis of the situation of children with special needs for the development of an inclusive society in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan has a policy of inclusive education, do you think it should be enforced from early childhood. The purpose of the study is to interview teachers working in local kindergartens in Nur-Sultan and comprehensively outline the current situation in the field of inclusive education of children with additional educational needs in kindergartens in Nur-Sultan.

Your participation will help with the recognition of the teachers' attitude and what are the influencing aspects and barriers to inclusion that will guide pre-school education administration and the government to further develop inclusive education in the country.


Figure 2-Bandura’s social cognitive theory
Table  1  Participants

Ақпарат көздері


«Ақпарат агенттіктері тарататын ақпаратты белгілі бір деңгейде тұрақты түрде оқуға қандай фактор негізгі себеп болды?» деген сауалға 47 31% респондент жауап ретінде ақпарат же- дел