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Baimaganov, Printed according to the publication plan of Gumarbek Daukeev Almaty University of Energy and Communication non-commercial joint-stock company for 2022


Academic year: 2023

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Methodological guidelines are designed for 1st-year students on technical specializations of all forms of education. Printed according to the publication plan of Gumarbek Daukeev Almaty University of Energy and Communication, non-commercial joint-stock company for 2022.


A. The beam-operated trafficsystem

The traffic system controlled by the light beam provides the perfect solution for urban transport. Refer to the reading passage "A beam-controlled transport system" and complete the flow diagram below with suitable words or phrases from the passage.

B. High – speed train

There are three basic components to the Maglev: first, a large electric power source, second, metal coils along a guideway or track, and third, large conducting magnets under the train. The biggest advantage is that because the Maglev makes no contact with the track and has no moving parts, it theoretically requires no maintenance, which would make it much cheaper to use.

C. Advantages of public transport

In the past, public transport was based on environmental and social justice rather than economics. List of descriptions. a) successfully uses the light rail system in a hilly environment b) a successful public transport system despite the cold winters.


Match each city with the correct description, A-F. Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.

A. Air traffic control

As early as the 1920s, the earliest air traffic controllers manually guided aircraft in the vicinity of airports using lights and flags, while beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways. In the 1940s, АТС centers could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communications brought about by World War II, but the system remained rudimentary.

B. The Wright brothers

Despite these advantages, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at exactly the right moment in history. But by the end of the nineteenth century, when the brothers experimented with engineering options, a relatively light internal combustion engine had already been invented, and they were able to bring the ratio of weight to power within acceptable limits for flight.

C. Lighter than air’ ships

It is also possible that hybrid air vehicles will be used for recreational purposes in the future. T/F e) Hybrid aircraft can fly higher than airplanes and are therefore safer for firefighting.


The first commercial airships make) in the early nineteenth century .. drop) to help the forest grow again. Have you traveled in a hot air balloon/would you like to travel in a hot air balloon?.

A. The Census of Marine Life

Still, the current phase of the census emphasizes fieldwork over computer modeling, says Ron O'Dor, the census scientific coordinator. Sharks "appear to be restricted to about 30 percent of the total ocean," the researchers report. Another analyzed sample data and (10) ____ and concluded that shark population may be (11) ____ to the effects of the fishing industry.

Choose two letters A-F. What two factors make it difficult to explore the ocean floor?.

B. Tidal Power

One site alone, the Pendand Firth between Orkney and mainland Scotland, could produce 10% of the country's electricity from undersea turbines, and another in Alderney in the Channel Islands could produce three times the 1,200 megawatts of the largest and newest Great Britain's nuclear power plant can produce. Sizewell B, in Suffolk. The towers will protrude from the water and be illuminated to warn shipping, and are also designed to be lifted out of the water for maintenance and to remove seaweed from the blades. Name the diagram below. Choose up to two words from the passage for each answer.

Air bubbles result from (11)____ Marine life is not in danger due to the fact that the blades are relatively (12)____ behind the blades.

C. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution at Lyme Regis

Each year the lifeboat sails over a hundred times on rescue calls and exercises, many of which involve other rescue services. Only two of the crew of fourteen are professional sailors: the rest are made up of trades such as teachers, gardeners, engineers, builders and cooks. They are all dedicated to saving lives at sea and can only do so with the continued support of the public.

YES if the statement reflects the assertions of the author NO if the statement contradicts the assertions of the author.

Lasers and optical fibers

Three decades later, people are still arguing about who deserves credit for the concept of the laser. What goes up must come down,” says Jean-Claude Diels of the University of New Mexico. The invention of the visible light microscope in the late sixteenth century introduced a previously unknown kingdom of single-celled plants and animals.

Influence of the reaction principle c) The writer's theories about the reaction principle d) Undeveloped for centuries. The next step would be to maneuver it into the focal beam of a parabolic mirror attached to the rear of a starship's crew quarters. If not, the exact shape of the mirror may be compromised and its imaging capability significantly weakened.


B. Striking Back at Lightning with Lasers …

Their electrical fury causes death or serious injury to about 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death - out in the open, a lone golfer might be the lightning of a lightning bolt. most inviting target. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets that trailed wires into storm clouds to create an easy discharge path for the massive electrical charges these clouds generate. If a laser could generate an ionization line in the sky up to a storm cloud, this conduction path could be used to direct lightning to Earth before the electric field becomes strong enough to break the air into an uncontrollable wave.

Diels is trying to downsize and says a laser about the size of a small table is in store.

C. Lasik surgery

NOT GIVEN if it's impossible to tell what the writer thinks about it 11) Power companies have given Diels enough money to develop his laser 12) Getting money to improve the lasers will depend on tests in real storms 13) Meteorologists are very interested in DieIs' system .


To put the X-ray microscope in historical perspective c) To show how limited its applications are.

This causes a . pressure difference on either side of the plates, forcing the plates to stick together, in a phenomenon called the Casimir effect. Leonhardt and Philbin believe that inserting a section of metamaterial between the plates will disrupt the quantum fluctuations in the electromagnetic field. However, it was not until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and thus represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought, that rocket technology was able to develop.

A long cylindrical tube was supported by two sticks and attached to the top of the rocket launcher, allowing the rockets to be inserted and ignited from the other end. Nevertheless, the modern space programs owe their success to the humble beginnings of those in earlier centuries who developed the foundations of the reaction principle. One of the primary challenges involved in successfully transporting the telescope into space was protecting the mirror from the jarring vibrations that occur during launch.

A. Artificial Intelligence

B. Three ways to levitate a Magic Carpet

So say physicists who believe the same exotic materials used to make cloaking devices could also be used to lift small objects into the air. However, he points out that because metamaterials are difficult to engineer, it is unlikely that they can be used to lift objects in the near future. Capasso's early experiments suggested that such repulsion could occur, and that it could in turn be used to lift one object over another.

Complete each sentence with the correct ending A – F below. .. a) gold can be used to produce levitation b) some type of ethanol must be used c) the levitation only takes a few seconds.

A. The Rocket from East to West

The Americans developed a rocket, complete with its launcher, for use against the Mexicans in the mid-nineteenth century. Since then, there has been a great deal of development in missile technology, often with devastating results in the forum. From the information in the text, tell who first invented or used the items in the list below.

Look at the drawings of different projectiles below, A-H, and the names of the types of projectiles given in the passage, questions 11-14.

B. Reaching the stars

Most astronomers are convinced of the existence of dark matter because of the way its gravity pulls on the stars and galaxies we see with our telescopes. So a dark matter starship could pick up its fuel en route and would therefore not need to carry anything. One kilogram of dark matter could release 10 billion times more energy than 1 kilogram of dynamite.

One theory proposes a collision of a dark matter (3)____, which will be mutually destroyed, thus resulting in a transformation of their physical components into (4)____.

C. Hubble

According to National Geographic's Imaging Space and Time, the resolution of a deep space telescope would be “equivalent to distinguishing the left and right headlights of a California car as seen from New York, or a feature less than 1/30,000 the size of the full moon. It will observe only in infrared light, so it will complement the Hubble telescope, which observes in the range of visible and ultraviolet light. Astronomers want to see beyond Hubble's ultra-deep field into a time when there are no galaxies, the time before galaxies formed.

As one of the characters in the popular work asked: “If Time is really only a fourth dimension of Space, why is it, and why has it always been, considered something else?

Ақпарат көздері


The quote that leads us to the Bolivian reality ends with an allusion to the famous pamphlet of Vladimir Lenin 1870–1924, which echoes the fact that the oppressed working class in