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Noncommercial Joint Stock Company

Department

for Language Studies

PROFESSIONAL ORIENTED FOREIGN LANGUAGE Methodical Recommendations to work with special texts

for the students of Information System and technology specialty – 5B070300

Almaty2020

ALMATY

UNIVERSITY OF POWER ENGINEERING AND

TELECOMMUNICATIONS NAMED AFTER

GUMARBEK DAUKEEV

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AUTHOR: Baigaskina Zh.K. – master, senior teacher of the department for Language Studies. Professional oriented foreign language. Methodical Recommendations to work with special texts for the students of Information System and technology specialty – 5B070300 – Almaty: AUPET, 2020. – 43 p.

The present methodological guidelines are intended to develop the skills of reading and translating technical texts in the field of Information Systems.

Methodological guidelines include professionally oriented texts, exercises and assignments for mastering terms in this specialty.

The material can be used both in practical lessons and in the practice of self- study assignments in order to form the foreign language professional competence of students – bachelors of the specialty 5B070300.

Reviewer: Kurpenov B.K.

Published according to the plan of publications of noncommercial JSC

«Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications» named after Gumarbek Daukeev, 2020.

©NCJSC «Almaty University of Power Engineering & Telecommunications»

named after Gumarbek Daukeev, 2020

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Introduction

The present methodological guidelines are intended to develop the skills of reading and translating technical texts in the field of Information Systems.

Methodological guidelines can be used both in practical lessons and in the practice of self-study assignments in order to form the foreign language professional competence of students – bachelors of the specialty 5B070300.

The material includes professionally oriented texts, exercises and assignments for mastering terms in the specialty Information Systems.

In these texts, you will see how real global businesses use technology and information systems to increase their profitability, improve their customer service, and manage their daily operations. In other words, you will learn how information systems provide the foundation for modern business enterprises.

The goal of the methodological guidelines is to teach the students, how to use IT to master their current or future jobs and to help ensure the success of their organization. We concentrate on placing information systems in the context of business, so that you will more readily grasp the concepts presented in the text.

Methodological guidelines are convenient to use for self-study assignments under the teacher supervision and for extracurricular activities.

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Unit 1

Memorize the words

reference – ссылка (на кого-л. / что-л.); упоминание (о ком-л. / чём-л.) complementary – добавочный, дополнительный, комплементарный emphasis –акцент; ударение; выделение; подчеркивание; эмфаза distinction различие, распознавание

capturing –1) сбор (напр., данных), 2) захват ((напр., канала связи)) semi-formal –полуофициальный, полуформальный

primary focus –передний фокус

Exercise 1. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Exercise 2. Give the Russian variant of the following expressions:

organizational system designed to collect, store and distribute information, information systems are composed, the aforementioned communication networks, a clear distinction between information systems, alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system, information systems inter-relate with data systems.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. What is an Information system?

2. What are the functions of the information and communication technology?

3. What can you say about distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes?

4. What is work system?

5. What can an information system also be considered?

Text 1. Retell the text.

Information system

An Information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system designed to collect, process, store and distribute information. In sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology. Information systems can be defined as an integration of components for collection, storage and processing of data of which the data is used to provide information, contribute to knowledge as well as digital products.

A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used to simply refer to a computer system with software installed.

Information Systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks.

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Any specific information system aims to support operations, management and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, and also the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end- use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.

Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information.

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics.

Unit 2

Memorize the words

to meet the needs – удовлетворять потребности

transaction processing system (TPS) – система обработки транзакций decision support systems – система поддержки принятия решений knowledge management systems – система управления знанием

database management systems – система управления базой данных;

система управления базами данных

malleable – гибко реагирующий на воздействие рекламы; гибкий

chief information officer – директор по информации (руководитель компании, который отвечает за создание и функционирование системы хранения и использования информации внутри компании)

chief executive officer – главный исполнительный директор, менеджеры высшего звена, руководители корпораций и крупных компаний

chief operating officer – (главный) операционный директор, директор по производству

feedback – обратная связь, связь производителя с потребителем, информация от потребителя

machine-readable – машиночитаемый, машинно-считываемый

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Exercise 1. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Exercise 2. Make up 10 questions about the text and let your neighbor answer them, then change parts.

Text 2. Retell the text.

System view of information system

Mark S. Silver (1995) provided two views on IS that includes software, hardware, data, people and procedures. Zheng (Чжен) provided another system view of information system which also adds processes and essential system elements like environment, boundary, purpose, and interactions.

The Association for Computing Machinery defines “Information systems specialists focusing on integrating information technology solutions and business processes to meet the information needs of businesses and other enterprises.”

There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives. Many companies have created a position of chief information officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer (CFO), chief operating officer (COO), and chief technical officer (CTO). The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The chief information security officer (CISO) focuses on information security management.

The six components that must come together in order to produce an information system are: (Information systems are organizational procedures and do not need a computer or software, this data is erroneous, i.e., an accounting system in the 1400s using a ledger and ink utilizes an information system).

Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipment. Input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices are support equipment.

Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the system to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are generally stored on some input/output medium, often a disk or tape.

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Data: Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information.

Like programs, data are generally stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them.

Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. “Procedures are to people what software is to hardware” is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system.

People: Every system needs people if it is to be useful. Often the most overlooked element of the system is the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems. This includes “not only the users, but those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the network of computers.”

Feedback: it is another component of the IS, that defines that an IS may be provided with feedback (Although this component isn't necessary to function).

Data is the bridge between hardware and people. This means that the data we collect is only data until we involve people. At that point, data is now information.

Unit 3

Memorize the words

transaction processing systems – система обработки транзакций data warehouses – организация информационных хранилищ enterprise resource planning – планирование бизнес-ресурсов expert systems – экспертные системы

search engine – поисковая подсистема; сервер поиска; механизм поиска office automation – автоматизация управленческих работ

computer-based information systems – автоматизированная информационная система, (компьютеризированный)

pillars – пиляры

dashboard – инструментальная панель, приборная панель, панель приборов, приборный щиток

supply chain management system – управление поставщиками

to duplicate the work – дублировать работу, размножать документы forecast – предвидеть, предвосхищать, предсказывать

revenues – доход

suggest [sə'ʤest] – предлагать, советовать

Exercise 1. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Exercise 2. Make up 10 questions about the text and let your neighbor answer them, then change parts.

Text 3. Retell the text.

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Types of information system

Figure 1

The “classic” view of Information systems found in the 1980s was a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization (Fig. 1), usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by management information systems, decision support systems, and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model remains useful since it was first formulated, a number of new technologies have been developed and new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model.

Some examples of such systems are:

 data warehouses;

 enterprise resource planning;

 enterprise systems;

 expert systems;

 search engines;

 geographic information system;

 global information system;

 office automation.

Executive

Senior Managers

Middle Managers

Workers

Executive Information

Systems

Transaction Processing Systems Decision Support

Systems

Management Information Systems

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A computer (based) information system is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer-based information systems are:

Hardware – these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer, and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data, and information.

Software – are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.

Databases – are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.

Networks – are a connecting system that allows diverse computers to distribute resources.

Procedures – are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.

The first four components (hardware, software, database, and network) make up what is known as the information technology platform. Information technology workers could then use these components to create information systems that watch over safety measures, risk and the management of data. These actions are known as information technology services.

Certain information systems support parts of organizations, others support entire organizations, and still others, support groups of organizations. Recall that each department or functional area within an organization has its own collection of application programs or information systems. These functional area information systems (FAIS) are supporting pillars for more general IS namely, business intelligence systems and dashboards. As the name suggests, each FAIS supports a particular function within the organization, e.g.: accounting IS, finance IS, production-operation management (POM) IS, marketing IS, and human resources IS. In finance and accounting, managers use IT systems to forecast revenues and business activity, to determine the best sources and uses of funds, and to perform audits to ensure that the organization is fundamentally sound and that all financial reports and documents are accurate. Other types of organizational information systems are FAIS, Transaction processing systems, enterprise resource planning, office automation system, management information system, decision support system, expert system, executive dashboard, supply chain management system, and electronic commerce system. Dashboards are a special form of IS that support all managers of the organization. They provide rapid access to timely information and direct access to structured information in the form of reports. Expert systems attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain.

Unit 4

Memorize the words

implementation – ввод в работу; воплощение; реализация

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maintenance –содержание и техническое обслуживание, уход; текущий ремонт

enabling –дающий возможность (сделать что-л.); позволяющий (что-л.);

способствующий

ongoing research – проводимые в настоящее время исследования accomplished [ə'kʌmplɪʃt] –достигший совершенства, искусный

outsourcing ['autˌsɔːsɪŋ] – аутсорсинг (передача независимому подрядчику некоторых бизнес-функций или частей бизнес-процесса предприятия)

to disseminate information / new ideas / news – распространять информацию / новые идеи / новости

impending disaster – приближающаяся / надвигающаяся беда

emerging information systems –развивающийсяинформационная система

Exercise 1. Determine which part of speech the words belong to.

application, to develop, systematically, recent, research, geographical, specific, theoretical, foundation, emphasizes, functionality, design.

Exercise 2. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Text 4. Retell the text.

Information system development

Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence the development, use, and application of information technology in the business. A series of methodologies and processes can be used to develop and use an information system. Many developers use a systems engineering approach such as the system development life cycle (SDLC), to systematically develop an information system in stages. The stages of the system development lifecycle are planning, system analysis, and requirements, system design, development, integration and testing, implementation and operations, and maintenance. Recent research aims at enabling and measuring the ongoing, collective development of such systems within an organization by the entirety of human actors themselves. An information system can be developed in house (within the organization) or outsourced. This can be accomplished by outsourcing certain components or the entire system. A specific case is the geographical distribution of the development team (offshoring, global information system).

A computer-based information system, following a definition of Langefors, is a technologically implemented medium for:

• recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,

• as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

Geographic information systems, land information systems, and disaster information systems are examples of emerging information systems, but they can be broadly considered as spatial information systems. System development is done in stages which include:

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Problem recognition and specification.

Information gathering.

Requirements specification for the new system.

System design.

System construction.

System implementation.

Review and maintenance.

As an academic discipline

The field of study called information systems encompasses a variety of topics including systems analysis and design, computer networking, information security, database management, and decision support systems. Information management deals with the practical and theoretical problems of collecting and analyzing information in a business function area including business productivity tools, applications programming and implementation, electronic commerce, digital media production, data mining, and decision support. Communications and networking deals with telecommunication technologies. Information systems bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundation of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes on building the IT systems within a computer science discipline. Computer information systems (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society, whereas IS emphasizes functionality over design.

Several IS scholars have debated the nature and foundations of Information Systems which have its roots in other reference disciplines such as Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, Management Science, Cybernetic, and others.

Information systems also can be defined as a collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information.

Unit 5

Memorize the words

scope –масштаб, предел, размах; сфера, область действия distinct –отдельный; особый, индивидуальный; отличный differentiating –дифференцирующий, различающий

meaningful –существенный; значащий; значительный

to possess dignity – обладать чувством собственного достоинства scientific approach – научный подход

prevents somebody from doing something – помешать / не дать кому-либо что-либо сделать

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Exercise 1. Think of questions to the following sentences.

1) Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes’ components.

2) The term information systems are also used to describe an organizational function that applies IS knowledge in the industry, government agencies, and not- for-profit organizations.

3) One problem with that approach is that it prevents the IS field from being interested in non-organizational use of ICT, such as in social networking, computer gaming, mobile personal usage, etc.

4) This approach, based on philosophy, helps to define not just the focus, purpose, and orientation, but also the dignity, destiny and, responsibility of the field among other fields.

Exercise 2. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Text 5. Retell the text.

Related terms

In a broad scope, the term Information Systems is a scientific field of study that addresses the range of strategic, managerial, and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing, and use of information and its associated technologies in society and organizations. The term information systems are also used to describe an organizational function that applies IS knowledge in the industry, government agencies, and not-for-profit organizations. Information Systems often refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries.

An information system is a technology an organization uses and also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization's business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes’ components.

One problem with that approach is that it prevents the IS field from being interested in non-organizational use of ICT, such as in social networking, computer gaming, mobile personal usage, etc. A different way of differentiating the IS field from its neighbor is to ask, "Which aspects of reality are most meaningful in the IS field and other fields? This approach, based on philosophy, helps to define not just the focus, purpose, and orientation, but also the dignity, destiny and, responsibility of the field among other fields.

Unit 6

Memorize the words

decision-making –принятие решения

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Project Management –проектный менеджмент, управление проектом a commercial enterprise – коммерческое предприятие

executive – администратор, ответственный работник [сотрудник], руководство, руководящее звено

Exercise 1. Make up a list of new terms you can find in the text. Translate them into Native language.

Exercise 2. Read the text. Translate it into Native language.

Text 6. Retell the text.

Career pathways

Information Systems workers enter a number of different careers:

 Information System Strategy.

 Management Information systems – A management information system (MIS) is an information system used for decision-making, and for the coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of information in an organization.

 Project Management – Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time.

 Enterprise Architecture – A well-defined practice for conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation, using a comprehensive approach at all times, for the successful development and execution of strategy.

 IS Development.

 IS Organization.

 IS Consulting.

 IS Security.

 IS Auditor.

There is a wide variety of career paths in the information systems discipline.

"Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communications skills will have the best prospects. Workers with management skills and an understanding of business practices and principles will have excellent opportunities, as companies are increasingly looking to technology to drive their revenue.

Information technology is important to the operation of contemporary businesses; it offers many employment opportunities. The information systems field includes the people in organizations who design and build information systems, the people who use those systems, and the people responsible for managing those systems. The demand for traditional IT staff such as programmers, business analysts, systems analysts, and designer is significant. Many well-paid jobs exist in areas of Information technology. At the top of the list is the chief information officer (CIO).

The CIO is the executive who is in charge of the IS function. In most organizations, the CIO works with the chief executive officer (CEO), the chief

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financial officer (CFO), and other senior executives. Therefore, he or she actively participates in the organization's strategic planning process.

Unit 7

Memorize the words

behavioral science – наука о поведении

propose [prə'pəuz] – предлагать; вносить предложение framework –структура; общая схема

domain of study – область изучения

proposition – заявление, предположение, план, проект, задача

represent [ˌreprɪ'zent] – представлять; изображать; отображать; означать

Exercise 1. Read the text and find sentences where the following terms are used. Translate them: scientific paradigms, boundaries of human and organizational capabilities, researching different aspects of Information Technology, statements expressing relationships, theorize and justify theories about IT artefacts, applicable in practice.

Exercise 2. Read the text. Translate it into Native language.

Text 7. Retell the text.

Research

Information systems research is generally interdisciplinary concerned with the study of the effects of information systems on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations. Alan R. Hevner (2004) categorized research in IS into two scientific paradigms including behavioral science which is to develop and verify theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior and design science which extends the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative artifacts.

Salvatore March and Gerald Smith proposed a framework for researching different aspects of Information Technology including outputs of the research (research outputs) and activities to carry out this research (research activities). They identified research outputs as follows:

1. Constructs which are concepts that form the vocabulary of a domain. They constitute a conceptualization used to describe problems within the domain and to specify their solutions.

2. A model which is a set of propositions or statements expressing relationships among constructs.

3. A method which is a set of steps (an algorithm or guideline) used to perform a task. Methods are based on a set of underlying constructs and a representation (model) of the solution space.

4. An instantiation is the realization of an artefact in its environment.

Also research activities including:

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1. Build an artefact to perform a specific task.

2. Evaluate the artefact to determine if any progress has been achieved.

3. Given an artefact whose performance has been evaluated, it is important to determine why and how the artefact worked or did not work within its environment.

Therefore, theorize and justify theories about IT artefacts.

Although Information Systems as a discipline has been evolving for over 30 years now, the core focus or identity of IS research is still subject to debate among scholars. There are two main views around this debate: a narrow view focusing on the IT artifact as the core subject matter of IS research, and a broad view that focuses on the interplay between social and technical aspects of IT that is embedded into a dynamic evolving context. A third view calls on IS scholars to pay balanced attention to both the IT artifact and its context.

Since the study of information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems research to generate findings that are immediately applicable in practice. This is not always the case however, as information systems researchers often explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioner would expect them to do. This may render information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism.

In the last ten years, the business trend is represented by the considerable increase of Information Systems Function (ISF) role, especially with regard to the enterprise strategies and operations supporting. It became a key-factor to increase productivity and to support new value creation. To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT.

Unit 8

Memorize the words

enormous [ɪ'nɔːməs] – громадный; гигантский, обширный, огромный acquire –получать, приобретать, извлекать; достигать; овладевать

regardless [rɪ'gɑːdləs] –безотносительно к чему-либо, невзирая ни на что maturity [mə'ʧuərətɪ] – завершённость (плана, схемы), последняя стадия развития (какого-л. образования)

incorporate –соединённый, объединённый;

between equals –равноправные обязанности,права

synergy ['sɪnəʤɪ] – успешные совместные усилия; совместная деятельность

Exercise 1. Read the text and find sentences where the following terms are used. Translate them: have enormous strategic value; management information systems; end user computing; managing information resources; the size and nature of the organization, the amount and type of IT resources; the traditional functions and various new, consultative functions of the MIS department; managing systems development, and infrastructure planning.

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Exercise 2. Read the text. Translate it into Native language.

Text 8. Retell the text.

Managing Information Resources

Managing information systems in modern organizations is a difficult, complex task. Several factors contribute to this complexity. First, information systems have enormous strategic value to organizations. Firms rely on them so heavily that, in some cases, when these systems are not working (even for a short time), the firm cannot function. (This situation is called “being hostage to information systems.”) Second, information systems are very expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain. A third factor contributing to the difficulty in managing information systems is the evolution of the management information systems (MIS) function within the organization. When businesses first began to use computers in the early 1950s, the MIS department “owned” the only computing resource in the organization, the mainframe. At that time, end users did not interact directly with the mainframe. In contrast, in the modern organization, computers are located in all departments, and almost all employees use computers in their work. This situation, known as end user computing, has led to a partnership between the MIS department and the end users. The MIS department now acts as more of a consultant to end users, viewing them as customers. In fact, the main function of the MIS department is to use IT to solve end users’ business problems.

As a result of these developments, the responsibility for managing information resources is now divided between the MIS department and the end users. This arrangement raises several important questions: Which resources are managed by whom? What is the role of the MIS department, its structure, and its place within the organization? What is the appropriate relationship between the MIS department and the end users? Regardless of who is doing what, it is essential that the MIS department and the end users work in close cooperation. There is no standard way to divide responsibility for developing and maintaining information resources between the MIS department and the end users. Instead, that division depends on several factors: the size and nature of the organization, the amount and type of IT resources, the organization’s attitudes toward computing, the attitudes of top management toward computing, the maturity level of the technology, the amount and nature of outsourced IT work, and even the countries in which the company operates.

Generally speaking, the MIS department is responsible for corporate-level and shared resources, and the end users are responsible for departmental resources.

Table 1.2 identifies both the traditional functions and various new, consultative functions of the MIS department. So, where do the end users come in? Take a close look at Table 1. Under the traditional MIS functions, you will see two functions for which you provide vital input: managing systems development, and infrastructure planning. Under the consultative MIS functions, in contrast, you exercise the

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primary responsibility for each function, while the MIS department acts as your advisor.

Table 1. The Changing Role of the Information Systems Department

Traditional Functions of the MIS Department

Managing systems development and systems project management

° As an end user, you will have critical input into the systems development process. Managing computer operations, including the computer center

Staffing, training, and developing IS skills

Providing technical services

Infrastructure planning, development, and control

° As an end user, you will provide critical input about the IS infrastructure needs of your department.

New (Consultative) Functions of the MIS Department

Initiating and designing specific strategic information systems

° As an end user, your information needs will often mandate the development of new strategic information systems.

° You will decide which strategic systems you need (because you know your business needs better than the MIS department does), and you will provide input into developing these systems.

Incorporating the Internet and electronic commerce into the business

° As an end user, you will be primarily responsible for effectively using the Internet and electronic commerce in your business. You will work with the MIS department to accomplish this task.

Managing system integration including the Internet, intranets, and extranets

° As an end user, your business needs will determine how you want to use the Internet, your corporate intranets, and extranets to accomplish your goals. You will be primarily responsible for advising the MIS department on the most effective use of the Internet, your corporate intranets, and extranets.

Educating the non-MIS managers about IT

° Your department will be primarily responsible for advising the MIS department on how best to educate and train your employees about IT.

Educating the MIS staff about the business

° Communication between the MIS department and the business units is a two-way street. You will be responsible for educating the MIS staff on your business, its needs, and its goals.

Partnering with business-unit executives

° Essentially, you will be in a partnership with the MIS department. You will be responsible for seeing that this partnership is one “between equals” and ensuring its success.

Managing outsourcing

° Outsourcing is driven by business needs. Therefore, the outsourcing decision resides largely with the business units (i.e., with you). The MIS department, working closely with you, will advise you on technical issues such as communications bandwidth, security, etc.

Proactively using business and technical knowledge to seed innovative ideas about IT

° Your business needs often will drive innovative ideas about how to effectively use information systems to accomplish your goals. The best way to bring these innovative uses of IS to life is to partner closely with your MIS department. Such close partnerships have amazing synergies!

Creating business alliances with business partners

° The needs of your business unit will drive these alliances, typically along your supply chain. Again, your MIS department will act as your advisor on various issues, including hardware and software compatibility, implementing extranets, communications, and security.

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Unit 9

Memorize the words pillars – пиляры

dashboard – приборная доска; панель приборов; приборная панель;

приборный щиток revenues – доход

funds –фонды предприятия; денежные средства

recruiting – набор персонала, подбор кадров, рекрутинг

standalone – автономная установка, автономная производственная установка || автономный

tightly-integrated modules – плотно интегрированные модули; модули с надёжными связями

transaction processing – обработка транзакций

swipe [swaɪp] – проводить пластиковую карту (через считывающее устройство)

refer [rɪ'fɜː] – относиться, иметь отношение к чему-либо

digitization – оцифровка; дискретизация, преобразование в цифровую форму

determine –определять, устанавливать, решать

hire ['haɪə] –нанимать, предоставлять работу, приглашать на работу approve of [ə'pruːv] – одобрять что-л., давать официальное согласие;

утверждать

Exercise 1. Find in the text following abbreviations and give their full version: FAISs, POM, CAD, CAM, ERP, TPS, MIS, IOSs, B2B, B2C.

Exercise 2. Read the text. Translate it into Native language.

Text 9. Retell the text.

Breadth of Support of Information Systems

Certain information systems support parts of organizations, others support entire organizations, and still others support groups of organizations. This section addresses all of these systems.

Recall that each department or functional area within an organization has its own collection of application programs, or information systems. These functional area information systems (FAISs) are supporting pillars for the information systems located at the top of Table 24, namely, business intelligence systems and dashboards. As the name suggests, each FAIS supports a particular functional area within the organization. Examples are accounting IS, finance IS, production/operations management (POM) IS, marketing IS, and human resources IS.

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Consider these examples of IT systems in the various functional areas of an organization. In finance and accounting, managers use IT systems to forecast revenues and business activity, to determine the best sources and uses of funds, and to perform audits to ensure that the organization is fundamentally sound and that all financial reports and documents are accurate.

In sales and marketing, managers use information technology to perform the following functions:

Product analysis: developing new goods and services.

Site analysis: determining the best location for production and distribution facilities.

Promotion analysis: identifying the best advertising channels.

Price analysis: setting product prices to obtain the highest total revenues.

Table 2 - Types of Organizational Information Systems

Type of System Function Example

Functional area IS Supports the activities within specific functional area.

System for processing payroll

Transaction processing system

Processes transaction data from business events.

Walmart checkout point- of-sale terminal

Enterprise resource planning

Integrates all functional areas of the organization.

Oracle, SAP system

Office automation system Supports daily work activities of individuals and groups.

Microsoft® Office

Management information system

Produces reports summarized from transaction data, usually in one functional area.

Report on total sales for each customer

Decision support system Provides access to data and analysis tools.

“What-if” analysis of changes in budget Expert system Mimics human expert in a

particular area and makes decisions.

Credit card approval analysis

Executive dashboard Presents structured, summarized information about aspects of business important to executives.

Status of sales by product

Supply chain

management system

Manages flows of products, services, and information among organizations.

Walmart Retail Link system connecting suppliers to Walmart Electronic commerce

system

Enables transactions among organizations and between organizations and customers.

www.dell.com

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Marketing managers also use IT to manage their relationships with their customers. In manufacturing, managers use IT to process customer orders, develop production schedules, control inventory levels, and monitor product quality. They also use IT to design and manufacture products. These processes are called computer-assisted design (CAD) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM).

Managers in human resources use IT to manage the recruiting process, analyze and screen job applicants, and hire new employees. They also employ IT to help employees manage their careers, to administer performance tests to employees, and to monitor employee productivity. Finally, they rely on IT to manage compensation and benefits packages.

Two information systems support the entire organization: enterprise resource planning systems and transaction processing systems. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are designed to correct a lack of communication among the functional area ISs. For this reason, Table 2 shows ERP systems spanning the FAISs. ERP systems were an important innovation because the various functional area ISs were often developed as standalone systems and did not communicate effectively (if at all) with one another. ERP systems resolve this problem by tightly integrating the functional area ISs via a common database. In doing so, they enhance communications among the functional areas of an organization. For this reason, experts credit ERP systems with greatly increasing organizational productivity.

A transaction processing system (TPS) supports the monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from the organization’s basic business transactions, each of which generates data. When you are checking out at Walmart, for example, a transaction occurs each time the cashier swipes an item across the bar code reader. Significantly, within an organization, different functions or departments can define a transaction differently. In accounting, for example, a transaction is anything that changes a firm’s chart of accounts. The information system definition of a transaction is broader: a transaction is anything that changes the firm’s database. The chart of accounts is only part of the firm’s database. Consider a scenario in which a student transfers from one section of an Introduction to MIS course to another section. This move would be a transaction to the university’s information system, but not to the university’s accounting department (the tuition would not change).

The TPS collects data continuously, typically in real time – that is, as soon as the data are generated – and it provides the input data for the corporate databases. TPSs are considered critical to the success of any enterprise because they support core operations. Significantly, nearly all ERP systems are also TPSs, but not all TPSs are ERP systems. In fact, modern ERP systems incorporate many functions that previously were handled by the organization’s functional area information systems.

ERP systems and TPSs function primarily within a single organization.

Information systems that connect two or more organizations are referred to as

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interorganizational information systems (IOSs). IOSs support many interorganizational operations, of which supply chain management is the best known. An organization’s supply chain is the flow of materials, information, money, and services from suppliers of raw materials through factories and warehouses to the end customers.

Note that the supply chain in Table 2 shows physical flows, information flows, and financial flows. Digitizable products are those that can be represented in electronic form, such as music and software. Information flows, financial flows, and digitizable products go through the Internet, whereas physical products are shipped. For example, when you order a computer from www.dell.com, your information goes to Dell via the Internet. When your transaction is completed (i.e., your credit card is approved and your order is processed), Dell ships your computer to you.

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) systems are another type of interorganizational information system. These systems enable organizations to conduct transactions, called business-to-business (B2B) electronic commerce, and customers to conduct transactions with businesses, called business-to-consumer (B2C) electronic commerce.

Unit 10

Memorize the words

execute – осуществлять, выполнять, исполнять (напр., работу, приказ, обязанности); реализовать

capturing – сбор (напр., данных), фиксация

procurement – приобретение, получение; закупка; снабжение

procurement procedure – процедура осуществления закупок и выдачи подрядов

purchase order – заказ на закупку; заказ на поставку

vendors of software – поставщики программного обеспечения vendors of technology – поставщики технологии

assume [ə's(j)uːm] – принимать, брать на себя (ответственность, управление)

judgement ['ʤʌʤmənt]/to pass/give/render judgement on somebody – выносить приговор кому-л.

Exercise 1. Make up a list of new terms you can find in the text. Translate them into Native language.

Exercise 2. Look through the text. What information did you get about Information Systems and Business Processes?

Text 10. Retell the text.

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Information Systems and Business Processes

An information system (IS) is a critical enabler of an organization’s business processes. Information systems facilitate communication and coordination among different functional areas, and allow easy exchange of, and access to, data across processes. Specifically, ISs play a vital role in three areas:

1. Executing the process.

2. Capturing and storing process data.

3. Monitoring process performance.

In this section, you will learn about each of these roles. In some cases, the role is fully automated – that is, it is performed entirely by the IS. In other cases, the IS must rely on the manager’s judgment, expertise, and intuition.

Executing the Process. An IS helps organizations execute processes efficiently and effectively. IS are typically embedded into the processes, and they play a critical role in executing the processes. In other words, an IS and processes are usually intertwined. If the IS does not work, the process cannot be executed. IS help execute processes by informing people when it is time to complete a task, by providing the necessary data to complete the task, and, in some cases, by providing the means to complete the task.

In the procurement process, for example, the IS generates the purchase requisitions and then informs the purchasing department that action on these requisitions is needed. The accountant will be able to view all shipments received to match an invoice that has been received from a supplier and verify that the invoice is accurate. Without the IS, these steps, and therefore the process, cannot be completed. For example, if the IS is not available, how will the warehouse know which orders are ready to pack and ship?

In the fulfillment process, the IS will inform people in the warehouse that orders are ready for shipment. It also provides them with a listing of what materials must be included in the order and where to find those materials in the warehouse.

Capturing and Storing Process Data. Processes create data such as dates, times, product numbers, quantities, prices, and addresses, as well as who did what, when, and where. IS capture and store these data, commonly referred to as process data or transaction data. Some of these data are generated and automatically captured by the IS. These are data related to who completes an activity, when, and where. Other data are generated outside the IS and must be entered into it. This data entry can occur in various ways, ranging from manual entry to automated methods involving data in forms such as bar codes and RFID tags that can be read by machines.

In the fulfillment process, for example, when a customer order is received by mail or over the phone, the person taking the order must enter data such as the customer’s name, what the customer ordered, and how much he or she ordered.

Significantly, when a customer order is received via the firm’s Web site, then all customer details are captured by the IS. Data such as the name of the person entering the data (who), at which location the person is completing the task

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(where), and the date and time (when) are automatically included by the IS when it creates the order. The data are updated as the process steps are executed. When the order is shipped, the warehouse will provide data about which products were shipped and in what quantities, and the IS will automatically include data related to who, when, and where.

An important advantage of using an IS compared to a manual system or multiple functional area information systems is that the data need to be entered into the system only once. Further, once they are entered, other people in the process can easily access them, and there is no need to reenter them in subsequent steps.

The data captured by the IS can provide immediate feedback. For example, the IS can use the data to create a receipt or to make recommendations for additional or alternate products.

Monitoring Process Performance. A third contribution of IS is to help monitor the state of the various business processes. That is, the IS indicates how well a process is executing. The IS performs this role by evaluating information about a process. This information can be created either at the instance level (i.e., a specific task or activity) or the process level (i.e., the process as a whole).

For example, a company might be interested in the status of a particular customer order. Where is the order within the fulfillment process? Was the complete order shipped? If so, when? If not, then when can we expect it to be shipped? Or, for the procurement process, when was the purchase order sent to the supplier? What will be the cost of acquiring the material? At the process level, the IS can evaluate how well the procurement process is being executed by calculating the lead time, or the time between sending the purchase order to a vendor and receiving the goods, for each order and each vendor over time.

Not only can the IS help monitor a process, it can also detect problems with the process. The IS performs this role by comparing the information with a standard—that is, what the company expects or desires—to determine if the process is performing within expectations. Management establishes standards based on organizational goals.

If the information provided by the IS indicates that the process is not meeting the standards, then the company assumes that some type of problem exists.

Some problems can be routinely and automatically detected by the IS, whereas others require a person to review the information and make judgments. For example, the IS can calculate the expected date that a specific order will be shipped and determine whether this date will meet the established standard. Or, the IS can calculate the average time taken to fill all orders over the last month and compare this information to the standard to determine if the process is working as expected.

Monitoring business processes, then, helps detect problems with these processes. Very often these problems are really symptoms of a more fundamental problem. In such cases, the IS can help diagnose the cause of the symptoms by providing managers with additional, detailed information. For example, if the average time to process a customer order appears to have increased over the previous month, this problem could be a symptom of a more basic problem.

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A manager can then drill down into the information to diagnose the underlying problem. To accomplish this task, the manager can request a breakdown of the information by type of product, customer, location, employees, day of the week, time of day, and so on. After reviewing this detailed information, the manager might determine that the warehouse has experienced an exceptionally high employee turnover rate over the last month and that the delays are occurring because new employees are not sufficiently familiar with the process. The manager might conclude that this problem will work itself out over time, in which case there is nothing more to be done. Alternatively, the manager could conclude that the new employees are not being adequately trained and supervised. In this case, the company must take actions to correct the problem.

Unit 11

Memorize the words

devastating ['devəsteɪtɪŋ] – разрушительный, опустошительный reveal – выявлять, обнаруживать

exposure [ɪk'spəuʒə] – подвергание какому-л. внешнему воздействию hack [hæk] – незаконно получать доступ, проникать (в защищённую систему)

intangible cost – нематериальные затраты, неосязаемые затраты (издержки, которые могут быть на законном основании вычтены из налогооблагаемой суммы

breach – нарушение (закона, моральных или материальных обязательств и т. п.)

vulnerability [ˌvʌln(ə)rə'bɪlətɪ] – уязвимость; (vulnerabilities) слабые места в системе защиты

cybercrime ['saɪbəˌkraɪm] – преступления в интернете, сетевая преступность, киберпреступность, киберкриминал

mainframe [me ɪnfreɪm] – главный компьютер вычислительного центра, базовое вычислительное устройство

Exercise 1. Think of questions to the following sentences.

a) Information security is especially important to small businesses.

b) Studies have revealed that each security breach costs organization millions of dollars.

c) Security can be defined as the degree of protection against criminal activity, danger, damage, and/or loss.

d) A threat to an information resource is any danger to which a system may be exposed.

Exercise 2. Give a written translation of the text into Native language.

Text 11. Retell the text.

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Introduction to Information Security

Information security is especially important to small businesses. Large organizations that experience an information security problem have greater resources to bring to bear on the problem and to enable them to survive. In contrast, small businesses have fewer resources and therefore can be destroyed by a data breach.

Information technologies, when properly used, can have enormous benefits for individuals, organizations, and entire societies. IT has made businesses more productive, efficient, and responsive to consumers. Unfortunately, information technologies can also be misused, often with devastating consequences. Consider the following scenarios:

Individuals can have their identities stolen.

Organizations can have customer information stolen, leading to financial losses, erosion of customer confidence, and legal action.

Countries face the threat of cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare, terms for Internet-based attacks. Cyberwarfare is a critical problem for the U.S. government.

In fact, President Obama signed a cyberwarfare directive in October, 2012. In that directive, the White House, for the first time, laid out specific ground rules for how and when the U.S. military can carry out offensive and defensive cyber operations against foreign threats. The directive emphasizes the Obama administration’s focus on cybersecurity as a top priority.

Clearly, the misuse of information technologies has come to the forefront of any discussion of IT. Studies have revealed that each security breach costs organization millions of dollars. For example, after Sony’s PlayStation account database was hacked in 2011, the company had to pay $171 million to rebuild its network and protect users from identity theft. The direct costs of a data breach include hiring forensic experts, notifying customers, setting up telephone hotlines to field queries from concerned or affected customers, offering free credit monitoring, and providing discounts for future products and services. The more intangible costs of a breach include the loss of business from increased customer turnover—called customer churn—and decreases in customer trust.

Unfortunately, employee negligence caused many of the data breaches, meaning that organizational employees are a weak link in information security. It is therefore very important for you to learn about information security so that you will be better prepared when you enter the workforce.

Security can be defined as the degree of protection against criminal activity, danger, damage, and/or loss. Following this broad definition, information security refers to all of the processes and policies designed to protect an organization’s information and information systems (IS) from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction. You have seen that information and information systems can be compromised by deliberate criminal actions and by anything that can impair the proper functioning of an organization’s information systems.

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Before continuing, let’s consider these key concepts. Organizations collect huge amounts of information and employ numerous information systems that are subject to myriad threats. A threat to an information resource is any danger to which a system may be exposed. The exposure of an information resource is the harm, loss, or damage that can result if a threat compromises that resource. An information resource’s vulnerability is the possibility that the system will be harmed by a threat.

Today, five key factors are contributing to the increasing vulnerability of organizational information resources, making it much more difficult to secure them:

Today’s interconnected, interdependent, wirelessly networked business environment;

Smaller, faster, cheaper computers and storage devices;

Decreasing skills necessary to be a computer hacker;

International organized crime taking over cybercrime;

Lack of management support.

The first factor is the evolution of the IT resource from mainframe-only to today’s highly complex, interconnected, interdependent, wirelessly networked business environment. The Internet now enables millions of computers and computer networks to communicate freely and seamlessly with one another.

Organizations and individuals are exposed to a world of untrusted networks and potential attackers. A trusted network, in general, is any network within your organization. An untrusted network, in general, is any network external to your organization. In addition, wireless technologies enable employees to compute, communicate, and access the Internet anywhere and anytime. Significantly, wireless is an inherently nonsecure broadcast communications medium.

The second factor reflects the fact that modern computers and storage devices (e.g., thumb drives or flash drives) continue to become smaller, faster, cheaper, and more portable, with greater storage capacity. These characteristics make it much easier to steal or lose a computer or storage device that contains huge amounts of sensitive information. Also, far more people are able to afford powerful computers and connect inexpensively to the Internet, thus raising the potential of an attack on information assets.

The third factor is that the computing skills necessary to be a hacker are decreasing. The reason is that the Internet contains information and computer programs called scripts that users with few skills can download and use to attack any information system connected to the Internet. (Security experts can also use these scripts for legitimate purposes, such as testing the security of various systems).

The fourth factor is that international organized crime is taking over cybercrime. Cyber-crime refers to illegal activities conducted over computer networks, particularly the Internet. I Defense (http://labs.idefense.com), a company that specializes in providing security information to governments and Fortune 500 companies, maintains that groups of well-organized criminal organizations have

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taken control of a global billion-dollar crime network. The network, powered by skillful hackers, targets known software security weaknesses. These crimes are typically nonviolent, but quite lucrative. For example, the losses from armed robberies average hundreds of dollars, and those from white-collar crimes average tens of thousands of dollars. In contrast, losses from computer crimes average hundreds of thousands of dollars. Also, computer crimes can be committed from anywhere in the world, at any time, effectively providing an international safe haven for cybercriminals. Computer-based crimes cause billions of dollars in damages to businesses each year, including the costs to repair information systems and the costs of lost business.

The fifth, and final, f

Сурет

Table 2 - Types of Organizational Information Systems

Ақпарат көздері

СӘЙКЕС КЕЛЕТІН ҚҰЖАТТАР