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GENDER IN KAZAKHSTAN'S MINING INDUSTRY

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Academic year: 2023

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Толық мәтін

Any contribution to the research from others with whom I have worked at NU or elsewhere is expressly acknowledged in the thesis. I further declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own work, except to the extent that the assistance of others in the conception and design of the project or in style, presentation and linguistic expression is acknowledged. Gender barriers, such as gender pay gaps, "glass ceilings", discrimination, prohibited working positions and cultural and social stereotypes discourage women from joining or remaining in the mining industry.

But the absence of information in the public domain makes it difficult to accurately assess the depth of inequality within the miners so far. This thesis examined the status of women in the Kazakhstan mining industry by evaluating employment, wages, education and corporate relationship factors. Working in the mining industry is highly paid and the gender gap is decreasing over the years, resulting in 5 percent.

In the recruitment process, the share of women in the mining sector has decreased over the last decade, which means that the promotion of gender diversity by local companies and existing training programs do not address this issue. Acknowledging and understanding the current gender barriers for women in the mining industry will bring attention to the issues faced by women in mining.

INTRODUCTION

  • Background
  • Problem Statement
  • Objectives of the Thesis
    • Main Objective
    • Specific Objectives
  • Hypotheses
    • Hypothesis 1
    • Hypothesis 2
    • Hypothesis 3
  • Justification of the R&D
  • Scope of work

Glass ceiling: an unrecognized barrier to workplace progress leads to low participation of women in decision-making in Kazakhstan's mining industry. Prohibited positions: List of prohibited positions for women affects women's ability to obtain employment in the mining industry. The main objective of the thesis was to identify the current status of gender equality within Kazakhstan's mining industry.

Undertake qualitative statistical analysis of gender inclusivity and educational impact on potential employment sources for women in Kazakhstan's mining industry. Conducting quantitative analysis of women's involvement in the mining industry of Kazakhstan and the influence of local mining companies on diversity policies. The local female population faces job restrictions in the mining industry due to government-based exclusions.

Therefore, this dissertation, entitled 'Gender in Kazakhstan's mining industry', focused on gender diversity within the mining workforce in Kazakhstan. Literature review summarizes existing research on women's inclusivity and gender diversity in the mining industry worldwide, followed by a specific focus on the.

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Women in the mining industry
    • Kazakhstan mining industry vs. women employment
  • Gender barriers in Kazakhstan´s mining sector
    • Engineering Education
    • The gender pay gap in Kazakhstan’s mining labor
    • Recruitment principles of local mining companies
  • Influence of automatization on women inclusion in mining workforce
  • Historical, cultural, and social impact on gender diversity
  • Women in mining engineering - misperceptions and stereotypes
  • Benefits of gender diversity

In Kazakhstan, women prefer to work in healthcare, education and services rather than mining or construction, despite an increasing number of women studying technical disciplines. Despite significant progress in women's labor market inclusivity, the mining sector is still considered a male-dominated profession. Spitz & Trudinger's (2019) research shows that highly diverse working teams performed more productively in financial and operational areas within the mining industry.

According to Botha (2016), female stakeholders in the mining area are at risk of sexual harassment and assault from male colleagues. One of the primary factors for the lack of female labor in the mining sector remains the gender segregation of professional education, which lays the foundation for further differentiation of employment (Alshanskaya, 2020). Women have a poor selection of available jobs in the mining sector, as companies prefer not to employ women in their reproductive years (Ward, 2010).

The lack of representation of women in the mining sphere has caused the female community negative experiences and fear of rejection by the industry (Spitz & Trudinger, 2019). However, at the beginning of the 20th century, the proportion of women in mining areas was estimated at 44 percent (Lahiri-Dutt, 2012). Nevertheless, before the 18th century, women and children could not participate in the mining sector due to the dangerous and dangerous conditions.

In addition to the current shortage of stakeholders, the aging of current employees may cause a lack of human help in the mining industry.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Research Scope
    • First stage
    • Second stage
    • Third stage
  • Data acquisition
  • Data collection and processing
    • Data analysis

The third step consisted of formulating conclusions and suggestions to mining companies and the government based on quantitative and qualitative research on gender issues in Kazakhstan's mining industry. This publication is issued by the official government agency Bureau of National Statistics under the Agency for Strategic Planning and Reforms, a department of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Official company web pages and social media posts that are publicly available are used as targets for the review.

Since information on official company sources may be edited to present the company in the best light, such information may be biased. However, analysis of personal or other social media sources that do not represent official company information is beyond the scope of our work. The data book contained various sections and sub-sections describing the employment and ratio of men and women in certain branches.

The data covers all regions of Kazakhstan, and according to the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, persons of working age including citizens of 16-59.5 years women, 16-63 years men. The pay rate section determines the average monthly nominal salary per employee by dividing the accrued salary fund by the actual number of employees and the number of months in the reporting period. Postgraduate education is the main form of training of highly qualified scientific and pedagogical staff - master's degree students, candidates (doctors) in the sciences, and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.).

Transcribed text through news releases and Instagram posts were read for qualitative analysis to obtain existing trends in Kazakhstan's mining industry. The content of internet resources of mining companies was analyzed using the categories "resources", "personal experience", "subjective opinion and interest". The personal experience category addresses direct (personal) or indirect (eg, friend, family, co-worker) experience in the mining industry.

In the subjective opinion and interest category section, female employees express their opinions about the mining sector or discuss the need to discover the issue. Meaning units, in our case, are factors experienced by women employees, and code words succinctly represent the abbreviated meaning unit and serve as tools to analyze the data. In our case, the content analysis is a tool to investigate the presence, meaning and correlations of female presence in the public news of the mining companies.

RESULTS

  • Quantitative analysis
    • Employment
    • Pay gap
    • Education
    • Discussion
  • Qualitative content analysis
    • KAZ Minerals
    • Kazzinc
    • Kazakhmys
    • Eurasian Resources Group
    • Polymetal
    • Organizations supporting women in the mining industry of Kazakhstan
    • Summary

According to the data, the gender pay gap in the mining sector in 2008 was higher than in 2020. Share of women in the total number of students in higher education institutions in percentage. The employment section shows a low and declining number of female workers employed in the mining sector.

According to Forbes, KAZ Minerals rose to first place in the ranking of the largest private companies in Kazakhstan in 2021. According to the Randstad Employer Brand Research (2021) study, KAZ Minerals is in sixth place among the top 10 most attractive of the 150 largest employers in Kazakhstan. The company's web publications Equality & Diversity (2020) and Women in Mining (2020) inform that three female employees in senior positions at KAZ Minerals Group have been included in the 2018 and 2020 lists of "100 inspiring women in the mining industry of the world". ".

In the interview, one of the female employees states that there is no difference between men and women in intellectual capabilities and possibilities. Additionally, other female workers share that equality in the mining industry is moving in a positive direction. The third female employee in a senior position claims that the mining industry's main problem is the lack of limited specialists, and that it is crucial to raise the profile of working in the mine.

Family members have influenced one in three mining women to join the industry. Kazzinc actively participates in the social and economic development of the regions where the company's subdivisions are present. According to Forbes, the company was among the top 5 most comprehensive in the industry and ranked fifth in the Most Attractive Employers 2015 category, Technology/Science category.

The career choice for most female workers in Kazakhmys involves several factors, such as family history, workplace location and access to education in the area. Kazakhmys is one of the most attractive employers in the mining region because they attract qualified personnel through company policies, social packages and high salaries. At a forum event on women in mining in 2019, two hundred female workers discussed gender issues and stereotypes with nine speakers.

One of them is the founder of the association Women in Mining Russia and represents the interests of women in the mining industry. The non-profit organization WIM is helping women in the industry, which shows that the problem has been recognized and that there is a support organization in place.

Figure 1. The ratio of women employed to men employed, percent of total  4.1.2  Pay gap
Figure 1. The ratio of women employed to men employed, percent of total 4.1.2 Pay gap

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Implementation of laws and policies that promote equal opportunities and treatment of women in civil and social life. Social security and the protection of women through legislation that will protect women and men from gender-based discrimination and violence. Eliminating laws, restrictions and cultural practices based on gender stereotypes or perpetuating gender roles that restrict women's freedom of movement or discriminate on the basis of gender in the workplace.

Topics to work on include raising awareness and implementing successful strategies from the leading international mining companies such as Rio Tinto. The company employs various strategies in many countries related to social support of the local women's community or promoting women's participation in mining activities. Local nonprofit Women in Mining Kazakhstan could also consider the strategies of international organizations Women in Mining, USA, UK, Russia and others.

Analyzing the Experiences of Female Public Service Managers in Kazakhstan: Caught Between Economic Pressures to Serve and Traditional Family Role Expectations. Order approving the list of jobs in which it is prohibited to employ workers under the age of eighteen, the maximum rates for carrying and moving weights for workers under the age of eighteen, and the list of jobs in which it is prohibited to employ women, the maximum rates of lifting and moving weights manually by women in 2015, no.

Сурет

Table 1. The number of employees in large and medium-sized enterprises by type of  economic activity (thousands of people)
Figure 1. The ratio of women employed to men employed, percent of total  4.1.2  Pay gap
Figure 2. Differences between men and women nominal monthly wages in KZT
Figure 3. Average monthly nominal wages the ratio of women to men by the type of  economic activity
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