• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ

Design and planning for a major building project in Astana


Academic year: 2023

Share "Design and planning for a major building project in Astana"


Толық мәтін

Architectural drawings are developed in accordance with the construction standards and regulations of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The final part of the document estimates the cost and feasibility of the project, presents a thorough WBS and construction activities.


  • Project Description
  • Scope of the Project
  • Project Team Members
  • Literature Review

Providing new opportunities and ideas - Providing energy to motivate the team - Checking the feasibility of ideas. Construction standards of the Republic of Kazakhstan (CNaR RK) are a set of construction standards used on the territory of the country.

Table 1. 1. EUROCODEs and CNaR RK
Table 1. 1. EUROCODEs and CNaR RK


  • Design Statement
    • Main Function of the Building
    • Site Location
    • Preliminary Design
  • Classification of building
  • General Requirements
    • Building height and areas
    • Means of egress
    • Elevators
    • Garbage Disposal and Dust Cleaning
    • Natural Lightening and Space Insolation
  • Requirements on main premises
    • Corridors
    • Water closets
    • Conference Hall
    • Auditorium
    • Restaurant
    • Hotel Rooms
  • Non-structural materials
    • Flooring
    • Ceiling
    • Roofing

The number of toilets and sanitary units varies according to the type of public building. According to CNaR RK, the capacity of the restaurant depends on the class of the hotel.

Figure 2. 2. (a, b, c.) Preliminary design models
Figure 2. 2. (a, b, c.) Preliminary design models


Building Frame

A structural analysis will then be carried out to see if all limit state requirements have been met. If the requirements are met, the design is approved and construction can begin.

Structural Design Loads

  • Dead Load
  • Live Load
  • Wind Load
  • Snow Load

The hotel component of the building can be related to category A, while the conference center is in category C. According to the EUROCODE, calculation of the wind load is possible based on the fundamental value of the basic wind speed and terrain characteristics of the location.

Table 3. 2. Dead loads of non-structural members
Table 3. 2. Dead loads of non-structural members

Limit State Design

The value can be seen from the snow load maps in the CN RK (appendix 1) and amounts to 1.5 kN/m2.

Load Combinations

Structural Analysis

If a structure under consideration returns to its original shape after application of loads, the structure is called elastic. When the structure is statically determined, it can only be analyzed by static equilibrium equations; whereas for indeterminate structures they must satisfy both static equilibrium equations and compatibility conditions for internal forces.

Structural Member Design

  • Beam Design
  • Slab Design
  • Column Design

The next criterion for the choice of the analysis method is the degree of determination. Design steps for the combination of axial force and moment differ from the procedure mentioned above.

Preliminary Structural Design

  • Preliminary Slab Design
  • Preliminary Beam design
  • Preliminary Column design

For the simplicity of the design, one-way sheet is made from two-way sheet by placing an additional sheet. Column D4 is responsible for the largest area, so the load will be the highest.

Figure 3. 5. Column grid
Figure 3. 5. Column grid

Building frame analysis

  • Analysis under Wind Load
  • Analysis under Dead Load

The shear force is distributed in such a way that the inner column carries twice the shear load of the outer column at each floor. However, these changes in internal forces can be explained by the third assumption that the internal column carries twice the shear load of the external column.

Figure 3. 7. Wind Load applied to 2D frame
Figure 3. 7. Wind Load applied to 2D frame

Frame Design in SAP2000

The first run was unsuccessful due to failure in columns at levels 1 and 9 (red members in Figure 3.14). Another frame is considered to determine whether the previously analyzed frame is more critical or not.

Figure 3. 11. Live Load applied to 2D frame
Figure 3. 11. Live Load applied to 2D frame

Structural Detailing

  • Beam Detailing
  • Column Detailing
  • Slab Detailing

Serviceability Design

  • Wind drift check
  • Deflection check
  • Crack Check

As seen from the table, interstorey operation from the software complies with code requirements. Calculation of beam deflection is not necessary because the design value is less than the limit. Uncontrolled cracks affect the appearance and durability of the structure due to corrosion of reinforcement when the crack width exceeds the permissible limit.

Instead of calculating the crack width, the code requires a minimum area of ​​tension reinforcement, limiting the spacing and sizes of the crack control strips (Mosley, Bungey, and Hulse, 2012). Since the beam is reinforced and located inside the building with low air humidity, the structural element considered is of exposure class XO (EC2 – Table 4.1). From the checks carried out above, it can be said that the cracks are controlled and there is no need for further calculations.


Site Location

Climatic characterization of region

  • Air temperature
  • Depth of Ground Freezing

Annual variations in air temperature are characterized by persistent hard frosts in winter, the increase in intense heat in the short spring season, and the heat in the short summer. As the survey shows, the average monthly temperature in the coldest month of January - 16.8 degrees, and the warmest - July 20.4 degrees Celsius. In some very severe winters, temperatures can drop to -49-52 degrees (the absolute minimum), but the probability of such a temperature of no more than 5%.

On hot summer days, the temperature can rise to 39-42 degrees, but such temperatures are observed no more often than 1 time in 10 years. Settlement of the coldest five-day air temperature in Astana-safety 0.98 -36 degrees; Security 0.92 -33 degrees, the average temperature of the heating period - -8.4 degrees, the approximate duration of the heating period of 216-229 days. The average depth of penetration into the ground is 250 cm, the greatest penetration usually occurs in March.

Soil Profile

Fluvial loam and clay in the entire section are layered with each other and have similar physical and mechanical properties, so they are combined into one geotechnical element. Each selected engineering-geological element has specific values ​​that describe their physical and mechanical properties, as shown in Figure S - the observed drop in the water level in the piezometer, measured from the initial level, see;.

T Tf) - Change to bring the values ​​of the hydraulic conductivity of the water filtration conditions to a temperature of 10 C, where Tf - the actual water temperature with experience 0C. Groundwater feeding occurs mainly due to infiltration of precipitation, as well as snowmelt and flooding, as well as leakage of water communications.

Table 4. 1. Soil Profile
Table 4. 1. Soil Profile

Ground Water Condition

Groundwater recharge occurs mainly due to infiltration of precipitation, snowmelt and flooding, as well as leakage of water communications.

Foundation design

  • Foundation types: Shallow Foundation
  • Foundation types: Deep Foundation
  • Design Procedure
  • Load Applied
  • Pile Group Design: Vertical Loads
  • Pile Group Design: Lateral Loads
  • Structural Failure of Pile Foundation during Installation
  • Pile Cap Design
  • Elastic Settlement
  • Consolidation settlement

In the case of a mat foundation, due to the large area of ​​the building such as 80m x 100m, the size of the mat foundation must be sufficiently heavy. The ultimate bearing capacity of group piles in sand can be expressed in the following way. To calculate the horizontal load, the equation below should be considered (Tomlinson, 2010).

Pt,ult' is the ultimate lateral load factored by multipliers that can be resisted by a group of piles. In both cases, Pt,ult' > P, which means that the group of piles can also be positively closed by the lateral load. So, assuming the pile cap is a rigid body with 650mm of backfill on top, the weight of the structure can be calculated.

Figure 4. 2. Spread footing foundation
Figure 4. 2. Spread footing foundation


Economic Analysis of the Project

  • Calculation of revenue

The hotel's revenues include the rental of hotel rooms and revenues from additional hotel facilities (gym, restaurant, conference hall, hall rental). Hotel occupancy is never 100%, and according to statistics, the average hotel occupancy is 45%. A retainer was taken into account, which was taken as 10% of the first 50% of the contract price or and was given to the contractor at the end of the period.

The Present Worth method is based on the concept of the equivalent value of all cash flows compared to the present. In other words, all income and expenses are brought to the current point at an interest rate equal to the MARR (Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return). Excel shows the IRR = 22%>20%, so the project is economically feasible according to the IRR decision rule.

Table 5. 4.Calculating Contract Cash Flow
Table 5. 4.Calculating Contract Cash Flow

Risk Management

  • Failure Mode Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

After the preventive action is implemented, severity and probability S(2), O(2) and D(2) are reassigned values ​​taking into account the mitigation effect (see Table 5.5). From injury to death Wear a safety helmet. Use tool lanyards to prevent tools from falling. As shown in the FMEA table, after mitigation was applied to each hazard, RPN values ​​became less than 70.

To improve the safety of the construction process and prevent various accidents, regular safety management procedures are needed. The FMEA risk assessment technique is one of the simplest ways to assess risks and mitigate them.

Table 5. 6. Results of implementing FMEA technique.
Table 5. 6. Results of implementing FMEA technique.

Quality Management

  • Quality Planning
  • Quality assurance
  • Quality control

Therefore, it is better for the owner to do an unscheduled quality audit to see the actual progress of the project, and what is more important is to have this done by a third party who has enough knowledge in construction to do the audit. quality properly. . Considering the size of the project and the fact that the project will be located in Astana, which is problematic for the construction weather, the quality audit should be done at least once a month. Quality control should be done by the owner and independent specialists who are engaged in the quality planning process.

This process should be carried out frequently so that the owner can take timely action in case of non-compliance with the requirements. According to CNaR RK, the distance between fire extinguishers or fire hoses must be at least 20 m from the problem area. According to the evacuation plan, it must be placed in a visible place on each floor.

Figure 5. 2. First floor Evacuation Plan
Figure 5. 2. First floor Evacuation Plan

Construction Schedule

  • Activity on Node Final Approach
  • Final Gantt Chart

Total 30 days Installation of the elevator equipment in the pit 25 days Installation of the elevator doors on each floor 10 days. Total - 29 days 3.1 Removal of temporary fencing around the hotel area 1 day 3.2 Excavation of the soil for fence foundation 1 day. Total - 11 days 5.2.1 Excavation of the ground for fencing Foundation 1 day 5.2.2 Formation of fencing for fountain walls pouring 1 day.

Important to mention here is that the total duration of the main activities is calculated on the basis that their sub-activities overlap. Now with the correct data we can find a critical path for the project and calculate its duration. With the use of the final AON chart, it is now possible to construct the following Gantt chart for the project (Appendix 7).

Figure 5. 5. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the project
Figure 5. 5. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the project


Referring to the external infrastructure, as mentioned earlier, the location of the hotel would be next to the highway on "Orynbor" street, so the main entrance of the hotel would be close to the road. As shown the road is covered around the main building, creating a convenient way for car movement from the PCC entrance to the main building entrance or to the PCC exit passing through both the covered car park and the on-street car park. road. Additionally, the road would also pass through the building's staff entrance in case of handover works.

This peace of the project will extend between the pedestrian entrance to the hotel area and the main entrance of the building so that visitors can see all the beauty of the hotel from the first steps. The first is the main entrance/exit of the building located in front of the building. The second is the staff entrance/exit which is located at the back of the building.

Figure 6. 2. PCC Car Entrance
Figure 6. 2. PCC Car Entrance



Figure 2. 2. (a, b, c.) Preliminary design models
Figure 2. 9. Shapes of auditorium (Barron, 2010)
Figure 2. 11.Auditorium seating dimensions  Table 2. 3. Typical values for auditorium seating
Figure 2. 13. Ceiling structure

Ақпарат көздері