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Without those people, I would not have been able to accomplish my academic goals in the timely and qualitative dimension I always strived for


Academic year: 2023

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Толық мәтін

The director's perspectives on the role of NGOs towards the inclusive education reforms in Almaty. The qualitative study explored TVET directors' perspectives on the role of NGOs in inclusive education reform in Almaty.

Introductory Orientation

  • Introduction
  • Background of the Study
  • Problem Statement
  • Research Questions
  • The Objectives of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Definitions of Main Concepts
    • Non-Governmental Organizations
    • Inclusive Education
    • Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Chapter Outline

The significance of the study is to fill the gap in the understanding of the role of NGOs in relation to inclusive educational reforms in TVET by analyzing the experiences of TVET leaders, barriers and opportunities for collaboration. The above definitions consist in the idea that inclusive education must be available to everyone, not just to specific groups.

Literature Review

  • Introduction
  • Conceptualizing Inclusive Education
  • Defining the Concept of Non-Governmental Organization
  • The Role of NGOs in the Implementation of Inclusive Education
    • International Perspective
    • Regional Perspective
    • Local Perspective
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Conclusion

The path on which Kazakhstan successfully implements the policy of inclusive education is hindered by misunderstanding and distorted understanding of the concept of inclusive education. According to Makoella and Burmistrov (2021), these ambitious goals could be part of the political agenda for the rapid development of inclusive education. These barriers allow NGOs to become #change agents” in terms of implementing inclusive education (Schuster & Kolleck, 2021).

The role of NGOs in implementing inclusive education varies widely around the world and is extremely fragmented. The findings of Srivastava's (2015) study also revealed the important role of NGOs in the implementation of inclusive education as they remain the key actors in it. In Kazakhstan and internationally, NGOs are considered important stakeholders in the field of education and inclusive education in particular. .

The authors of the study conclude that NGOs have an impact on promoting the rights of people with disabilities and inclusive educational practices, as well as having an impact at the political level. It is assumed that these parties may need to build effective and credible cooperation to address the challenges of implementing inclusive education in TVETs in Kazakhstan.

Research Methodology

  • Introduction
  • Research Paradigm
  • Research Approach
  • Research Design
  • Site and Sample
  • Data Collection Instruments
  • Data Collection Procedure
  • Data Analysis
  • Interview Analysis
  • Trustworthiness
  • Ethical Consideration
  • Conclusion

This study aims to analyze how principals of 5 TVETs (3 public and 2 Private TVET institutions) in Almaty perceive NGOs' role in terms of implementing inclusive education reform in TVETs. In this case, the researcher cannot be confident that the participants represent the population, which is one of the limitations of this study. The first set of questions allowed the researcher to delve into the professional background and qualifications of the participants.

With the description of the study, I asked for the interview on a day, time and mode (online/offline) convenient for each participant. After coding all interviews, the researcher returned to the data to add, delete, correct, and recode. To maintain the reliability of this study, member checking was used as a technique to increase the reliability of the study results.

A review of the original Russian interviews and their translations into English was undertaken to ensure the reliability of the study. To prevent potential research methodological limitations such as bias and subjectivity of the researcher, methods of data collection were carefully designed and chosen.



How Do Principals Conceptualize and Enact Inclusive Education Reform in TVET? 51

  • Knowledge of Policy on Inclusive Education
  • Practice Dimension of Inclusive Education
  • Cultural Aspect of Inclusive Education

Representatives of public TVET institutes, participant no. 2 and participant no. 3, showed a high level of understanding and definition of the concept of inclusive education. The comparison of definitions and the tracked emotions of the participants showed differences in the perception of the phenomenon of inclusive education between public and private. Thirdly, the structures of inclusive education at the TVET institution no. 3 is not in the legislation, but in practice it is implemented differently.

The participants in the study shared their thoughts on the implementation of inclusive education in practice. They also shared their opinion about the obstacles they encounter in the implementation of inclusive education. The participants also highlighted the most pressing barriers for them which, in their opinion, hinder the practical implementation of inclusive education.

Cultural attitude is one of the important dimensions for the successful implementation of inclusive education in all educational institutions. All the participants note that the biggest barrier to the implementation of inclusive education is society's perception.

What Are Principals’ Knowledge/Experiences about NGOs and Their Potential for

  • Knowledge of NGOs
  • Experience with NGO

These opinions may mean inconsistency in the implementation of inclusive education, as well as a lack of support from various stakeholders, such as parents, teachers, the state, business organizations and non-governmental organizations. All participants emphasize that any cooperation is important for them, their students and their development. Despite the fact that most participants claim that they do not work with NGOs within their VET institutions, de facto they work with some in practice.

Participant no. 3 tells about some of the foundations with which they currently cooperate in the field of inclusive education. He mentions the charitable foundation "Azamat Auleti" - a private non-profit foundation whose goal is to increase the participation of children with special educational needs in education (kindergartens, schools, vocational education and training and universities) and social protection. Support for young people, the creation of social projects and civil initiatives, and the creation of a competitive professional and analytical center are the objectives of the Foundation's activities.

The participants showed little awareness of the NGOs operating in Kazakhstan regarding various social issues in general, and inclusive education in particular. This may lead to a lack of sustained targeted action towards inclusive education in TVET and to misuse of resources (human, informational, financial) that may be made available by NGOs.

What Are the Possible Challenges (if any) and Opportunities of Working with NGOs

  • Challenges
  • Opportunities

The participants in the research pointed out the main challenges they face when implementing inclusive education in their organizations. Study participants mention several main challenges they face in developing inclusive education in their institutions for TIU. However, participant no. 3 says that it is impossible to implement inclusive education in a TVET institution if there is no deep understanding of the phenomenon and cohesion.

If something breaks somewhere in this chain [inclusive education], we can assume that there is no inclusive education per se. Thus, the participants realize that there is a lack of cooperation and have a deep understanding of the importance of cooperation for the cause of inclusive education. Moreover, all participants showed interest, openness and willingness to cooperate with NGOs in the direction of creating inclusive education.

Finally, participants highlighted the importance of building cohesion on inclusive education with employers, NGOs and TVET institutions. In general, school leaders are positive and enthusiastic about collaboration with NGOs involved in inclusive education.


Thirdly, I will invite employers so that they can also participate and hear that it is worth working with such children, it is worth hiring them. I think that in general we will be open to cooperation because I have noticed that this is such an urgent problem and unfortunately there are many such children now. Moreover, there is no resistance and prejudices about NGOs per se, and conversely they feel that there is potential and opportunities to engage and support each other in order to prepare society and other stakeholders for inclusive education.


  • Introduction
  • Restating the Research Questions and Objectives
    • Research Questions
    • The Research Objectives
  • Discussion of Findings
    • How Do Principals Conceptualize and Enact Inclusive Education Reform in
    • What are the Possible Challenges (if any) and Opportunities of Working with
  • Conclusion

Exploring challenges (if any) and opportunities for collaboration with NGOs towards inclusive education in TVET. Firstly, it demonstrates the perception of the principles of the idea of ​​inclusive education in TVET. The survey respondents showed that they had relatively good knowledge about the definition of inclusive education.

Further, the representatives of the private AAP explained in their own words what inclusive education is. Study participants pointed to society as one of the most pressing challenges in implementing inclusive education. The respondents emphasized that they do not expect support from NGOs in terms of inclusive education.

Study respondents indicated a lack or limited knowledge of NGOs operating in general and inclusive education in particular. Thirdly, VET directors are open to receiving support and expertise from NGOs in terms of implementing inclusive education.

Conclusions and Recommendations


Summary of the Major Findings

Some of the respondents of the study have never thought of seeking any form of support from NGOs working in education and inclusive education. Based on the findings of the study, it is more reliable for TVETs to cooperate with the state in terms of inclusive education. It is uncertain whether this happens because of the low trust in NGOs, little awareness of what is available, or because NGOs in Kazakhstan mostly work for inclusion, not inclusive education.

Inclusive education is such a complex phenomenon that it is necessary to include all stakeholders in the implementation process – administration, teaching staff, employers, companies, non-governmental organizations and parents. TVET principals are aware of the lack of qualifications of their teachers regarding inclusive education in their educational institutions. In addition, they are looking for an expert who can help them and guide them through the process of implementing inclusive education in their institutions.

NGOs, change their practices and move together towards inclusive educational development in their educational organizations. Nevertheless, there is a great potential for future cooperation if NGOs become more active in especially inclusive education and cooperate closely with the state on the political level.


NGOs and TVET have the potential to “move from coexistence to long-term collaboration” (Lexow, 2003). TVET representatives should be more active in establishing new long-term collaborations with non-governmental organizations in the direction of inclusive education.

Limitations of the Study

Areas for Further Research

Conclusion of the Study

In Inclusive Education – A Global Agenda, edited by S. Eds) (1994) Environmental NGOs in global politics: connecting the local and the global. Inclusive education reform in Kazakhstan: grassroots civil society activism, International Journal of Inclusive Education. Between capacity development and contestation: a systematic review of inter- and non-governmental actors' engagement in inclusive education.

Inclusive education in developing countries: A closer look at its implementation in the last 10 years, Educational Review. THE ROLE OF NGOs TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION REFORM IN ALMATY VET INSTITUTIONS: PERSPECTIVE OF PRINCIPALS. The following questions will help me learn more about yours. perspective on the role of NGOs towards comprehensive education reform in VET.

THE ROLE OF NGOs IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN TVET INSTITUTIONS OF ALMATY: PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVES. DESCRIPTION: You are invited to participate in a research study investigating the role of NGOs in inclusive education in TVET institutions in Almaty.

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