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PDF Nazira Shabdenova Submitted in partial ... - Nazarbayev University


Academic year: 2023

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If the submission contains material for which I do not own copyright, I confirm that I have obtained the unrestricted permission of the copyright owner to grant NU the rights required by this license, and that such third-party-owned material is clearly identified and recognized within the text or content of the submission. NU will clearly identify my name(s) as the author(s) or owner(s) of the Submission, and will not make any changes to your Submission other than as permitted by this license. This thesis aims to explore the breakthrough and challenges of the CLIL approach and how teachers balance and integrate English in CLIL scenarios.

Нәтижелер қатысушылардың көпшілігінің CLIL әдісін оң қабылдайтынын және оны мұғалімдердің мотивациясы, перспективалары мен біліктілігі сияқты жақсартулармен байланыстыратынын көрсетті. Бұл дипломдық жұмыс CLIL тәсілінің жетістігі мен қиындықтарын және мұғалімдердің CLIL сценарийінде тілді мазмұнмен қалай теңестіретінін және біріктіретінін зерттейді. Бұл зерттеу CLIL әдісіндегі нәтижелер мен қиындықтарды, сондай-ақ мұғалімдердің CLIL жазуында ағылшын тілін қалай теңестіретінін және біріктіретінін зерттеді.


As a result, trilingual education in Kazakhstan became “one of the most important trends in the education system” (MoES, 2013, p. 4). CLIL is considered one of the most important strategies for achieving ambitious goals. In the NIS context, CLIL was defined as one of the. important part of the trilingual education policy.

Then the pilot schools as NIS were expected to provide support for other Kazakhstani schools with the gradual implementation of the CLIL approach (AEO NIS, 2013). The aim of the study is to investigate which breakthroughs and challenges teachers face in implementing CLIL approach. The fourth chapter deals with the methodology of the study and this is followed by the findings chapter.

Literature Review

Secondly, the acquisition and knowledge of literacy skills in the mother tongue of students is prioritized rather than the implementation of the CLIL approach. Curriculum integration is one of the main challenges faced by teachers recently introduced to the CLIL program (San Isidro, 2018). Therefore, it is important to examine the Kazakhstan context in the issue of the disjunction of CLIL practices for future improvements.

Karabassova (2018) conducted research on the top-down implementation of CLIL in the NIS network. In the first term, they were reacquainted with the objectives of the research and the ethical considerations. Only one of the participants said that she needed more time to analyze the implementation of CLIL.

This part of the 4 C's framework looks at the role of language in their teaching. Based on the teachers' own experiences, they gave some recommendations on how to improve the implementation of the CLIL approach. The final part of the chapter focuses on recommendations for effective CLIL implementation.

Regarding the first research question, the results revealed some breakthroughs related to the implementation of the CLIL approach. Despite the positive attitude towards the use of the CLIL approach, the participants honestly shared their challenges during the implementation of CLIL in Most of the respondents stated that they do not have sufficient language skills to teach STEM subjects in English.

Moreover, most teachers indicated that the level of English among students in the classrooms is different. The rapid and unsystematic implementation of the trilingual education policy is one of the challenges identified by the current research. In this part of the chapter the 4C framework is used to answer the research question.

Most of the current study respondents have been using the CLIL approach for two years. First, the present study revealed that most of the teachers have a positive view about CLIL implementation.

Figure 1. The 4Cs conceptual framework (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010).
Figure 1. The 4Cs conceptual framework (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010).



There are some specific aspects of subject content for example and teachers familiar with the CLIL approach will be able to open up these specific details. Further analysis of the data revealed that one of the breakthroughs associated with CLIL implementation is outlook. Most of the participants said that they care more about the acquisition of the content when they are.

Most of the participants said that the course overlapped with work at school and that it was challenging to learn effectively. One of the participants said that the pace of implementation of such policies should be slower to better learn the approach, despite the fact that the CLIL approach is very good. It is difficult to give a lot of additional information about news in the world, since in the master classes we have to achieve the subject's content goals and consider it in English.

One of the participants starts the lesson by giving easy tasks and then concentrates on tasks that are more difficult. Both the respondents implicitly mention the cognitive part of the CLIL where chemistry teachers. One of the respondents gives information from books, for example material about Elon Musk.

One respondent said that four language skills such as speaking, writing, reading and listening should be developed in CLIL. At the beginning of the lesson, I talked with the English teacher about the students' level of English. It's like if you give the name of the ingredients in English, then they can create their own dish (Participant 1, 8 December 2020).

One of the participants recommended exchanging experiences with other schools such as NIS in the form of courses or training.


In line with the research questions, this chapter discusses the possible explanation of the findings presented in the previous sections and its relation to the relevant literature. Most participants mentioned an increase not only in students' motivation to learn a FL, but also in teachers'. Five types of participant challenges were found: English language proficiency, online learning, CLIL training, trilingual education and lack of teaching material.

Thus, some participants in the current study suggest the use of CLIL in classrooms with intensive English language studies. The findings also showed that the majority of participants were not satisfied with professional development programs focused on English language courses and CLIL training for teachers. The findings show that some participants were dissatisfied with the outcome of the language course, probably because their anxiety and language deficiency in communicating with students in English remained.

One unexpected finding was that a study participant attended a pre-teaching program at a university to teach physics in English. In addition, the findings showed that the teachers only attended 72 hours of CLIL training, which was part of the language course and showed an overview of the CLIL approach. We will then discuss the findings based on this framework to analyze the presence of interconnections between the components of the framework.

The survey participants expressed great concern about the role of content in the lesson and most of them emphasized that they prioritize content. Most respondents indicate that they work with professional terminology during class, namely BICS. This finding shows a similarity with the third element of the language trypt, namely language through learning.

However, it is clear that further training should take into account detailed explanations of the 4C framework for effective implementation of CLIL.


The interview questions were semi-structured and the main concepts of CLIL and other terms related to this approach were not mentioned during the interview. Because the aim of the current research was to understand the level of knowledge about this approach and how they are implementing it, therefore the semi-structured interviews considered more implicit questions about CLIL. The result of the analysis showed that few respondents considered the implicit correlation between content, cognition, communication and culture.

However, most of the respondents mentioned that they only focused on content objectives during the lesson due to discussed challenges associated with CLIL. The results of the current research have several important implications for policy makers, in-service teacher program administrators, and teachers in Kazakhstan. The present study produced results in terms of breakthroughs and challenges related to implementation of CLIL.

The teaching staff in this program should therefore have high language skills and proper understanding of CLIL approach. These teaching resources should consider the role of language and interconnectedness of four blocks of the Coyle (2008) 4C framework. The implementation of Trilingual education is starting in mainstream schools and the subject of the current research is considered relevant for further research.

Lexico-grammar in the essays of CLIL and non-CLIL students: Error analysis of written production. Scientific performance and mapping of the term STEM in education on the web of science. A New Kazakhstan in a New World: Speech by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Mr.

Study Title: Analysis of CLIL Practices in a Secondary School in Astana DESCRIPTION: You are invited to participate in a research study to explore the advances and challenges faced by teachers in implementing the integrated language learning approach of content (CLIL) and how they are balancing content and language in mainstream school in Astana. The topic of my current study is "Analysis of CLIL practices in a secondary school in Astana". Additionally, I would love to hear how you are balancing and integrating language into the CLIL scenario.


Figure 1. The 4Cs conceptual framework (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010).
Table 1. Information on study participants

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