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Parents of Typically Developing Children Delima Beisembayeva


Academic year: 2023

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Толық мәтін

Given that inclusive education is a relatively new concept in Kazakhstan, there has been limited research on parental perceptions. The aim of the current study is to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of parents of typically developing children towards inclusive education. Overall, the study provided insight into Kazakhstani parents' attitudes towards inclusive education and highlighted its need.


  • Background Information
    • History of Inclusive Education
    • Inclusive Education in Kazakhstan
    • Parents as One of the Main Stakeholders
  • Parental views on Inclusion
  • Statement of the Purpose
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Significance of the Study
  • Key terms

In the 1990s, the concept of inclusive education expanded beyond the education of students with special needs to encompass a broader vision of diversity and inclusion in the classroom. One of the possible obstacles to the implementation of inclusive education is the attitude of parents towards the inclusion of students with special needs in regular classes. Inclusive education helps promote social inclusion and reduces the stigmatization of students with special needs or other differences.

Literature Review

  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Definition of Inclusive Education
  • Parental Views on Inclusion: Worldwide and Kazakhstan
    • Worldwide
    • Kazakhstan
  • Parental Concerns about Inclusive Education
  • Factors that May Influence Parental Views
  • Inclusion and Typically Developing Children
  • Summary

It is important for educators and policy makers to work with parents to promote positive attitudes towards inclusive education (Salend, 2008). Parents of typically developing children considered children's social development as the biggest benefit of inclusive education. According to research, some parents of typically developing children may have unfavorable attitudes towards inclusive education.

The results of the study by Alzhanova (2021) on the attitudes of parents and teachers towards inclusive education in Kazakhstan support the evidence that Kazakhstani parents have mainly positive attitudes towards inclusive education. The study found that parents had positive attitudes towards inclusive education, but also expressed concern about the quality of education their children would receive in inclusive classrooms. This section looks at studies on the factors that can influence parents' perceptions of inclusive education.

According to Stoiber et al. 1998), parental perceptions of inclusive education can be influenced by several issues. Positive attitudes towards inclusive education may be more widespread among parents who are actively involved in their children's education (Palmer et al., 2001). Parents participating in the educational process can directly observe the benefits of inclusive education and the development of their child.

The study by Vlachou et al. 2016) examined parents' opinions about the effects of inclusive education on their normally developing children.


  • Introduction
  • Research Design and Rationale
  • Research Site
  • Sample and Sampling Procedures
  • Data Collection Instruments
  • Data Collection Procedures
  • Data Analysis Methods
  • Ethical Concerns and Risks of Research
  • Summary

The interviews were conducted at locations arranged for the convenience of the respondents where they were. The principles of the confidentiality of the participants and possible risks of the study were discussed with the participants. At the end of the interview, the participant's contribution was mentioned, and the researcher expressed gratitude for their participation.

This provided a deeper understanding of the parents' views, experiences and perceptions of inclusive education. Merriam and Tisdell (2016) defined coding as “assigning some form of shorthand label to various aspects of your data so that you can easily retrieve specific pieces of the data”. Data interpretation: Data interpretation involves making sense of the data by identifying underlying meanings and patterns (Creswell, 2012).

The purpose of the consent form was to assure the participants that their right to privacy and confidentiality was taken into account in all aspects of the research and the information would only be used in the study. To minimize the risk, the interview time, place and date were arranged for the convenience of the respondents. The method chapter of this study on perceptions of parents of typically developing children on inclusive education provided a detailed description of the research design, data collection methods and data analysis methods used in the study.

Overall, the methods chapter provided a thorough and open account of the research process, allowing readers to judge the accuracy and reliability of the findings presented in the next chapter.


  • Introduction
  • The Findings
  • Views on Inclusion
    • Knowledge of Inclusive Education
    • Parental Attitudes
  • Theme 2: Challenges Schools Face
    • Barriers
    • Recommendations
  • Theme 3: Effects of Inclusive Education on Typically Developing Children
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • Summary

Out of eight participants, two work in education, and their jobs require a basic knowledge of inclusive education. I think it is better when children with disabilities can get equal education and not feel left out. If typically developing children are taught to be kind to children with disabilities, it will be easier for children with special needs.

It is important to note that the two parents had negative attitudes towards the implementation of inclusive education. It is not because I am the mother of a typically developing child, but because I am more concerned with children with disabilities. They believe that schools need more professional teaching staff so that inclusive education can become a reality.

Some participants had never heard of inclusive education before and felt that this should change. According to the results, half of the respondents did not know what "inclusive education" is and needed an explanation.


  • Introduction
  • Findings
  • Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
  • Conclusion

According to Alquraini and Gut (2012), lack of understanding of the principles and practices of inclusive education among educators, parents and the wider community can be a significant barrier to its implementation. The definition of inclusive education and what it means must be understood by both educators and schools. Mittler (2000) stated that the media can be useful in promoting awareness and understanding of inclusive education.

The study by Soodak et al. 2002) found that parents are more likely to support inclusive education when they feel that. A study by Farrell and Ainscow (2002) showed that some parents may have neutral attitudes towards inclusion due to previous negative experiences with inclusive education. Lack of training and professional development for teachers can be a significant barrier to inclusive education (Chitiyo et al., 2019).

On the other hand, parents with bad experiences or unfavorable opinions and attitudes towards people with disabilities may be less open to inclusive education. Parents' relationships with educators and other parents may also influence their opinions about inclusive education. Second, external factors such as television, the Internet, and acquaintances may be the reason why parents have specific opinions about inclusive education.

Applying Bandura's social cognitive theory to the study of parents' perceptions of inclusive education provides a number of important insights.



The main sources of information about inclusive education mentioned by respondents were television, the Internet and acquaintances. Participants expressed concerns about the unpreparedness of schools, the need for more inclusion professionals, and the lack of conditions and resources. This provides insight into another concern raised by parents' responses: overcrowded classrooms where the quality of education is not the best because teachers are unable to provide equal treatment to everyone, especially children with disabilities.

Another concern was the need for more financial support given the current evolving state of Kazakhstan's inclusive education. Teacher training and special education were identified as essential factors to be considered on the road to successful inclusion. Similar findings were found in a study by Mokaleng and Möwes (2020), which found that lack of resources, such as finance, staff and support services, can be a significant barrier to inclusive education.

Another significant finding that emerges from this study is that parents believed that inclusion would have a more positive than negative effect on their non-disabled children. They noted that becoming more empathetic, compassionate and understanding are among the benefits of inclusive education. Mortimore and Zsolnai (2015) argue that inclusive education can give typically developing children the chance to connect with students with.

They identified cruelty to children and possible bullying as major problems and recommended educational conversations for students, parents and teachers.

Strengths and Limitations of the Study

A second potential limitation is that parents from different backgrounds or parents with less access to information about inclusive education may need to be better represented in research. Another concern is that by taking parents' views of typically developing children as the normative or dominant perspective, research may reinforce misconceptions about the abilities and needs of children with disabilities. Research on parents' attitudes and perceptions about inclusive education could focus more on attitudes and perceptions than on practical information about the implementation of inclusive education in schools and communities.

As a result, the findings may be less useful for teachers and decision-makers seeking to advance inclusive education.


Some parents may be concerned that their child will not receive as much attention in an inclusive classroom or that their child's education will suffer from the inclusion of children with disabilities. Teachers and other education professionals need to receive training from practitioners and decision makers on how to successfully implement inclusive education strategies. Teachers must have the essential knowledge and skills to meet the different needs of each student in their classroom.

Working closely with parents will help educators and policy makers address their concerns and educate them about the benefits of inclusive education.

Suggestions for Future Research

Explore how inclusive education influences the sociability and emotional growth of all students, including typically developing children.

Concluding Thoughts

Attitudes of parents and teachers towards inclusive education in Kazakhstan, Inclusive education in a POST-SOVIET context: A case of Kazakhstan. Attitudes of parents regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in Greek educational settings, Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education, 2 (3). Issues affecting the implementation of inclusive education practices in selected secondary schools in the Omaheke region of Namibia.

2019) Parental attitudes towards inclusive education: a study conducted in early years inclusive mainstream schools in Bangkok. The role of parents in the education of their children with special needs in sub-Saharan Africa: A critical review of the literature. The benefits that can reasonably be expected to result from this study are the sharing of what is known and what is not known about inclusive education, which may lead to a better understanding of the perceptions of parents of typically developing children about inclusive education.

The following questions will help me learn more about your views on inclusive education in Kazakhstan. Inclusive education is education for people with special needs where they learn in the same class as typically developing children. This work influenced my knowledge of inclusive education, and also in the past there was separation, children with disabilities were taught separately.

Ақпарат көздері


Appendix A Informed Consent Form Investigating EFL Teacher Trainers’ Practices and Views of Language Teaching and Developing Learners’ Communicative Competence in Kazakhstan