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Academic year: 2023

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Gender equality and expansion of women's rights in Russia in the context of the UN Millennium Development Goals / Doklad. A remarkable feature of the modern international system is the gradual softening of its internal hierarchy. The article shows the dynamics of the implementation of social policies related to the ongoing economic and political processes in the country.

The analysis of generations introduces new theoretical aspects to the study of the processes of historical development in the social field. The study is devoted to the study of the problem of friendliness and comfort of the urban environment for children and in the interests of children. The scientific significance of the research lies in the uniqueness of the study of the problems of the city and the conditions for the comfort of children.

The purpose of the playground

Frequency of use of the playground

Walking places with teenagers


A Change in the Nature of American Power" and in subsequent works developed the provisions of the concept of "soft power". It is these forms and methods of unarmed influence that were used in American policy towards the USSR and its allies in the second half of the 80' ers of the XX century. The democratization processes that have begun, both in the USSR itself and in the Warsaw Pact countries against the background of a systemic crisis in the economy, politics and ideology, and the attractiveness of the model Western "consumer societies" determined their rejection confrontation with The West.

In fact, it was a reorientation of the countries of Eastern Europe in foreign policy from the USSR (Russia) to the United States and its allies. After the collapse of the USSR, the policy of abandoning the political and political confrontation and building a strategic partnership with the United States was chosen by the leadership of Russia. Yeltsin declared that Russian nuclear warhead missiles were no longer aimed at the United States and Western countries, and on February 1, 1992, the US-Russian Declaration on the End of the Cold War was signed at Camp David [2 p.85].

As a result, the understanding of unarmed warfare technologies in the US has acquired the character of priority research and development, and their introduction directly into practice, especially in international relations, has become a priority of US foreign policy . This determined the specifics of the concept of "soft power" itself, which was created for the specific objectives of American foreign policy and, as a result, was perceived by American experts not as a scientific discipline, but primarily as a applied instrument for carrying out tasks in the field of interstate relations. The main purpose of this concept was to develop ways to influence public opinion in the countries of the former Warsaw Bloc and post-Soviet republics.

The main success in this regard was the development of technologies to influence the public consciousness of the population of these countries, in order to purposefully form a positive perception of the United States and its policies. All this was reflected in real politics, especially in the early 1990s, in the process of transforming the world political system.


This is undoubtedly the merit of J. Nye, whose ideas were actually the basis of US foreign policy. The main point of implementing "soft power" is the formation of attractive power, i.e. For this reason, the strategy of "soft power" is called upon to influence both the consciousness of the majority of the population and the political and economic ones. the elite of the respective country.

The result of the implementation of the "soft power" strategy should be the formation of a favorable foreign policy environment for the state concerned. An important tool for using the resource of cultural value is the promotion of the national language outside of it. But perhaps the most important resource of the attractiveness of the economic development model is the formation of the image of a.

In the framework of official diplomacy, soft power technologies are implemented in the course of the activities of international organizations, including economic (NAFTA), military-political (NATO), multilateral interstate negotiation platforms (G-7, G-20 summit, international forums (Davos ), clubs (Roman, Bilderberg), etc. One of the most effective forms of communication in the XXI century is personal communication He is a co-author of the theory of interdependence, political regimes and other neoliberal theories.

That is, when the policy is criticized, it can gain a certain "soft power", as this can be evidence of the truth and expression of freedom of expression for the target countries. However, economic resources can create not only "hard" but also "soft" power and apply not only to coercion, but also to increase the attractiveness of the state.


Researchers of the issue pay attention to the fact that "soft power" can not only help the country, but also harm it. In addition, "soft power" can give the leadership of a country a false sense of security. At the beginning of independence, migration acquired the character of migration, i.e.

Expanding the situation in the labor market for the country of origin, thus maintaining social stability in the country. Migrant remittances amount to between 30% and 50% of the country's GDP (for example, 30% in Kyrgyzstan and 50% in Tajikistan). Violation of traditional ways of life of the population of the sending country (destruction of the family, gaps in children's education, rural degradation, change of family roles).

It is known that migration for educational purposes makes an important contribution to the socio-economic development of the country. Central Asia: the crisis of the migration pattern and its possible impact on the EU // OSW COMMENTARY. It will transform the economies of countries participating in the Chinese initiative along the way.

Therefore, for Beijing, in the short and medium term, the implementation of the ground will be priority. China is the most active player in the Central Asian region and acts as the economic driver of the region.

Figure 1. Asia-EU-Asia transit container traffic via Kazakhstan.
Figure 1. Asia-EU-Asia transit container traffic via Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan has become for China the main trading partner in Central Asia

Kazakhstan risks being dragged into the orbit of China's economic and then, of course, political influence. The dilemma that has now appeared before Kazakhstan can only be resolved with the cooperation of Third World leaders (USA, EU, India, etc.), whose influence helps maintain the balance of power in the Central Asian region. In these conditions, the preservation and further development of a multisectoral foreign policy is particularly important for the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Russia does not have enough economic resources to withstand China's growing influence in the Central Asian region. Modern Russia in its current state – under pressure from Western sanctions and with a GDP well below China's [4] – is incapable of offering an economic solution to Kazakhstan and the rest of Central Asia. China's multivariate behavior at a new stage of its development increases the risk for Kazakhstan.

It does not allow accurate calculation of threat vectors and the level of risk, so the options for their reduction are related to the creation of fundamental balance sheets in the event that China develops or follows options that are not favorable to Kazakhstan. In the military-political aspect - due to cooperation with world actors - the Russian Federation and the USA, in the economic aspect - with the EU, RF, USA, Japan, India, South Korea and other countries of the world. China is increasing its economic presence in Kazakhstan, and it is very likely that China will soon play an important role in Kazakhstan's economy, as indicated by the following factors:

Kazakhstan has become for China the largest investment target in the Eurasian region

China sees Kazakhstan, first of all, as a transit country on the road to building the ambitious New Silk Road from Asia to Europe

SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE IDEA “MANGILIK EL”. The article reveals the main directions and relevance of preserving national identity in the context of the idea of ​​"Mangilik El". The article is devoted to revealing the concept of “older people” that is accepted in the world and in Kazakhstan and determines their place in society.

As history showed, the division of the Korean nation became a decisive phase that determined the current situation in the region. First, it still represents the ghost of the "Cold War", the time that passed but is influential in the area of ​​the Korean Peninsula. Their donations are one of the main cash flows that support the North Korean economy.

Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nur-sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan. The article analyzes the methodological basis for the study of the performance management of public authorities on shaping public opinion. In the scientific literature, there are about 30 different definitions of the term "public opinion", which reflects the complexity and multidimensionality of this phenomenon.

We can distinguish the following important aspects of the interpretation of public opinion: psychological definitions; Ethical interpretations of public opinion; Knowledge of crowd psychology is the most important tool in the hands of politicians, emphasizes G. Lebon [3]. The institute specializes in the study of public opinion, conducts marketing and sociological studies, both in Kazakhstan and in other countries of the world.

This direction has not been followed in the domestic literature due to the social-humanitarian nature of special development. The effectiveness of goal achievement is measured by the extent to which the goal is achieved [14]. For governments, this is in fact one of the technologies for shaping public opinion.


Figure 1. Asia-EU-Asia transit container traffic via Kazakhstan.
Figure 2. Freight transport demand.

Ақпарат көздері


Қазақ гуманитарлық заң университеті ұсынып отырған заң жобасы бірінші кезекте, еліміздегі қазақтар мен барлық диаспора жастарының мемлекеттік тілді білуін, халыққа негізінен мемлекеттік