Investigating English language teacher trainers' practices and views on language teaching and developing students' communicative competence in Kazakhstan. The development of communicative competence in the English language is a learning goal of secondary education in Kazakhstan.
Introduction 1.1. Background and Context
- Statement of the Problem
- Purpose of the Study
- Research Questions
- The Rationale and Significance of the Study
- Thesis Outline
As a result, this study aims to investigate teacher trainers' practices and views on English language teaching (ELT) and the development of. This study will focus on teacher trainers' practices and views of the current approach to EFL classrooms, especially CLT, included in the updated curriculum and.
- Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence
- Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
- The Implementation of CLT in the Asian context 1. The Rationale behind CLT Adoption in Asia
- Kazakhstan and CLT Implementation
- Conceptual Framework
Drawing parallels between CLT and discussions about the practice and theory of foreign language teaching, Savignon (2005) compares it to "the Big Mac to kit food" (p. 635). In India, Jabeen (2014) assessed the use of the communicative approach in the English language teaching classrooms in Delhi secondary schools.
- Research Methodology
- Data Collection Instruments
- Data Collection 1. Procedures
- Ethical Procedures
Therefore, the research problem was interested in a deep understanding of the features of CLT implementation in the Kazakhstan context. Furthermore, this study necessitated the selection of participants according to certain criteria, especially teacher trainers involved in the professional development of English language teachers. Qualitative interviews are administered orally with a small number of participants, where the researcher asks general open-ended questions to record participants' responses (Creswell, 2014).
The use of interviews in this study helped to uncover participants' perspectives and rich past experiences in the professional development of EFL teachers. The only indirect identifier mentioned is the size of the city in the Kazakhstan region (two major cities in the south of Kazakhstan and one in the north of Kazakhstan). To minimize the risks, I considered the dangers of power relations between the researcher and the participants.
The researcher collaborated with the participants by sharing the findings to check that the interpretations of the provided written responses were fair and representative.
For this research, I first examined the Decree of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated October 31, 2018, No. For this dissertation, I focused on the topic of 'Foreign Language' for secondary education in Kazakhstan, including primary education (grades 1 to 4), lower secondary education (grades 5 to 9) and upper secondary education (grade 10). to 11). Furthermore, I referred to the instructional methodological letters published by the Altynsarin National Academy of Education for the academic years 2020-2021 and 2021-2022.
Second, the questionnaire with EFL teacher educators provided additional results because this instrument illustrated the teacher educators' perspectives on the current foreign language teaching approach and professional development. Section C then concentrated on the main aims and nature of their teacher education programmes, which are mainly related to the development of communicative competence. Finally, the purpose of the interviews was to elicit teacher educators' views on the overall purpose of foreign language teaching in Kazakhstan, the skills developed in English language classrooms and the implementation challenges.
However, the state of emergency and the emergence of the Covid19 Omicron variant had resulted in respondents refusing to participate in the initially agreed interview format.
The Components of Communicative Competence in the Kazakhstani Context To answer what knowledge counts and is viewed as important in Kazakhstani EFL
The components of communicative competence in the Kazakhstani context To answer what knowledge counts and is considered important in Kazakhstani EFL. First, the document placed grammatical competence in primary schools at the fore, followed by intercultural communicative competence and discourse competence at later stages in the curriculum. Kazakhstan's school curriculum at each grade level correlates with the levels described in the CEFR (SCES, 2018).
As stated in the Instructional Methodological Letter, language skills at school level must be developed from a lower A1 to a higher B2 level (Table 1). EFL teacher trainers emphasized the need to meet the requirements of SCES (2018), and that ultimately reaching the B2 level in English language is the desirable outcome of school education. Interestingly, the development of productive skills was more pronounced in the guidelines for the organization of the learning process.
This course is aimed at improving students' confidence in communicating in different situations, providing access to higher education not only in Kazakhstan but also abroad, and expanding access to authentic texts of literary works in the original language].
Assumptions Underpinning Current ELT in EFL Teacher Training
Their different responses could be related to provisions of the instructional-methodology letter that recommended moving from a strict focus on the accuracy of grammatical structures to a greater emphasis on engaging in dialogues to achieve communicative goals. Similar recommendations were observed in the Instructional-Methodological Letter, which states that errors are part of the learning process. For example, EFL teacher educators recommended pair and group work to help students feel less inhibited to speak in the classroom.
And in the group with like-minded people, they may be more confident to explain their ideas or hobbies. However, the guidelines also support the point that teachers should produce model speech in the classroom. The findings suggested that teachers are seen as facilitators and activators of students' knowledge and models in the classroom.
Это заложено в Учебно-методическом письме: процесс обучения ведется на изучаемом языке (английском), но при необходимости преподаватель может использовать родной язык ученика для объяснения нового урока или сложных инструкций».
Constraints for Effective CLT Implementation
The SCES (2018) cites the ability to access international education as one of the benefits of receiving good quality FL education. EFL teachers have also noted that speaking activities in EFL classrooms should mimic some of the sections of the IELTS exam. This perspective on preparation for IELTS can produce a washback effect that creates an environment where teachers model their practices to ensure that students' knowledge is demonstrated in these tests.
The Purpose of English Language Professional Development
The assessment practices also received a high score, because they are an important part of the updated curriculum reform. On the other hand, according to EFL teacher trainers, school management and administrative issues remained beyond the scope of PD programs. Consequently, this section of the questionnaire revealed a consensus regarding the focus of the PD program.
Regarding specific techniques in the repertoires of English language teachers, TT2 mentioned that the courses trained teachers to use "Обучение учителей интеркальным методикам" [use interactive methodology]. Thus, although the respondents saw the PD system as a platform for learning about techniques and exchanging ideas, some of the gaps identified in the teacher trainers' responses suggested that PD programs do not fully address teachers. Grammatical competence in the Kazakh context is measured according to the international assessment framework (CEFR) and is related to the mastery of four language skills: speaking, writing, listening, reading.
Discourse competence is primarily related to the ability to function in the workplace, especially in the professional and scientific field.
- What Discourses Underpin the Development of Communicative Competence in the Kazakhstani Secondary Education Context?
- What are Teacher Trainers’ Beliefs about English Language Teaching?
- What are Teacher Trainers' Main Goals Associated with English Language Teacher Training?
- What Implementation Constraints Do EFL Teacher Trainers Identify in ELT in Kazakhstani Secondary Schools?
As a result, the CEFR's adoption highlights the importance of the English language for. Moreover, as illustrated in a study by Tuspekova et al. 2019), the use of the English language was practiced by the majority of students in their free time. Furthermore, the study found that teachers were at the forefront as role models and facilitators of English language learning to meet the demands of the updated curriculum.
This study found the consistency between EFL teacher trainers' perspectives on PD with the SCES (2018) and methodological recommendations on the organization of the learning process. Thus, the study revealed that the EFL teacher trainers perceived the main objectives of PD courses as related to achieving the set goals. According to the results of the study, the communicative approach is embraced in EFL teacher training.
Some of the participants even mentioned the possibility of future high-level exams as a reference point for assessing students' knowledge.
Recommendations for Practice
In light of these implementation limitations, EFL teacher in-service training systems should pay more attention to the needs of teachers and students and provide effective solutions to the actual challenges. In particular, PD courses should focus on the transition from non-communicative activities to communicative activities. In addition, there should be more consistency between the school's English-language curriculum and the textbooks.
Specifically, the problem of textbooks that do not match the curriculum objectives and do not provide the necessary lexical progression of topics and vocabulary should be addressed. Finally, to ensure the sustainability of the introduced reforms and the lasting impact of PD courses, a system of continuous feedback and assessment should be established to reflect on and improve existing PD programs. The follow-up activities with practicing EFL teachers can help adapt the PD courses to the changing environments of English classrooms.
At the same time, EFL teachers' experiences with the new pedagogies and methods can enrich other in-service teachers' PD programs and pedagogical practices.
This required the researcher to dig into detailed responses to understand the meaning of their responses.
Recommendations for Further Research
Frequently reported practices in communicative language teaching: An exploratory study in secondary schools and official language schools in the Madrid region. A critical investigation of English language learning in Bangladesh: Unmet expectations after two decades of communicative language learning. DESCRIPTION: You are invited to participate in a research study that explores your practices and views on language teaching and the development of students' communicative competence in secondary schools in Kazakhstan.
You will be asked to participate in a face-to-face interview or online interview, depending on the COVID 19 restrictions in Kazakhstan. If you do not wish to participate in an interview, questions will be sent to you to provide your written answers. Finally, you will be asked to send your teaching materials used with EFL teachers.
The results of this research will be partly included in the submitted thesis. Project: Exploring EFL teacher trainers' practices and beliefs about language teaching and developing students' communicative competence in Kazakhstan Name or type. What is the main purpose of foreign language education in secondary schools in the Republic of Kazakhstan?
Personal and educational details: Circle or highlight the appropriate answer Age
Main foci of English language training in Kazakhstan
Developing communicative competence in English language classes Please indicate: strongly agree; agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree
Жеке және білім беру мәліметтері: Тиісті жауапты дөңгелектеп немесе астын сызып белгілеңіз
Ағылшын тілі сабақтарында коммуникативтік құзыреттіліктерді дамыту
Основные направления повышения квалификации учителей английского языка в Казахстане
Развитие коммуникативной компетенции на занятиях по английскому языку Пожалуйста, укажите: полностью согласен; согласен, нейтрально, не согласен,