Director of the MA Program at the School of Eurasian Humanities and Social Sciences, Nazarbayev University. This study explores the relationship between literature and social, historical, political and cultural themes in the literary works of the Kazakh writer Oralkhan Bȯkei. Among the Kazakh writers of the 1960s-1980s who were devoted to exploring the Kazakh countryside, Oralkhan Bȯkei is widely recognized as one of the most talented and interesting.
He was born on September 28, 1943 in the village of Shynn͡gghystai in the Qatonqaraghai region in the east. When he freed himself from the chains of Soviet ideology, he further ennobled the phenomenon of national consciousness. Most readings of Oralkhan Bȯkei after independence try to present him as a national hero who fought for the independence of the Kazakh nation.
Although the Soviet Union was created as an anti-imperial state, in the last two decades there has been a great deal of debate about the imperial nature of the Soviet Union. These values were elevated to the status of the main moral pillar of the Russian nation and theirs.
Hybridity in Bȯkei’ s works
In official statements it is often said that the essential role of the Soviet writer is to be a propagandist for Soviet objectives. According to Koćaoglu, there were specific characteristics for the Soviet positive hero who embodied the message of the Soviet state. The story also shows that the author's criticism of the past itself has an impure side.
The narrative expresses pity for Sarqyndy, who could not adapt to the new demands of the times. To young Darkhan, the sound of the train was like two strings of a dombyra 78. The sound of the train is not melodious as before, rather it is disturbing: 'Tůn.
She has no children and could not fulfill society's expectations and norms. While doing some research, he reads several disclaimers against the Soviet Union's agenda. From the beginning of the novel it can be seen that he is not a welcome person in that community.
Gorbachev, the new leader of the Communist Party, wanted to bring about economic reforms.
Representations of Soviet Modernity
Spivak was one of the scholars of the school of subaltern studies that emerged in South Asia. Bȯkei seems to scrutinize the modernization policies of the Soviet regime, which confused and degraded the cultural heritage of Kazakh society, claiming it to be backward. Douglas Northrop talks about the Communist Party's anti-religious campaign regarding Central Asian women.
The image of the bridge symbolizes Soviet power, which has an evil and demonic nature. Saying the word "bismillah" is very symbolic of embracing one's identity that was suppressed by Soviet power. The image of the bridge has a mostly negative connotation for the narrator and the characters.
The author also uses the symbol of AIQAI148 or LOUD YELL, which caused the avalanche. At the beginning of the novel, the author begins to identify the role of ideology in people's lives. The incessant shouting is associated with the leader of the village, who is the Soviet official.
One of the most important manifestations of the establishment of Soviet power in the Kazakh lands was through the railway. In the initial phase, this new identity and the hard work of Kazakh workers were celebrated and glorified. Depicting Darkhan's original perception of the building of the railway seems to intensify what the Soviet regime believed to be.
The ten fingers of the Kazakh are now playing on the railway; mind you, it would be as fast as riding a. One way we can see the descriptions of cities is in the author's contrast of urban and rural places. The city's promise of better education is scrutinized as a failed project.
The author outlines the discrepancy between modernization policies depending on the nationality of the people living in those places. The voices of the workers who built the railway are silenced and their work marginalised.
Representations of Nature
The same attitude can be observed from the view of the Russian Empire towards the Kazakh steppe and the people who inhabit it. After setting his stories in the villages of the Altai region, Oralkhan Bȯkei returns to tell the story of his fellow villagers again and again in all his works. Some animals were depicted as witnesses to the existence of Kazakh society and therefore sacred for preserving the memory of the past.
By portraying and contrasting two forms of life in the past and present, from the memory of the camel, the author laments the loss of Kazakh moral values that he sees primarily in the relationship between Kazakh society and the camel. The camel is an integral part of Kazakh identity that connects Bȯkei with the nomadic way of life of Kazakh people in the past that was lost with the death of the camel. One of the clearest examples of sublime nature in Bȯkei's works is represented by an image of a deer.
However, he exploits all the treasures of the forest and sells them to people who live in the cities and work in high official positions. The character of Yerik in Atau-Kere (1989) also stands for the ambitions of modern society. The Sovkhoz where everyone lives is a place of developed and modern technology, while Arshaly is a remote village at the foot of the mountain.
In the context of the Soviet scientific attitude to nature, one can assume the same tendencies to promote the human-centered view of nature in various populations of the USSR. I think he felt suspicious of the new system because of the similarity of the agenda behind Soviet power and the newly emerging political elite. One of his assumptions is that literature plays an important role in the process of "return" and the generation of anti-colonial resistance.
This work was not intended to investigate whether and to what extent the Soviet Union was an empire, but rather to examine Oralkhan Bȯkei's perception of the Soviet Union as an empire. This work was an attempt to analyze the individual author's perception of the Soviet Union and its modernization policy as a colonial power. For Bȯkei, the most painful experience is the loss of the private and inner sphere of Kazakh society.
He voices the unheard voice of the 'subordinates' – Kazakh villagers – who are ignored by the state. 34;“The language of the sword”: Aleksandr Bek, The Writers Union and Baurdzhan Momysh-uly in the battle for the memory of.