• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ



Academic year: 2023



Толық мәтін



Exploration of intensification and its influence on teacher's work and life in International Baccalaureate school in Astana

Firuza Ilyassova

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science


Education Leadership

Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education

June, 2018 Word count: 24 523



I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and to the best of my knowledge it contains no materials previously published or written by another person, or substantial proportions of material which have been submitted for the award of any other course or degree at NU or any other educational institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in the thesis. This thesis is the result of my own independent work, except where otherwise stated, and the views expressed here are my own.




Ethical Approval


The NUGSE Research Committee reviewed the project entitled Exploration of intensification and its influence on teachers’ work and life in International Baccalaureate school in Astana by Firuza Ilyassova and decided:

 To grant approval for this study

☐To grant approval for this study subject to minor changes, to be signed off by supervisor

☐ To request additional information/clarification to determine approval

☐ To refer the application for IREC review

Approval: This approval is effective for the life of the study. However, any time you change any aspect of your project (e.g., recruitment process, administering materials, collecting data, gaining consent, and changing participants) you will need to submit a request for modification to the NUGSE Research Committee. Make sure to address all of the information requested on the request for modification form(s). Please be advised that in some circumstances, changes to the protocol may disqualify the project from approval.


NUGSE Research Committee





I would like to dedicate my research work to my little son Kamil Ilyassov, husband Adilkhan Ilyassov, and mother Kulbarshin Matyakubova, who were from the very beginning of the starting point at studying on getting master degree till its end.


Я хотела бы посвятить свою исследовательскую работу моему маленькому сыну Камилю Ильясову, супругу Адильхану Ильясову, и моей маме Кульбаршин Матякубовой, которые были со мной с самого начала моей учебы на получение степени магистра до ее окончания.



I would like to thank many people who have contributed to the successful completion of this thesis. First, I want to thank my son Kamil, as during these two long years you came to this world and were growing up in the situation of constant learning, reflecting, data collection, analysis and thesis writing. I want to say that I did all my best in order to dedicate all my love and attention to you, as well as learning at Nazarbayev University. I am very sorry for long sleepless nights and lack of spending time together. But I am promising that all these knowledge and great experience in the research journey was not in vain, as it will be a great fundament in creation best education in country where you will grow up. I also bow my head to my mother Kulbarshin and farther Kadir Matyakubov. Thank you for all your help, for caring my child, for giving a place to live, study, creating ideal conditions for my professional development.

I also thank my husband Adilkhan Ilyassov for his understanding and great help during my education on Masters’ Program, for motivating me for great results in the moment of the darkness of despair.

I thank my brother Rustem Matyakubov, as he offered me a great opportunity to go to university, site of the study and conducting interviews by car. He also helped a lot in caring of my son.

Many thanks for my parents’- in-law Asylkhan Ilyassov and Yelena Ilyassova for their patience and support.

Special thanks to participants of my study, who volunteered their time and allowed me to interview them and observe them in practice.

I gratefully acknowledge the intellectual and professional support of my esteemed supervisor, Associate Professor Duishon Shamatov. He has been reading, rereading of my drafts, giving effective feedback, assisting in improving my academic English language,


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA ix providing thousands of useful academic literature. Dear professor, thank you for your patience, motivation and constant belief in myself – I am deeply grateful. You should know that all your contribution in my learning have a great impact on my professional development, on opening the borders of my knowledge and my teaching identity. I will never forget your professionalism and will try to be like you - real “change agent” in Kazakhstan.

I express my gratitude to professor Alfred Burns and PhD student Zhadyra Makhmetova for your support and help with making this thesis readable from Academic English side.

I also want to thank a wonderful GSE teaching staff who contributed a lot to my development as an educator, a school leader and a researcher. Thank you for understanding and patience during my pregnancy and after it. My special thanks to Jason Sparks, and all professors, who taught me these two academic years: Duishon Shamatov, Aliya Kuzhabekova, Aslan Sarinzhipov, Mir Afzal, Jack Lee, Rita Kasa, Alfred Burns, Dinara Munbayeva, Kairat Kurakbayev, Daniel Torrano and Kathy Malone.

I owe a lot of appreciation to my colleagues, school administrators, my friends and my group mates (especially Anar Ismagulova and Zhadyra Aitenova) for your continuous help, assistance, motivation, attention and just presence during hard working period of my life.

Finally, I would like to conclude by saying that I would never have been able to accomplish my studying at Masters’ Program without all of you. I extend my sincerest thanks and heartfelt love to all of you.



The collapse of the Soviet Union has brought new changes in the process of reshaping the educational system of Kazakhstan education and aligning all the levels of it with the Western educational systems. Secondary teachers are increasingly overburdened while accomplishing a lot of different tasks, which leads to the issue of teacher intensification (Hargreaves, 1991; 1992). Intensification has different symptoms: lack of time for proper rest during the working day, including the inability to go to lunch; lack of time to improve one’s own skills; chronic and constant overload; lack of time for communication with other people, which leads to a suspension from the generally accepted norms and rules; reduction in the quality of work performed due to time savings; forced diversification of expertise due to staff shortages (Larson, 1980; Hargreaves, 1991). Many research studies have been conducted worldwide to investigate the issue of teachers’ intensification. However, little is known about the nature of intensification in Kazakhstani context. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore nature of intensification and its effects on teachers’ work and life at an International Baccalaureate school in Astana. Within the qualitative research design, case study method was used to investigate the central phenomenon of the study. Six secondary teachers and two school administrators were recruited with the help of purposeful sampling strategy to participate in individual interviews. Non-participant observation and documents were used as additional data collection tools. The study findings demonstrated that the school climate is a main cause of intensification and includes several factors that increase intensification. Additionally, the current study demonstrates that intensification influence teachers’ well-being, professional development, and actions both positively and negatively. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge in this field and also offer some key practice and policy implications.

Key words: intensification; secondary education; international baccalaureate; Astana;

Kazakhstan; teachers’ health.



Распад Советского Союза привел к новым изменениям в образовательной системе Казахстана и преобразованиям всех ее уровней согласно требованиям Запада. Учителя средних школ стали сильно перегруженными, выполняя множество различных задач и требований, что приводит к проблеме интенсификации учителей (Hargreaves, 1991, 1992). Интенсификация включает в себя отсутствие времени для полноценного отдыха в течение рабочего дня, в том числе невозможность пойти на обед; отсутствие времени для улучшения собственных навыков. Кроме этого ей присуще хроническая и постоянная перегрузка; отсутствие времени для общения с другими людьми, что приводит к отмене общепринятых норм и правил; снижение качества выполняемых работ за счет экономии времени, а также диверсификация кадров из-за нехватки персонала (Larson, 1980;

Hargreaves, 1991). Было проведено множество исследований во всем мире для изучения вопроса интенсификации учителей. Однако слишком мало данных известно о характере интенсификации в казахстанском контексте. Целью этого качественного исследования является изучение природы (характер) интенсификации, и ее влияния на работу и жизнь учителей в школе Международного Бакалавриата в Астане.

В рамках исследования был использован метод Кейс стади – тематическое исследование для глубокого изучения центрального феномена исследования. Шесть учителей среднего образования и два представителя школьной администрации были выбраны с помощью целенаправленной стратегии выборки для участия в индивидуальных интервью. В качестве дополнительных инструментов сбора данных использовались безучастное наблюдения и изучение документов. Результаты исследования показали, что школьный климат является основной причиной интенсификации и включает в себя несколько факторов, которые усиливают интенсификацию. Кроме того, исследование также демонстрирует, что интенсификация влияет на благосостояние, профессиональное развитие и действия учителей как положительно, так и отрицательно. Выводы способствуют накоплению знаний в этой области, а также предлагают некоторые важные рекомендации для практического и теоретического применения.

Ключевые слова: интенсификация; среднее образование; международный бакалавриат;

Астана; Казахстан; здоровье учителей.



Кеңес Одағының ыдырауы Қазақстандағы білім беру жүйесіне жаңа өзгерістер енгізіп, оның барлық деңгейлерінің Батыс талаптарына сай қайта құрылуына әкелді.

Орта мектеп мұғалімдердің көптеген тапсырмалар мен міндеттерді орындап, жұмысбасты болуы мұғалімдер интенсификациясы мәселесіне әкеліп соқтырады (Hargreaves, 1991. 1992). Интенсификацияға жұмыс күні барысында толыққанды демалуға уақыттың жоқтығы, оған қоса түскі асқа бара алмау, жеке қабілеттерін арттыруға уақыттың жоқтығы жатады. Сонымен қатар оған созылмалы және үнемі шамадан тыс жұмыс істеу, өзге адамдармен араласуға уақыттың жоқтығына байланысты жалпыға ортақ нормалар мен ережелердің жойылуы, уақытты үнемдегендіктен атқаратын жұмыс сапасының төмендеуі, сондай-ақ, қызметкерлер жетіспеуіне байланысты кадрларды диверсификациялау кіреді (Larson, 1980. Hargreaves, 1991).

Мұғалімдер интенсификациясы мәселесін зерделеу үшін әлем бойынша көптеген зерттеулер жүргізілді. Алайда Қазақстан аясындағы интенсификация сипаты жөнінде ақпараттар өте аз. Осы сапалы зерттеу жұмысының мақсаты интенсификация сипаттамасын зерделеу және оның Астана қаласындағы Халықаралық Бакалавриат мектебі мұғалімдерінің жұмысы мен өміріне әсерін зерделеу.

Зерттеу шеңберінде Кейс стади әдісі қолданылды – зерттеудің негізгі феноменін тереңдетіп зерделеу мақсатындағы тематикалық зерттеу. Жеке сұхбатқа қатысуға орта мектептің 6 мұғалімі және мектеп әкімшілігінің 2 өкілі таңдап алынды.

Мәліметтерді жинаудың қосымша тәсілдері ретінде сырттай бақылау және құжаттарды зерделеу қолданылды. Зерттеу нәтижесі интенсификацияның негізгі себебі мектеп ахуалы екендігін көрсетті, және ол интенсификацияны арттыратын бірнеше факторлардан тұрады. Одан басқа, зерттеу интенсификацияның мұғалімдердің әл-ауқат, кәсіби даму мен іс-әрекеттеріне жағымды да жағымсыз әсер ететінін байқатты.

Қорытынды осы салада білімді жинақтауға жәрдемдеседі, сонымен қатар негізгі практикалық және саяси салдарларды ұсынады.

Түйінді сөздер: интенсификация; орта білім; халықаралық бакалавриат; Астана қаласы; Қазақстан; мұғалімдердің денсаулығы.




Declaration iii

Ethical Approval iv


CITI training certificate v

Dedication vii

Acknowledgements viii

Abstract x

List of Tables xvi

Chapter One: Introduction 1

Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 3

Purpose of the Study 5

Research Questions 5

Central Phenomenon 5

Significance of the Study 6

Thesis outline 7

Conclusion of the Chapter 8

Chapter Two: Literature Review 9

Introduction 9

Nature of teachers’ intensification 9

Factors that cause and increase teachers’ intensification 10 Effects of intensification on teachers’ work and life 15

Conclusion of the Chapter 19


Chapter Three: Methodology 21

Introduction 21

Research Design 21

Site Selection 22

Sample Selection 23

Data collection 25

Data Analysis 31

Ethical Considerations 35

Conclusion of the Chapter 36

Chapter Four: Findings 38

Introduction 38

Teachers’ daily routine 38

Nature of teachers’ intensification 44

Factors that cause and increase teachers’ intensification 46 Effects of intensification on teachers’ work and life 56

Conclusion of the Chapter 62

Chapter Five: Discussion of Findings 63

Introduction 63

Discussion 63

Conclusion of the Chapter 73

Chapter Six: Conclusion 74

Introduction 74

Addressing the Research Questions 74

Limitations of the Study 76

Implications and Recommendations 76



Suggestions for Further Research 79

References 81

Appendix A 93

Appendix B 95

Appendix C 97

Appendix D 98

Appendix E 99

Appendix F 100

Appendix G 101

Appendix H 102

Appendix I 104

Appendix J 105

Appendix K 107

Appendix L 108

Appendix M 110

Appendix N 111

Appendix O 112


List of Tables

Table 1. The sample of the study ... 255 Table 2. Interview information ... 288 Table 3. Differences and commonalities in requirements ... 48



Background of the Study

This chapter describes the background of the study, the purpose of the study, the statement of problem and research questions.

Time plays an important role in the maintenance of managing the life of every human being. From the very childhood, my parents constantly reminded me that I should always be punctual and manage my time effectively in order to become a professional in my job. I now realize that the older we grow, the more careful we need to be about how we use our time.

Shortage of time is one of the main challenges for many people. When I started to work at the school in 2012 I too faced this issue with the time constraint. Nowadays, teachers are

increasingly overburdened and this topic is one of the central foci of discussions in the teaching profession.

In my workplace teachers’ overload has become a key challenge since the introduction of the new payment system, as teachers started to point out that they do not have enough time to fulfill their work, but at the same time school administrators claimed that in official

workload teachers were allocated enough time. That is how this question became a major area of my interest within the field of the new payment system in my workplace by analyzing it in- depth and comparing it with experiences in other countries. For example, “in the Netherlands, the working week lasts only 30.5 hours, and in Finland 33 hours, in France 35 hours”

(Gotoroad.ru, 2018), while there are countries, for example, China, where the working hours per week lasts 60 hours. I always had a question about the countries like Finland or France where they have less time, but in the ranking of the countries of the world in terms of living standards, they occupy leading positions (Gotoroad.ru, 2018). Despite spending fewer hours per week working, these countries remained as the most vibrant countries. That is how my interest in this topic has further grown.


While working at a private school in Astana, I have observed how teachers are overburdened and seemed to lack time, and therefore, I had a strong willingness to help the teachers but did not know how. Master Program at Nazarbayev University gave a great chance to advance my knowledge. One of the elective courses - “Teacher’s professional identity”

explored the concept of intensification (Ballet et. al, 2006; Easthope & Easthope, 2000;

Hargreaves, 1991; Hargreaves, 1992), which provided an opportunity to study the problem of intensification in secondary education in more depth. I found intensification close theme to the issue of lack of time and it motivated me in further research. That is why I chose the

intensification of teachers as the central phenomenon of my thesis.

The issue of heavy workload of teachers has been raised repeatedly in international studies (Apple, 1986; Hargreaves, 1994; Larson, 1980). After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kazakh government had been reshaping the educational system and aligning all the levels of it with the Western educational systems. Implementation of the new educational reforms in Kazakhstan, many of which were borrowed from the experience of other countries

(Kerimkulova & Kuzhabekova, 2017) and presentation of a new National Education Development Program 2011-2020 became one of the reasons for raising the issue of intensification of teachers. New reforms expanded to all levels of education.

In the secondary education system, Unified National Testing was created. Also, the new curriculum is being implemented these days. Autonomous Educational Organization

“Nazarbayev intellectual schools” (AEO “NIS”) with different branches such as Center for Educational Measurement, Center of Excellence, Center of Educational Programs and

Educational Resources Center was in the center of innovations. Another promising educational program that was introduced in Kazakhstan recently is the International Baccalaureate (IB) program. There are three schools in Astana, which implemented IB program.

International Baccalaureate (IB) is widely known in the world as an educational system, the uniqueness of which is the continuity and prospects of education,


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 3 which gives an opportunity to get a quality education and the right to enter

prestigious universities in the world. One of the advantages of the IB program is the integration of the teaching and upbringing process, which is considered in the context of a holistic approach to education. IB is a student-centered program, directed to develop high-ordered leaning skills, think critically, to be involved in inquiry-based learning and to improve service skills as well. (International Baccalaureate, 2018)

IB consists of four main programs: Primary Years Program (PYP), Middle Years Program (MYP), Diploma Program (DP) and Career-related Program (CP). A significant difference between IB and State program is in the curriculum. Project activities, the community service, developing approaches to teaching and learning, extended essay and Interdisciplinary teaching and learning are one of the core components of IB, which make a diversity of

additional roles that are performed by the school's teachers. On the other hand, State

requirements to provide officially documented forms for every activity in the workplace as a proof of performance establish intensification. According to Ballet and Kelchtermans (2008)

“Accountability demands and procedures extend policy-makers’ control of life and work in schools and, as such, have a pervasive impact on the day-to-day working conditions of teachers and school leaders” (p. 47). There is increasing concern that teachers are being overburdened and disadvantaged accomplishing a lot of different tasks, which are new for them and difficult as well. Therefore, teachers “become the isolated executors of someone’s decisions” (Apple, 1986, p.162). This has happened now in one of IB schools in Astana, which I had chosen as a site of my research.

Statement of the Problem

In the past two decades a number of researchers have reported that teacher plays an important role in implementation of the new educational reforms, as they are involved in the change process from the beginning (Bakkenes, Vermunt & Wubbels, 2010; Fullan, 2007) and

“differently use their “professional agency” in such processes: influence work-related matters, make choices and decisions at work, and act accordingly use their agency to support, take a


critical stance, or even resist educational change in their schools” (Van der Heijden et al., 2015, p. 681).

An increasing amount of literature focused on teachers’ intensification (Ballet,

Kelchtermans & Loughran, 2006; Ballet & Kelchtermans, 2008; Easthope & Easthope, 2000;

Hargreaves, 1991; 1992; Kelchtermans, 1999; Larson, 1980; Penrice, 2011), which discussed the nature of intensification and its’ causes.

Scholars also have examined the effects of burnout (Boles et al., 2000; Leiter &

Maslach, 1988; Maslach et al., 2001; Tatar & Horenczyk, 2002) on students’ performance and reported that burnout is negative consequence of intensification, which can have an impact not only for teacher’s well-being but also behavior and learning of student (Barutçu & Serinkan, 2013; Dorman, 2003, Lamude et. al, 1992). For that reason, the intensification of teachers may influence not only the teachers themselves but also the students.

Little is known about intensification in Kazakhstani context, several researchers

investigated the process of international translation of educational policy (Bridges, Kurakbayev

& Kambatyrova, 2014; Silova, 2005; Yakavets & Dzhadrina, 2014; Yakavets, Frost &

Khoroshash, 2017), role of the teacher (McLaughlin, McLellan & Fordham, 2014) and teachers’ perceptions toward educational leadership (Madalieva, 2012; Mustafina, 2016;

Mynbayeva, 2012). So far, it is not clear what causes and increases intensification and how it affects teachers’ work and life after the implementation of the new educational reforms in Kazakhstani context. This is the study to undertake the first step in exploring nature of teacher intensification in the context of Kazakhstan and aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring causes of intensification and factors that increase it in IB school in Astana.



The purpose of the study is to explore nature of intensification and its effects on teacher’s work and life at an International Baccalaureate school in Astana. The research attempts to find out teachers experiences with intensification, its’ causes, and consequences.

Research Questions

The research explores the nature of intensification and its possible effects on teacher’s work and life at an International Baccalaureate school in Astana. The overarching main research question is:

What is teacher intensification and how does it influence on teachers’ work and life?

There are three subsidiary research questions, which help address the main research question:

1) What is the nature of teachers’ intensification?

2) What causes and increases teachers’ intensification?

3) How does intensification affect teachers’ work and life?

Central Phenomenon

The central phenomenon of the study is teacher’s intensification. The term

intensification is defined in many sources as an increase in the workload of teachers, as well as

“achieved without sufficient resources or time” (Ballet & Kelchtermans, 2008, p. 47). In addition, the term “intensification” implies work without any financial reimbursement of compensation or any other (Ballet & Kelchtermans, 2008) e.g. for effort, spent time, or any additional professional knowledge. There are three main symptoms of intensification: when the number of tasks is increasing, with increasing complexity of work; when the expectations of the teacher are increasing for the work that is done in the classroom; and when the teacher has a great sense of responsibility for the work that s\he does outside the class, which in turn requires cooperation with other teachers, specialists or advisers (Apple & Jungck, 1990; Larson, 1980).


Significance of the Study

This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring teachers experiences with intensification, its’ causes, and consequences. There are several stakeholders for whom this study makes an original contribution to teachers of that current school and from other schools as well, school administrators, the regional office of International Baccalaureate, educational policymakers in Kazakhstan and body of knowledge.

First of all, the findings might be important for teachers from that exact school, thus informing teachers about the factors that can influence the increase or decrease of

intensification. Alongside with them, the results of the study can be useful for Kazakhstani teachers of secondary public schools as well. Since they are now in the process of

implementing a new educational program, and probably the answers of participants of the study can be close to them in spirit and give answers to some questions. Moreover, teachers’ attitude to this problem may encourage them to find possible solutions. The gathered data also may give a clear picture to the school administrators of the emotional state of the teaching staff.

The study findings confirm that the problem of teacher intensification exists at IB school and recognizing the problem of teachers’ intensification and analysis of its effects can contribute to the understanding of teacher intensification and hopefully address it effectively throughout Kazakhstan. Thus, the study has policy implications too.

Another stakeholder is the Regional Office of the International Baccalaureate. The results of the study may benefit from exploring similar situations of the problem in other IB international schools.

Finally, the current research work may also contribute to the body of knowledge about teacher intensification and become a part of research in Kazakhstani context.



I now provide an outline of the thesis. Overall, this thesis comprises six chapters, followed by the bibliography and several appendices.

Chapter 1 is an introductory part of the study, indicating teachers’ intensification as a central problem of the study and explains its importance. Also, in this part, you can see the statement of the problem, as well as a discussion of the study’s rationale. Research questions and significance of the study followed.

Chapter 2 – “Literary Review” provides an opportunity to get acquainted with the foreign literature on the central problem of my research.

Chapter 3 – “Methodology” outlines the research design, data collection methods, and data analysis. Moreover, in this chapter you can find the information about how I chose a site of the study, sampling strategies, what instruments did I use during the data collection process, also about strategies and techniques of data analysis, and data interpretation. I also discussed ethical issues and ways of creating the anonymity and confidentiality.

Chapter 4 – “Findings” provides the result of the study, including information about what factors increase teachers’ intensification in that school.

Chapter 5 – “Discussion” presents the discussions of my research work, connecting it with previous studies on that specific theme.

Chapter 6 – “Conclusion” summarizes the study’s findings, draws conclusions, and reflects on their implications and significance. This chapter also includes my personal suggestions for possible problem solutions.


Conclusion of the Chapter

This chapter was a foundation of the thesis. I first explained the reason for being interested in teachers’ intensification. Then I provided with background information about the way of appearance of teachers’ intensification in Kazakhstani context.

After this, I introduced the research purpose and questions that guided the study. I also presented the central phenomenon of the study. The chapter also discusses the study’s rationale and its’ significance.




This chapter provides an overview of the research related to the issue of teachers’

intensification and its’ influence on work and life of teachers. This literature review will be organized around three main areas of the central phenomenon: (a) nature of teachers’

intensification, (b) factors that cause and increase teachers’ intensification, (c) effects of intensification on teachers’ work and life.

Nature of teachers’ intensification

The issues of teacher intensification were raised unequivocally in modern science, where Magali Sarfatti Larson's (1980) and Andy Hargreaves (1991) ideas, considered this issue in more detail. According to Larson (1980):

Intensification [...] represents one of the most tangible ways in which the work privileges of educated workers are eroded […] Intensification represents a break, often sharp, […] it destroys the sociability for those workers whose labor activity is so often individual, the risk of isolation grows. (p.166 -167)

Larson in his work identified several symptoms of intensification: lack of time for proper rest during the working day, including the inability to go to lunch; lack of time to improve one’s own skills; chronic and constant overload; lack of time for communication with other people, which leads to a suspension from the generally accepted norms and rules;

reduction in the quality of work performed due to time savings; forced diversification of expertise due to staff shortages (Larson, 1980; Hargreaves, 1991).

Michael Apple and Susan Jungck (1990) fully supported Larson’s point of view, presenting a broader idea of intensification, that it is closely related to the gender issue, as it is historically linked to the process of establishing women's rights, when they were paid extra for additional skills such as care, connectivity, nurturance, and fostering “growth”, but over time


these skills lost their meaning. Now the concept of skill includes technical knowledge and the process of performance emphasis, monitoring, and instruction, which decrease teachers’

autonomy and as a consequence the role of the teaching profession. Apple and Jungck (1990) identified main characteristics of intensification, which include less “down time” during the working day for professional development in the subject area, and also for reflection on teachers’ practices, an increase in the amount of work and a simultaneous decrease in the time required to job execution, teachers become dependent on the opinions of external experts, creating doubts about their own professionalism.

Many other researchers took up Apple and Jungck’s ideas and refined it with their own findings, so did Katrijn Ballet and Geert Kelchtermans (2008) asserting that intensification

“implies an increase in the number of tasks teachers have to accomplish, without sufficient resources or time” (Ballet & Kelchtermans, 2008, p. 47). According to their point of view, the work of teachers really becomes busier, since the teacher requires more tasks to be performed, but for less time and with less cost (means the use of resources). The authors argue that

teachers become tools in the hands of other people because their professional activities depend on decisions made by other people i.e. by policy-makers or curriculum designers.

Thus, intensification can be emerged in different ways in teachers’ work, as there are different causes of its appearance.

Factors that cause and increase teachers’ intensification

While some researchers have studied the nature of the intensification, others have analyzed in detail the causes of intensification. At the heart of most of the research is Andy Hargreaves’ work, who conducted a critical study of teachers in Toronto in 1987, during which he found some specific causes of intensification. The most evident cause that Hargreaves mentioned is that “the combination of high expectations (e.g. individualized programming) with reduced support (e.g. reductions of in-class assistance) may certain to strong support for


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 11 the intensification thesis” (Hargreaves, 1991, p.10). The second reason is that most teachers voluntarily interfere in the conditions of constant overload, treating this process as real professionalism. Hargreaves (1991) states that it is not the external cause, but “many of the pressing demands and expectations of teaching often seemed to come from within teachers themselves” (Hargreaves, 1991, p. 11), who are highly dedicated to doing a good job. He explains this by the fact that during the work the goals and expectations of teachers become difficult to understand and incomprehensible, but teachers try to overcome difficulties and achieve a positive result. Kelchtermans (1999) called it “a never-ending story” (p. 178). Even in spite of constant external pressure and intensification, the imposition of high standards of pedagogical perfection and commitment still exist in the practice of many teachers. Thus, a constant commitment to high personal professional standards becomes in itself the main source of intensification (Ballet, Kelchtermans & Loughran, 2006).

In addition to teachers themselves, parents can also be the source of intensification, for which education becomes a “product” that is produced by the school or “service” that the school must provide. Education in its entirety is becoming more oriented toward market relations, whereby “the education a child receives must conform to the wealth and wishes of parents rather than the abilities and efforts of pupils” (Brown, 1990, p.65). Thus, such excessive “care” for the child's education takes the form of “parentocracy” (Brown, 1990), where “parents as consumers are seeking the best buy in education” (Troman, 2000, p.336).

Parental involvement is both positive and negative. If the relationship between teachers and parents is good, then the degree of trust is high, but stressful studies demonstrate that teachers experience stress at work because of parents’ distrust of their competencies (Troman, 2000).

Apart from teachers, parents and other stakeholders, school structural characteristics can be a cause of intensification as well. By structural characteristics, Andrew Gitlin (2001) means class size and lessons duration. According to Gitlin (2001), teachers may have faced “threat of


intensification”, which happens when teachers minimize their autonomy and the ability to make their own decisions. A Gitling’s study (2001) showed that the work in the schools studied was not intense, only at certain periods of times when several school structures were running simultaneously, for example, “a long-established, taken-for-granted structure—the division of the school day into equal time periods that necessitates teachers seeing more than 200 students a day” (Gitling, 2001, p.254). However, teachers, aware of the possible threat of intensification, tried to adjust their activities in order to minimize the potential intensity of work. As a result, the teachers were guided only by the curricula, trying not to depart from the “letter of the law”, and also carried out work where the students were more engaged independently, and this free time teachers used to perform paperwork. In addition, teachers used simplified types of assessment, which saved time. However, all these actions were of a negative nature, since the use of such strategies leads not only to a decrease in the quality of the students' in-depth

knowledge of the subject but also to repetitive type of work, the alienation of the teacher, which strongly affects the teacher's de-skilling and intensification (Ballet, Kelchtermans & Loughran, 2006). Then, the causes of intensification may come not only from the “inside” but from

“outside” as well.

Ballet et. al. (2006) has a common view that school characteristics play an important role in terms of intensification. He listed several working conditions that influence teachers:

participation in decision-making, availability of sufficient teaching materials, relationships with school principals and professional relationships. The author concludes that “The lack of

participation in decision-making, therefore, appears to be an important stress-inducing factor”

(Ballet et. al., 2006, p. 215). But at the same time, it also can be a cause of intensification, because of participation in decision-making policy meetings maybe time-consuming and increase the feeling of overburden. On the other hand, the role of the principal is vital, because

“they also need to protect the school and the teachers from unrealistically high expectations or


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 13 invalid interpretations of policy measures by outsiders” (Ballet et. al., 2006, p. 215). As Ballet et. al. (2006) said that principals, being a buffer for the teachers, may also face intensification.

Alongside the nature of the intensification and causes of its occurrence, factors that lead to increasing of intensification also play an important role. In 2007, Linda Valii and Daria Buese published a paper in which they described the impact of federal, state, and local policies on the roles that elementary school teachers and stated that intensification may occur from four different types of tasks: instructional, institutional, collaborative, and learning. Under the instructional tasks, authors mean when teachers “were performed in direct work with students and had learned as their primary goal” (Valii & Buese, 2007, p.529). Institutional tasks include the attempt of government authority to spread equal practices across the schools. Through collaborative tasks authors labeled tasks which “required teachers to work in groups with other teachers or district personnel. Collaborative tasks could be mandated by the district or school or could result from the nature of the tasks themselves (e.g., inclusion instruction)” (Valii &

Buese, 2007, p.529). The last is learning:

that required teachers to develop new knowledge and skills to perform other role functions. Although teacher learning is most often described as a professional opportunity, we argue that it is a separate role when it has its own set of obligations that consume significant time and intellectual effort. (Valii & Buese, 2007, p.529)

Valii and Buese reported that high expectations for teacher roles, increasing the number of tasks and simultaneously increasing the level of complexity during a certain time can

contribute to intensification and lead to increase of policy pressure. Their research showed that during 4 years of data collection numerous policy initiatives strongly influenced the nature of teacher role change. After the presentation in 2001 of new policy, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and other policies like changing students’ demographics created new expectations from teachers. As Valii and Buese (2007) stated:


So, for example, the increased number of students who were English-language learners (ELL) resulted in more teachers' taking on tasks of in-class English for speakers in other languages (ESOL) instruction and collaborating with ESOL teachers. However, NCLB proficiency requirements for ELL students affected the way in which teachers carried out their instructional and collaborative roles as they worked with ESOL teachers to align instruction with the state test.


The researches provide a list of new tasks that teachers were asked to take on, for example, curriculum pacing and alignment, data analysis, ESOL instruction, inclusion

instruction, instructional materials development, organizational system management, tutoring, and vertical articulation. Thus the research showed that it influenced not only the amount of work but on the nature of teachers’ work as well.

In contrast to previous researchers, Chris Easthope and Gary Easthope (2000) set out the different ways, in which teachers’ workload in Tasmania, Australia from 1984 to 1994 increased. It includes a reduction in the amount of financial assistance for educational

activities, the transition from the normative base of assessment to the criterion basis, the change of administrative structures of schools in which teachers worked, and the increase in the

number of students. Authors claims that less money being spent on education and as a result classes become larger, number of teachers smaller; students became angry about the fact that some subjects were not taught or being cancelled at the beginning of the year, because of new rule of cancelation the lesson, if classes will not meet minimum number of students. Moreover, changes in ways of assessment contributed to increasing of the feeling of pressure and

resistance to undertaking marking, because teachers did not perform their work activities with

“goodwill”. Also, teachers were “being asked to perform duties previously undertaken by heads of departments, as these roles are abolished to be replaced by Advanced Skills Teachers 3” (Easthope & Easthope, 2000, p. 48). It was like an “invasion of teachers’ time and

lifeworlds” (Habermas, 1987; Hargreaves, 1993). Intensification not only consisted of

increasing the workload but also from the extension of work tasks that they did. Easthope and


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 15 Easthope highlights the difference between the increase of workload and extension, as the last one includes more type of work such as teach other subject specialties, offer different courses of duration, difficulty, and mature age, manage a pastoral care and deal with new social issues.

Late awareness of the problem has led teachers to various consequences: the refusal of own sense of professionalism, change of a field of activity or struggle for one’s own rights.

Effects of intensification on teachers’ work and life

A number of authors have reported different findings on the issue of intensification.

Several studies pay attention to emotional side of intensification and show that it may negatively affect on teachers’ work and life, as they can feel demotivation, stress, insecurity, doubt or disappointment (Apple, 1986; Ballet et. al., 2006; Geijsel et al., 2001; Troman &

Woods, 2001; Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999; Van Veen, 2003). As Hargreaves claimed:

“emotions are dynamic parts of us and whether they are positive or negative, all organizations, including schools, are full of them” (Hargreaves, 1998, p. 559). Ballet et. al. (2006) says that although teachers mention in their answers positive feelings for work, such as happiness, pride, enthusiasm, and commitment, nevertheless their workload is more often associated with

negative feelings like stress, uncertainty, and guilt. According to the research works teachers overcome these feelings, working creatively and in a team (Acker, 1999; Smylie, 1999;

Troman, 1997, 2000; Woods, 1995).

One of the negative effects of intensification is burnout. In the research field, there is a common definition of it, which includes: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or

dehumanization, and diminished personal accomplishment (Maslach, 1982; Maslach &

Jackson, 1981; Pines & Maslach, 1980). Many research studies revealed that burnout can influence teachers’ work and life in different ways. The consequences may occur in the workplace: negative behavior towards students, lack of professional implication, and change the profession of teaching (Pruessner, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 1999). Teachers with high


level of burnout less communicate with their colleagues (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993); cynically perceive of others, which can be explained by negativism, pessimism (Schaufelli & Enzmann, 1998). Also, burnout can lead to different forms of mental and physical disfunctioning (Ahola, 2007). According to Burnout can more often lead to headaches, muscular pain, gastrointestinal problems, hyperventilation, chronic fatigue, sexual problems, sleep disorders, cardiovascular disorders (Kahili, 1988; Vladut & Kállay, 2010). Among frequent occupational impairments are mental, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular disorders (von Känel, Bellingrath & Kudielka, 2008; Melamed, Shirom, Toker, Berliner, & Shapira, 2006; Pruessner, Hellhammer, &

Kirschbaum, 1999; Schulz, Kirschbaum, Pruessner, & Hellhammer, 1998; Toker, Shirom, Shapira, Berliner, & Melamed, 2005). Moreover, burnout can also lead to other symptoms. Ali Mofareh Assiri and Hassan M. A. Al-Musa (2015) revealed in their study that teachers have health problems regards “asthma or chest problem (20.8%), eyesight problems (15.4%), allergies (17.4%), skin problems (12%), the heart or blood pressure problems (11.32%), cough for more than 3 weeks, coughed up blood or had any unexplained weight loss or fever (9.6%), mental illness, psychological or psychiatric problem (7.8%), hearing problems (6.5%), drug or alcohol problem (2.3%), history of hepatitis or jaundice (1.6%)” (p.22).

Different research work found burnout with depressive symptomatology and sleep disorders (Sonnenschein, Sorbi, van Doornen, Schaufeli, & Maas, 2007; Ahola & Hakanen, 2007), anxiety disorders and substance abuse (Ahola, 2007). Fury and frustration, due to the individual’s inability to achieve the established goals, lack of resources, and personal control over work processes represent burnout from the emotional side at work (Maslach & Leiter, 1997).

However, almost all studies espouse view that permanent lack of time is an initial component of impact of intensification on teachers’ work and life (Apple, 1986; Apple &

Jungck, 1996; Bartlett, 2002; Campbell & Neill, 1994; Gitlin, 2001; Hargreaves, 1992, 1994;


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 17 Hargreaves & Goodson, 1996; Levin & Riffel, 2000; Vandenberghe & Huberman, 1999).

According to the Ballet et. al. (2006), lack of time may emerge not only during the school day but also after the working day. Especially it happens with women because, except “official”

work, they should also perform work about the house (Apple, 1986).

There is an unambiguous relationship between intensification and its impact on teachers (Bartlett, 2002; Byrne, 1999; Helsby, 1999; Leithwood et al, 1999; Huberman, Little &

McLaughlin, 1993; Woods, 1999). Kelchtermans (1993) conceptualized “personal interpretative framework”, which means that teacher reflect on his/her experience, try to understand a situation that appeared in the workplace and undertake it (Kelchtermans, 1993, 1996).

Ballet et. al. (2006) said that one of the consequences of intensification is the adoption of one's own professional identity; this means how teachers begin to think of themselves as professionals. He identifies two main paradigms in this framework. Firstly, the perception of his\herself as a teacher: including personal belief, professional self, and professional identity.

And second, is the subjective point of view on teaching: teacher’s core of knowledge and belief in teaching. Ballet et. al. (2006) highlights the importance of the personal interpretative

framework, as it impacts on all the changes in the education and how it perceived and valued.

Because complex and contradictory answers of teachers illustrate that different people understand changes differently, one teacher may interpret it as a stimulus for professional growth, as well as other teachers may “perceive it as a real “attack” on their professional self”

(Ballet et. al., 2006, p. 213). Moreover, if teachers have a highly negative self-evaluation, it may cause a highly negative perception of teachers’ toward their workability, they may perceive school as an unhappy place to work, and to feel powerless (Yu et al., 2015).

The failure to make any changes in the field of education can lead to conflict or ambiguity (Byrne, 1999; Rudow, 1999; Smylie, 1999). Gloria Penrice (2011) showed in her


study that teachers were "managed professionals", from which it was expected that they corresponded to existing organizational methods. The main goal of this was that the teaching was conducted more efficiently. However, the philosophy of teaching, accumulated through their careers and theoretical knowledge gained from professional training, continued to dominate their teaching beliefs and values. They sought to remain committed to their child- centered philosophy and therefore were not ready to compromise their beliefs and standards (Easthope & Easthope, 2000; Woods & Jeffrey, 2002). However, in practice, teachers realized that the purpose of such methods is control, and not an improvement of education. The strong disappointment that much effort and time was spent on work pushed them to conscious

counteraction. The study showed that discipline of this kind can lead not only to positive results but also to individual forms of resistance (Penrice, 2011, p.110).

Some research studies indicated an ambiguity of intensification (Troman, 1997) since the teachers simultaneously adhered to their own concept of teaching and accepted the changes introduced by the government. A new format of teaching, new types of tasks, new

responsibilities - all this created working pressure and increased intensification “'more and more was taken on, while more and more was expected of the individual” (Troman, 1997, p.


Previous studies have almost exclusively focused on the specific period of time (end of 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century). However, starting from 2010 there were numerous changes in technology (Boehm, 2006), economy (Barreto, Makihira & Riahi, 2003;

Nauright, 2004; Malone & Laubacher, 1999), history (Friga, Bettis & Sullivan, 2003; Piketty, 2015), therefore, most parts of research address the need for investigation of central

phenomenon from 2010. It is conceivable that findings from previous studies had been changed in that period of time.


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 19 Moreover, although research has illuminated the issue of intensification, its’ nature, causes and effects of western context no study to date has examined the intensification of teachers’ in Kazakhstani context. Intensification influences negatively teachers’ practices, and thus students learning. Therefore it is an important topic to pay attention. And for that reason, this research may be considered the first step towards a more profound understanding of intensification of teachers’ in Astana and fill a gap in the body of knowledge.

Conclusion of the Chapter

The reviewed literature showed that intensification is one of the most sensitive concepts where abuse of workers’ rights can emerge. Lack of time for proper rest during the working day, including the inability to go to lunch; Lack of time to improve one’s own skills; chronic and constant overload; lack of time for communication with other people, which leads to a suspension from the generally accepted norms and rules; reduction in the quality of work performed due to time savings; forced diversification of expertise due to staff shortages are the main symptoms of intensification. Intensification is closely connected with the gender issues of women’s rights, which means that over the time the persistence of people’s skills lost its’

meaning and lead to the decrease of teachers’ autonomy and as a consequence the role of the teaching profession. Less “down time” during the working day for professional growth, a great amount of tasks in short periods of time, teachers’ dependence on opinions of experts and low self-esteem contributes to teachers’ intensification. Policy-makers, school administrators, state representatives or government use teachers as a tool in their hands for implementation of new reforms and as a result, teachers have more tasks and fewer resources for performing activities.

Intensification may be caused by teachers themselves, by parents, by school administration and by school characteristics like class size and lesson duration. Tasks like curriculum pacing and alignment, data analysis, ESOL instruction, inclusion instruction, instructional materials development, organizational system management, tutoring, and vertical


articulation which teachers perform can also be a source of the increase of intensification.

Moreover a reduction in the amount of financial assistance for educational activities, the transition from the normative base of assessment to the criterion basis, the change of

administrative structures of schools in which teachers worked, and the increase in the number of students may affect teachers and increase also a feeling of pressure and resistance to perform work with “goodwill”. Teachers may feel negative emotions like demotivation, stress,

insecurity, doubt or disappointment even talking about positive things. Moreover, the reviewed literature showed that intensification had a great impact on teachers’ health. The one way to solve this issue is by working collaboratively and creatively. Intensification also influences on teachers’ professional identity understanding and sometimes creates ambiguity.

The knowledge gained from the literature review will form the framework for the research methodology, which will be described in detail in the next chapter.




This research explores the nature of intensification of teachers and the way it influences teachers’ work and life in the IB school in Astana. It also aimed to find out factors that increase intensification in the school. In order to answer the Research Questions of the study, I

conducted a qualitative study with the interpretative approach.

In this chapter I describe and comment the reason of choosing the research design, site and sample selection and data collection; and also I set out the procedures used of for data analysis and describe ethical considerations.

Research Design

To describe teacher intensification and its influence on teachers’ work in Kazakhstan and to raise it from the teachers’ voices, I conducted a qualitative study using interpretative approach. According to Creswell (2014), the qualitative research investigates the problem and promotes the researcher for the in-depth cognition of the central phenomenon.

In qualitative studies in which you both describe individuals and identify themes, a rich, complex picture emerges. From this complex picture, you make an interpretation of the meaning of the data by reflecting on how the findings relate to existing research; by stating a personal reflection about the significance of the lessons learned during the study; or by drawing out larger, more abstract meanings. (Creswell, p.32)

It means that the main strength of qualitative-interpretative approach that it gives me the opportunity to see not the figures but to understand what is the intensification or how teachers understand this concept, who or what is the reason of escalation or de-escalation of the intensification of the teacher.

Within Qualitative Research design, I employed Case Study method. According to Punch case study is a “kind of research that allows you to study a particular situation or several


situations in more detail” (Punch, 1998, p.150). The difference of school that was chosen as a site for the research is that it is the only one IB school that created unique roles for teachers such as horizontal planning leader and academic leader. Thereby this case was very interesting for me, because “its strategic value lies in its ability to draw attention to what can be learned from the single case” (as cited in Glesne, p.22).

According to a case study design, I used (1) semi-structured open-ended interviews, (2) non-participant “one-day” observation; and (3) document analysis.

Site Selection

I conducted this research in a school which follows International Baccalaureate program. After visiting different international schools, international conferences, I discovered that one of the main issues is the problem of the workload of teachers in schools, which transferred to the International Baccalaureate program face teachers’ burnout, changing the place of work, leaving the profession or to the decision of school administrators to refuse this program. I found this situation very similar to the Kazakhstani context, as educational system is in the process of change. Therefore on the example of the IB school in Astana, I wanted to explore in-depth the issue of intensification and its effects on teachers’ work and life.

In the IB school where I conducted the study, there are two programs: Diploma

Program (DP) and Middle Years Program (MYP). Students enter the school on the basis of the results of the competitive selection. Education begins with the 7th grade. In Middle Years school students study four years (7-10 grades). There are three languages of instruction Kazakh, Russian and English. One of the main differences from the state program is its

structure, where in the center is a student. High school education lasts two years (11-12 grades) and the main language of instruction is English. The differences and commonalities between State program and IB can be seen in the Table 3. (p.49).


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 23 This study was a backyard research (Glesne, 2015) for me, as I have been working at the chosen school as a coordinator of the Global Context, collaborating with teachers and assisting in the implementation of various components of the IB program. Currently, I am on maternity leave.

The advantage of it is that the findings of the research can be useful in my professional life; I had my own internal motivation in research conduction as it connects my working experience too, and moreover, I have relatively easy access to school and people, who are working there. Creswell states that “qualitative researchers need experience in field studies in which they practice gathering information in a setting and learning the skills of observing or interviewing individuals” (Creswell, p.34). Therefore, I am very interested in the influence on the quality of implementation by teachers of core parts of the IB programme as it closely connected with the students’ ability to understand teaching material and to complete all tasks that IB requires.

But at the same time, my participants may have experienced confusion about

identifying the role I am playing during the interviews (Glesne, 2015). Also, my research may have created ethical or political dilemmas because teachers may feel guilty or anxious after the interviews or observation. Therefore, in order to avoid possible inconveniences, I did my all best in conducting the research with clear open eyes, behaving only as a researcher and making necessary actions for anonymity and confidentiality of research participants.

Sample Selection

As the central phenomenon of my study is teachers’ intensification, I decided to choose teachers as participants of the study. It was people who were able to give the real information about the type of work they do, their feelings, their health and their attitudes because it could help me to answer my research questions of the study.


At the beginning of data collection, I understand that qualitative research may be time- consuming in conducting in-depth interviews with all participants, because “collecting

qualitative data and analyzing takes considerable time, and the addition of each individual or site only lengthen the time” (Creswell, 2014, p. 231). And for that purpose, I divided

participants into main and secondary participants. Another reason was to exclude personal situations in work and life of main participants by cross-referencing their answers with the answers of secondary participants; and also to avoid bias in answers. I also planned to conduct focus group interview with secondary participants, however, the majority of them, who agreed to be interviewed asked me to organize face-to-face interviews. The difference between main and secondary participants was only in the number of conducted interviews and number of questions.

Moreover, in order to explore the issue of intensification from different perspectives, school administrators also were included as participants. Creswell (2014) notes that for a qualitative study, a small number of participants are needed, as it will allow conducting the deep investigation of the central phenomenon, where one participant of research can provide a wide range of material for study. Thus I had two main participants, four secondary and two administrators of the school. The total number of participants was eight people.

Sampling Strategies. I employed purposeful nonprobability sampling strategy in order to select the participants of this study. According to Creswell (2014) in purposeful sampling, the researcher deliberately chooses people and sites to learn or understand the central

phenomenon. This choice favorably affects the study, as it gives a more extensive picture of what is happening. And nonprobability sampling was used because I was taking into

consideration the availability of teachers in time to take part in the research.

After identifying potential interviewees, in order to prevent bias in participants’

answers, I chose main participants according to specific criteria: years of work, gender, and


AND LIFE IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE SCHOOL IN ASTANA 25 age. First of all, as women can be more emotionally sensitive than men, gender played an

important role, because it could give me information on whether it influences intensification or not (Apple, 1986). Work experience was important for me in order to capture opinions not only experienced teachers’, but also novice teachers, and I supposed that experienced teachers less face intensification than novice teachers due to their professional skills. And finally, age was significant in exploring the question: do teachers face intensification because of their age? In addition, the participation in the study was voluntary.

Among all participants, I found two participants who meet the criteria and were chosen on the role of main participants. In addition, I included four people as secondary participants.

And two vice-principals were also included as participants of the study.

Table 1. The sample of the study

Teachers as Main participants Names



(Male | Female) Age Overall work


Ainur F 52 25

Bolat M 33 8

Teachers as Secondary participants

Erzhan M 59 30

Gulnur F 30 7

Kairat M 48 20

Zarina F 57 30

School Administrators

Aigerim F 38 15

Zhanar F 62 40

Data collection

In this part, I provide an explanation of data collection processes including data collection instruments.

Interview. As it was mentioned above, in order to explore possible effects of

intensification on teacher’s work and life at the IB school, as an instrument for data collection interview was used. I conducted one-on-one semi-structured and open-ended interviews with each participant. Kahn and Cannell (1957) describe this method as “a conversation with a


Table 1. The sample of the study
Table 2. Interview information   Participant
Table 3. Differences and commonalities in requirements

Ақпарат көздері