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Globalization and Youth Culture in Kazakhstan

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1 Globalization and Youth Culture in Kazakhstan

Nazgul Mingisheva

nazgulm2006@gmail.com

The author is responsible for correspondence related to manuscript submission.

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2 Nazgul Mingisheva

Globalization and Youth Culture in Kazakhstan

This paper is focused on the pilot quantitative research on youth culture building and gender construction through the Internet, media, popular culture, and computer games in post-Soviet Kazakhstan. There are some considerations of global, regional, and local contents of the Internet, media, and popular culture in students’ preferences in that research. In this study it was indicated that Russian context is spread in the Internet and media among the students’

interests while global one is widespread in popular culture. Although local Kazakh aspects are also presented on the Internet, media, and popular culture, it is not sufficient enough.

Additionally, it was argued that Internet, media, popular culture, and computer games construct gender identity and sometimes gender equality of young people in present-day Kazakhstan.

Keywords: youth culture, gender construction, globalization, postcolonialism, popular culture, Kazakhstan

Introduction

Youth studies in Central Asia started in the 2000s after the collapse of Soviet Union, the spread of postcolonial studies, and globalization worldwide (Appadurai, Benhabib, Anderson, Arnett). Kirmse pointed the following frameworks applied to youth in post-Soviet Central Asia such as “‘transition’, postcolonialism, nation-building and ‘Islamic revival’” (2010: 381). In this case, it would be possible to say that postcolonialism encounters with global challenges and experiences regarding the construction of identity and nation-building where youth consume and can reinterpret new ideas more successfully than adults. It is confirmed by Kirmse in that youth “inhabits ‘plural worlds’” and “often at the forefront of global cultural exchange” (2010:

390).

That study concentrates on gender construction of young people in post-Soviet Kazakhstan by means of Internet, media and popular culture and how global, regional and local aspects are included in the process of construction. Under globalization it is examined Western culture and Western values (American or European). Although currently globalization has many ethnic aspects like Asian ones, however, Western globalization was used in that research as a tool of modernization taking place in Kazakhstan and applied to the construction of youth’s

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3 hybrid identity in my own country. Regional aspects include, first of all, Russian media influence which is prevalent in Internet and television in present-day Kazakhstan. Other regions such as Turkey, South Korea, and India are also mentioned in that study. In other words, Asian context in media and television is also important for Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Local aspect principally corresponds to the Kazakh content.

Both youth and gender construction have social and cultural aspects (Kirmse 2010, West

& Zimmerman 1987, Marshall & Young 2006). According to West and Zimmerman, “doing gender is unavoidable” (1987: 137), so the main goal of the pilot research regarding youth and gender construction is to show how it is unavoidable because of Internet, media and television, and popular culture in Kazakhstan.

While most of the works and articles on youth in Central Asia are tied with post-socialist authority gap in general (Blum 2007, Roberts 2010, etc.) or focused primarily on Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Kirmse 2010, 2013; Ibold 2010; DeYoung 2010; Roche 2010; Stephan 2010), this study will pay attention to the case in Kazakhstan. Compared to other most viewed studies addressing young people in Central Asia in terms of religion, media (Kirmse 2010, 2013), post- Communist space, social institutions and processes (Roberts 2010), Internet, cultural identity (Ibold 2010), higher education, globalization (DeYoung 2010), and Islamic education (Stephan 2010), that pilot study on youth in Kazakhstan has another recency is that it considers gender identity and construction via Internet, media and popular culture. In that research it is analyzed some complex influences of global, regional and local contexts of gender construction in Kazakhstan and to indicate where those influences emerge more or less. How is youth’s gender constructed through Internet, social networks, media, television, and popular culture? How is the hybridity of young people constructed with globalization, regionalism and locality? Is it possible to develop some Kazakh cultural content which would embrace the Internet and media space with popular culture (Adams 2008)? What should we pay attention to in this case? Is it possible to build a kind of ‘Kazakh/Kazakhstani hybridity’? What does such hybridity represent?

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4 Methodology

It is necessary to note that this is a pilot study, so there should be further studies to reach more accurate results. Conducting this study, the primary goal was to identify some basic strategies to study youth in Kazakhstan in the future regarding gender issues, globalization and regional/local contexts as well as student preferences in media and popular culture. That pilot research on youth and gender construction was conducted in November 2011. It was a small quantitative research carried out with only 20 Russian-language students aged between 18 and 21 years (7 males (35%) and 13 females (65%)) in Karaganda city. The questionnaire was completed with the help of students who helped a lot with correction of the questions and did some useful additions later. As a result, the final worksheet included 31 questions and could be divided into four parts as follows: 1) Internet and social networks; 2) media and television; 3) movies and music (or popular culture), and 4) computer games. It also is important to note that few students involved in the study preferred using Internet to watching movies and shows;

listening to music as well as to communicating and conducting educational researches. Having the opportunity to do various things from a certain point and whenever you want, and to discuss and communicate with friends and/or relatives through social networks or chats can be shown as a reason to the wide use of Internet. It could be told that Internet usage has been currently increasing in urban areas of Kazakhstan.

In this paper, it was covered nearly all questions stated in the pilot research on youth culture in Kazakhstan. There are seven questions regarding the Internet and social networks;

fifteen items on media and television; five questions on popular culture, and other three questions on gadgets and computer games. In total, 30 questions concerning the youth and gender construction via media, television, and popular culture in Kazakhstan were analyzed in this article. Additionally, it should be noted that students included in the study were from different grades (sophomores, juniors, and seniors) and majors (humanitarian, technical, and medical ones).

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5 Fieldwork

As stated above, the pilot study on youth and gender construction consists of the following four parts: Internet and social networks; media and television; popular movies and music; gadgets and computer games. Presented is the ensuing results on each of those part:

Part one: Internet and social networks

This part includes the following questions (each question has the certain table below):

1. Which social networks do you use?

2. What does arouse your interest in social networks?

3. Which chat programs do you use?

4. What do you use Internet for?

5. Have the social networks taken the place of email for you?

6. Which tools do you use for online communication?

7. How often do you use Internet?

Table 1. Which social networks do you use?

What social networks do you use? (several variants) N=20

Male (7) Female (13)

Moi Mir (My World, Russian) 7 (100%) 13 (100%)

Facebook 3 3

VKontakte.ru (In Contact) 2 7

Odnolklassniki.ru (Classmates) 2 5

Vkrugudruzei.ru (In the Circle of Friends) - 1

Twitter 1 1

Nur.kz 1 1

Mirtesen.ru (The Small World) 1 -

Do not use social networks - -

Table 2. What does arouse your interest in social networks?

What does arouse your interest in social networks? (range from 1 to 8: 1-most important and 8- least important):

Male (7) Female (13)

News 2.9 4.2

Communication with friends 3.1 2.1

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Chat communication 4.0 3.5

Friends’ news 4.4 4.7

Group communication 4.6 4.2

Searching new friends 4.6 5.8

Pictures/video/music exchange 5.4 4.9

Blogs 6.3 6.1

Table 3. Which chat programs do you use?

Which chat programs do you use? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

Mail.ru Agent 7 (100%) 13 (100%)

Skype 4 8

Facebook 1 2

Yahoo 1 2

Yandex.ru 1 -

Odnoklassniki.ru (Classmates) 1 -

ICQ - 1

Table 4. What do you use Internet for?

What do you use Internet for? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

Communication 6 11

Information 6 11

Education 4 11

Movies/telecasts 4 8

News 4 7

Music 2 5

Work 2 3

Table 5. Have the social networks taken the place of email for you?

Have the social networks taken the place of email for you?

Male (7) Female (13)

Yes 2 7

No 0 3

Sometimes 4 3

Other 1 0

Table 6. Which tools do you use for online communication?

Which tools do you use for online communication? (several variants):

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7 Male (7) Female (13)

Social networks 6 11

Chats 3 6

Microblogs 3 7

Forums 2 1

Conferences 1 3

Table 7. How often do you use Internet?

How often do you use Internet?

Male (7) Female (13)

Every day 5 12

Several times a week 1 1

Other 1 0

Regarding the results of this part it could be told that female students use Internet mostly for communication (with friends, in groups and chats) while male students firstly prefer to see news and then communicate. Such differences between the two genders reveal why social networks have mostly replaced email for young women. Also, Internet space represents some gender equity when young men and women use Internet for communication, searching information and educational purposes. The Internet has become the obvious part of everyday life of young people.

Part two: Television and media

This part of the pilot study is more complicated than the others and contains 15 questions. The regional (Russian) content sometimes represents Russian versions of Western shows, for example, Russian Top Model which is the analog of America’s Next Top Model. In this case I have separated these shows according to global and regional contents. It is important to take into account that television and media offer lots of global, regional and local choices by means of channels, shows, newspapers, and magazines. Additionally, it is important to keep in mind that few students preferred watching TV shows online at suitable time for them. Rest of the questions and tables are as in the following:

8. Which TV channels do you prefer to watch?

9. Which Kazakh channels do you watch?

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8 10. Which Russian channels do you watch?

11. Which foreign channels do you watch?

12. Which music channels do you watch?

13. Which movie channels do you prefer to watch?

14. Which sport channels do you watch?

15. Which scientific-popular channels do you watch?

16. Do you watch any thematic channels?

17. Which soap operas do you watch?

18. What kind of reality shows do you watch?

19. Do you watch dance shows?

20. Which music shows do you prefer to watch?

21. Which comedy shows do you watch?

22. Which newspapers and/or journals do you read?

Table 8. Which TV channels do you prefer to watch?

Which TV channels do you prefer to watch? (several variants) N=20

Male (7) Female (13)

Russian 6 10

Kazakhstan 3 8

European 2 6

American 1 5

Turkish - 1

Do not watch TV - 1

This table demonstrates some equal proportions of male and female preferences concerning regional, local and global television.

Table 9. Which Kazakh channels do you watch?

Which Kazakh channels do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Khabar 3 6

Kazakhstan 3 4

KTK 4 7

NTK 2 6

Astana 1 2

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9

El Arna 1 4

31st channel 1 8

The Seventh channel 0 4

Local (Karaganda) channels 2 3

I do not watch Kazakh channels 2 0

Table 10. Which Russian channels do you watch?

Which Russian channels do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

The First channel (CIS) 1 5

NTV 4 5

RenTV 1 4

Russia 5 4

RTR 0 2

Vesti 24 2 0

Culture 2 1

TNT 2 1

CTC 1 2

NTV-plus 1 0

Premier 1 0

TV 3 0 1

TVC (TV Center) 0 1

I do not watch Russian channels 0 1

Table 11. Which foreign channels do you watch?

Which foreign channels do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

CNN 0 1

BBC 2 8

Fox Crime 1 1

Fox Life 1 5

DTV 1 1

Euronews 2 6

Others 1 1

I do not watch foreign channels 2 2

These three blocks on Kazakh, Russian and international channels show diverse frames among young males and females as well as indicate preferences of news channels regarding male and entertaining ones concerning female students.

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10 Table 12. Which music channels do you watch? (several variants):

Which music channels do you watch? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

MuzTV (Russia) 4 12

MTV 3 9

MuzZone (Kazakhstan) 2 6

RU TV (Russia) 1 8

MCM (Europe) 1 -

Bridge TV 1 4

Hit TV (Kazakhstan) 1 5

Music of the First channel (CIS) - 2

Do not watch music channels 1 1

I listen to music in the Internet 1 2

Table 13. Which movie channels do you prefer to watch?

Which movie channels do you prefer to watch? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

TV 3 (Russia) 4 7

AXN Sci Fi Ru 1 -

TV 1000 1 7

TV 1000 Action 1 3

Fox Life 1 4

Nashe Kino (Our Movie, Russia) - 1

DIVA Universal - 2

TV 1000 Russkoe Kino (Russian Movie) - 2

India TV - 4

Comedy TV - 3

Others 3 1

Do not movie channels 2 -

I watch movies online 2 3

Table 14. Which sport channels do you watch?

Which sport channels do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Fighter (Boets, Russia) 5 1

Sport (Russia) 4 4

Eurosport 2 6

KZ Sport 1 1 2

Extreme Sport Channel - 1

Do not watch sport channels 1 6

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I use Internet for watching sport channels 1 1

Tables 13 and 14 present the gender bias where masculinity is constructed with sport and action movies as well as femininity is highlighted by TV shows and dramas.

Table 15. Which scientific-popular channels do you watch?

Which scientific-popular channels do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

National Geographic 4 6

Discovery Channel 2 5

Discovery Science 2 4

Discovery World 2 5

Nat Geo Wild 2 1

Animal Planet 2 5

Viasat History 1 1

365 Dnei (365 Days, Russia) 1 2

Others 2 0

I do not watch scientific-popular channels 1 2

I watch such channels in Internet 0 1

This table represents some gender equity among young people. Most probably, it is explained with their educational and cognitive purposes to watch such channels.

Table 16. Do you watch thematic channels?

Do you watch thematic channels? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

Sovershenno Sekretno (Top Secret, Russia) 1 2

Auto Plus (Russia) 1 -

Okhota i Rybalka (Hunting and Fishing, Russia) 1 1

Zdorovoe TV (Health TV, Russia) - 3

Kukhnya TV (Kitchen TV, Russia) - 2

Telecafe (Russia) - 1

24 Techno (Russia) 1 -

Fashion TV - 8

Style - 3

Assyl Arna 1 1

Do not watch thematic channels 4 4

Thematic channels demonstrate that female students have interests with fashion and health while male ones prefer actions, autos and techniques.

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12 Table 17. Which soap operas do you watch?

Which soap operas do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Interny (Interns, Russia) 6 6

Univer (University, Russia) 4 7

Real’nye Patsany (Real Guys, Russia) 4 6

Lie to Me 2 3

House 1 3

Vampire’s Diaries - 5

Defoliation (Turkey) - 2

Dangerous Love (Turkey) - 2

Ezel (Turkey) - 1

Others 5 7

Do not watch soap operas - 2

I watch soap operas on the Internet - 2

This table shows a big diversity regarding soap operas for both male and female students. It should be noted that female brings the Turkish segment in that part.

Table 18. What kind of reality shows do you watch?

What kind of reality shows do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Posledniy Geroi (Last Hero, Russia) 2 1

Pust’ Govoryat (Let’s Talk, Russia) 1 6

Dom 2 (Home 2, Russia) - 2

America’s Next Top Model - 11

Russian Top Model - 6

Cosmetic Make Up (Muz TV, Russia) - 6

10 Reasons to Fall into Love (Russia) - 4

Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency - 3

Invitation to Home (Muz TV, Russia) - 2

Room Raiders (MTV) - 3

Let’s Get Marry (Russia) - 2

Extreme Makeover - 2

Zhar-Zhar (Kazakh) - 1

Others - 2

Do not watch reality shows 3 -

I watch reality shows on the Internet 1 1

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13 Reality shows present the one interesting fact that all female students watch such channels regarding fashion, style and relations.

Table 19. Do you watch dance shows?

Do you watch dance shows? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Tansty na L’du (Dances on Ice, Russia) - 9

Tansy so Zvezdami (Dance with Stars, Russia) - 8

Tanstui do Upadu (Dance to Exhausted, Russia) - 1

I watch dance shows in the Internet - 1

Do not watch dance shows 7 (100%) 3 (23.1%)

Table 20. Which music shows do you prefer to watch?

Which music shows do you prefer to watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

SuperStar KZ - 6

Novaya Volna (New Wave, Russia) - 5

Fabrika Zvezd (Stars’ Factory, Russia) - 4

Narodnyi Artist (People Artist, Russia) - 2

Fabrika Zvezd (Stars’ Factory, Kazakhstan) - 1

ProjectorParisHilton (Russian) - 1

Do not watch music shows 7 (100%) 5 (38.5%)

The two tables obviously demonstrate the gender gap among male and female students when masculinity turns down dance and music shows and femininity inclines to them.

Table 21. Which comedy shows do you watch?

Which comedy shows do you watch? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Comedy Club (Russia) 6 9

Nasha Russia 3 7

KVN (Club of Joyful and Inventive, Russia) 3 10

Nasha Kazakha 2 5

Kazakh KVN 1 1

Daesh’ Molodezh’ (Let’s Youth, Russia) 1 -

Do not watch humor shows - -

I watch humor shows on the Internet - 1

Comedy shows represent another gender equity where both male and female prefer watching entertaining broadcasts.

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14 Table 22. Which newspapers and/or journals do you read?

Which newspapers and/or journals do you read? (open question):

Male (7) Female (13)

Republican (in Kazakh and Russian languages) 5 3

Domestic (city, oblast’) 4 5

International 1 1

Russian 1 11

University newspaper - 1

Do not read newspapers and journals 2 2

Note: Male students pointed four media related to auto and sport; female students specified eleven magazines for women.

This part of the research demonstrates that there is such a huge diversity between global, regional and local contents that Kirmse suggested to call it as a “marketplace for styles and identities” (2010: 390). It could be told that Russian regional context is complemented with Turkish and Indian aspects while the local (Kazakh) segment is minimal and it is presented in music channels/shows, sport channels, comedy shows and media. Russian television channels are bigger and more diverse than Kazakh and global televisions.

Considering gender construction, we can see that television and media play a significant role in building gender identities among students. Masculinity is shaped with sport, science, news, auto, hunting, and fishing channels. On the other hand, femininity is shaped with fashion, style, health, and cooking channels as well as mode, cosmetic, dancing, and music reality shows. It is important to note that all male students preferred to watch soap operas while all females preferred to watch reality shows. These aspects are crucial in gender construction in young men and women, so special attention must be paid to developing local content of reality shows and soap operas for the youth in Kazakhstan. Television and media also represent some gender equality in preferences of comedy shows watched by both male and female students.

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15 Part three: Popular culture (movies and music)

This part of the pilot research included 5 questions related with movies, music and idols. It should be also mentioned that four of those five questions are open-ended questions and have global, regional and local aspects:

23. What are your favorite movie genres?

24. What are your favorite movies and/or cartoons?

25. Which movies or cartoons have you seen recently?

26. Who are your favorite singers or musical groups?

27. Who are your idols?

Table 23. What are your favorite movie genres?

What are your favorite movie genres? (several options) N=20

Male (7) Female (13)

Comedy 5 10

Adventure 5 6

Thriller 3 4

Criminal drama 3 4

Action 2 4

Scientific fantastic 2 1

Drama 2 11

Horror 2 6

Hitman 3 3

Fantasy 1 4

Romantic comedy 1 9

Black comedy 1 -

Art-house - 2

Table 24. What are your favorite movies and/or cartoons?

What are your favorite movies and/or cartoons? (open-ended question for titles):

Male (7) Female (13)

American/European 31 47

Russian 1 4

Kazakh 2 -

Turkey - 1

Different (many) 1 1

Total: 35 53

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16 Table 25. Which movies or cartoons have you seen recently?

Which movies or cartoons have you seen recently? (open-ended question for titles):

Male (7) Female (13)

American/European 5 13

Russian 1 1

Do not remember 1 -

Table 26. Who are your favorite singers or musical groups?

Who are your favorite singers or musical groups? (open-ended question for names and titles):

Male (7) Female (13)

American/European 18 31

Russian 9 21

Kazakh 2 5

Different (many, changeable) - 3

Total: 29 60

Question 27: Who are your idols?

Only more than 50% of the students pointed out their idols. The rest of the participants told that they had no idols. It can be supposed here that those students have become more individualized and independent. Should we consider that aspect as an effect of globalization on the youth of Kazakhstan?

Four of seven male students pointed 6 idols in total (all men):

- 2 scientists;

- 2 artists;

- 1 sportsman;

- 1 poet.

Seven thirteen female students pointed 7 idols in total (5 women, 2 men):

- 5 artists;

- 2 models (Heidi Klum, Tyra Banks).

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17 This part of the research clearly demonstrates that global popular culture has an important effect on the students included in the study. At the same time it could be mentioned that Russian content is significant in students’ music preferences. Furthermore, movie genres and idols have considerable influence on gender construction in male and female students.

Part four: Gadgets and computer games

The final piece of the research contains only three items on using electronic devices to have access to the Internet, TV, movies and music as well as the preferences in computer games of students. This part covers the following questions:

28. Where and how do you use Internet?

29. Besides Internet what means do you use for watching TV shows and movies or listening to music?

30. Which computer games (platforms) do you play?

Table 28. Where and how do you use Internet?

Where and how do you use Internet? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Home 6 10

Mobile phone 5 10

University 3 10

Friends 3 5

Relatives 2 3

Internet café 2 1

iPad 0 2

Table 29. Besides Internet what means do you use for watching TV shows and movies or listening to music?

Besides Internet what means do you use for watching TV shows and movies or listening to music? (several variants):

Male (7) Female (13)

Satellite TV 4 5

Cable TV 2 10

Digital TV 0 1

ID TV 0 3

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DVD 0 1

Others 0 1

I do not use anything 0 1

Table 30. Which computer games (platforms) do you play?

Which computer games (platforms) do you play? (several options):

Male (7) Female (13)

Contra-Strike 4 1

RPG 4 0

Strategies 4 2

Sport competitions 3 0

Poker 2 0

Action 1 0

Stimulators 1 0

“Shooting” 1 1

Adventures 0 1

I do not play computer games 1 11

This section of the research shows that using mobile phones, cable and satellite TV to access to Internet and watch TV is common among both male and female students. Computer games clearly represent the gender differences.

Conclusion

As a result of the study, it should be mentioned that globalization gives more autonomy to young people; helps them to access to the world diversity; strives them to financial independence and experiments with plurality (Kirmse, 2010). Moreover, it encourages them to join to the new middle class in Central Asia (Roberts, 2010). Additionally, Internet offers new opportunities but it also leads to risks for youth in Central Asia (Ibold, 2010).

Television, printed media and popular culture were included in that research as well as Internet and social networks considered by Western scholars for the study of gender construction in the youth of Kazakhstan. It was found out that all the four segments (Internet, television, popular culture, and computer games) influence gender identity of young people and even present some gender equity in few parts of the Internet and television spaces. It could be told that the regional (Russian) content has a leading position in the Internet, media and

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19 television in influencing students’ preferences. Globalization prevails in popular culture although Russian content is significant for music preferences of young people in Kazakhstan.

Regional and local diversity in television and popular culture is not very high; we can see some Asian content (Turkish and Indian) in these two segments. The local (Kazakh) content presents in the first three parts of this pilot research but it is at minimal level.

For further researches regarding the youth in Central Asia and Kazakhstan it would be suggested using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to better understand and study the demographical aspects of contemporary youth culture such as ethnicity analyzing language, class, urban/rural background, gender and sexuality. It would be better to extend the geography of future researches over Kazakhstan and Central Asia to be able to compare different regions in the territory. Additionally, it is important to note that it would be useful to pay attention to developing the following local segments of youth culture such as news, soap operas and reality shows as well as studying computer games and cartoons prospectively.

These segments could help us a lot in building some competitive local cultural contents for youth in media space of Kazakhstan. The study of youth in the country would let us know how to successfully develop the local cultural content which could be compete with regional and global contents, and how to build some ‘Kazakh/Kazakhstani hybridity’ in the postcolonial period then integrate it into the global world.

Acknowledgements

I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Professor Alan DeYoung who mentored my studies at the University of Kentucky during 2011-2013. I would like to extend my gratitude to Professor Karen Tice who gave us lectures on Global Education, Media and Popular Culture and Gender and Education at the University of Kentucky in the spring of 2011-2012, which aroused my interest and helped me a lot in conducting the research on youth and gender construction by means of media, television and popular culture in Kazakhstan. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the Faculty Development Fellowship Program of Open Society Foundations that supported my studies at the University of Kentucky during 2011-2013.

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20 References:

Adams, L.L. 2008. Globalization, Universalism, and Cultural Form. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 50:3, pp. 614-640.

Appadurai, A. 2005. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis- London: University of Minnesota Press.

Arnett, J.J. 2002. The Psychology of Globalization. American Psychologist, 57:10, pp. 774-783.

Benhabib, S. 2002. The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton, NJ:

Princeton University Press.

Crothers, L. 2013. Globalization and American Popular Culture. Third edition. Plymouth, UK:

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

DeYoung, A.J. 2010. Embracing Globalization: University Experiences Among Youth in Contemporary Kyrgyzstan. Central Asian Survey, 29:4, pp. 421-434.

Ibold, H. 2010. Disjuncture 2.0: Youth, Internet Use and Cultural Identity in Bishkek. Central Asian Survey, 29:4, pp. 521-535.

Kirmse, S.B. 2010. Bridging the Gap: The Concept of ‘Youth’ and the Study of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Central Asian Survey, 29:4, pp. 381-387.

Kirmse, S.B. 2010. In the Marketplace for Styles and Identities: Globalization and Youth Culture in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Central Asian Survey, 29:4, pp. 389-403.

Kirmse, S.B. 2013. Youth and Globalization in Central Asia: Everyday Life Between Religion, Media, and International Donors. Frankfurt-New York: Campus Verlag.

Marshall, C. and Michelle D. Young. 2006. Gender and Methodology. In C. Skelton, B. Francis, and L. Smulyan (Eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education (pp. 63-78). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

McMillin, D.C. 2007. International Media Studies. Madlen, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

McMillin, D.C. 2009. Mediated Identities: Youth, Agency, and Globalization. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.

Roberts, K. 2010. Post-Communist Youth: Is There a Central Asian Pattern? Central Asian Survey, 29:4, pp. 537-549.

West, C. and Don H. Zimmerman. 1987. Doing Gender. Gender and Society, 1:2, pp. 125-151.

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