• Ешқандай Нәтиже Табылған Жоқ



Academic year: 2023



Толық мәтін

This research aims to examine how current recycling communication practices are implemented by Astana Akims and measure how well these practices contribute to citizen awareness of recycling issues and facilities in Astana. An effective recycling communication policy is needed to solve this problem, and this research conducted semi-structured interviews with Akimat officials and their contractors, citizens and eco-activists and a survey to learn more about existing communication tools. of recycling and their effectiveness. The results of our findings show that there is a lack of a recycling communication policy in Astana.

Furthermore, existing communication tools on recycling are ineffective and existing practices have limited impact on citizens' awareness.



The purpose of this study is to understand how recycling communication practices are implemented in Astana. This study also looked at recycling communication practices and how effective they have been based on the work of Lee and Krieger (2020) which has 6 different types of communication. In addition, this research examined the existing recycling communication tools used by the Akims of Astana.

To determine how effective existing recycling communication practices have been in Astana, we conducted a citizen survey and interviewed both eco-activists and citizens.

Problem Statement and Research Questions

First of all, this study analyzed how recycling communication is implemented in the capital city of Kazakhstan. We want to understand if the recycling communication carried out by Akimat reaches its target audience, thus the general research question: How effective is the existing recycling communication strategy in Akimat of Astana.

Research question #2: What are the recycling communication tools used by the Akims of Astana.

Implications and Importance of Study

We identified the tools Akimat and their contractors used to encourage citizens to recycle. Another important focus of our research is to investigate people's awareness of recycling as a result of recycling communication. We explored this through a review of the literature on recycling communication, global and regional practices, and present our findings through a specific research design and data collection methods.


  • Government Use of Communication as a Policy Tool
  • Global recycling communication tools
  • Citizen participation and engagement
  • Best citizen communication practices
  • Citizen participation challenges in recycling
  • Post-Soviet legacy in recycling and MSW
  • Current waste management legislative framework in Kazakhstan
  • The importance of media in the realization of communication policy in
  • Conceptual framework

The results regarding awareness show that the recycling program is unknown to a third of respondents. Previous research illustrates that participation can be influenced by the effectiveness of the recycling experience. Based on the results of other studies, recycling participation rates can be significantly affected by people's poor understanding of the program.

The second factor that influences people to recycle is the perception of the importance of the reasons for recycling. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides for the right of all citizens of the country to participate in political life. Government can demonstrate that it is attentive to community interests and concerns by involving residents in the policy-making process.

Karini (2008) identified the Czech Republic as one of the best practices of advanced citizen participation. According to a meta-analysis of drivers of recycling behavior, “the strongest predictors of recycling behavior among households were behavioral convenience, moral norms, information, and environmental concern” (Rousta et al., 2017, p. 8). The phase calls for the completion of the program, and this phase further focuses on assessing the sustainability of the modernization of municipal solid waste management in Kazakhstan.

The MEWR also clearly states the objectives of the Program of Modernization of MSW management for the years 2014–2050. An important role in the realization of communication policy in Kazakhstan, and not only, is the power of the mass media. To date, one of the effective instruments for realizing political communication in the country is the domestic media.

For example, acknowledging the public's decision-making role in the recycling process, thanking them for their participation through local newspapers" (Lee, Kreiger 2020, p. 8).

Table 1.  Summary of the literature review.
Table 1. Summary of the literature review.


  • Data
  • Methods
  • Analysis
  • Ethical considerations

To understand the effectiveness of the existing communication strategy, we also interviewed 5 eco-activists who are recycling experts. The respondents were between the ages of 18 and 70 and resided in one of the four districts of the city of Astana, such as Baikonur, Almaty, Saryraka and Esil districts. Districts of the city of Astana are very different from each other, for example the largest area is Esil district.

This area is considered the most prosperous because it is located on the left bank of the city and covers some of the most expensive residential buildings. On the other hand, there is Baikonur district, which is considered one of the less affluent because it is located on the right rank of the city and part of the district covers the most dangerous and criminal streets of Astana. Saryarka and Almaty districts cover both the right bank and the left bank, in the south and north of the city of Astana.

Based on the literature review, we understand that measuring awareness and understanding of the communication policies is crucial. Last two questions of the survey are a multiple choice question, based on the sticker on a color-coded trash can used by the Akimat of Astana and Clean City NC. In order to answer the general question about the effectiveness of the existing recycling communication, interviews were conducted with citizens and eco-activists in addition to the survey.

Thematic analysis was used to identify and explore themes related to the implementation, effectiveness and impact of the recycling communication policy in the city of Astana. We guaranteed the confidentiality of the data provided by the participants and the protection of the participants' identities.


Lack of awareness can lead to incorrect disposal of items, which can reduce the efficiency of the recycling program. To answer the general research question about the effectiveness of the existing recycling communication strategy in Astana Akimat, the research team used survey and interview results. Eco-activists mentioned that one of the tools the government is using to communicate recycling is posters on recycling bins.

Regarding the inadequacy of information campaigns, the majority of eco-activists (4/5) mentioned that more could be done to raise awareness among citizens. Information posters in supermarkets, entrances to buildings, public transport and other types of public places;. When we conducted an interview with officials from Akimat, this question was raised by the research team.

The Saryarka Akimat works closely with Clean City for the transport and recycling of the waste. This section begins with the results of the citizen survey and then switches to eco-activists. All the eco-activists mentioned that recycling behavior should be taught at educational institutions.

One of the eco-activists had a volunteer project where she and her team prepared a lesson plan for students and teachers from schools in Kazakhstan to learn about recycling. According to the eco-activist, ecology lessons with practical knowledge about recycling and other issues should be part of the curriculum.


Akimat of Astana and their contractors, Clean City, do not use this communication approach because the recycling messages are not distributed simultaneously, and this is one of the most important aspects of the multi-channel deficit reduction approach. The results from the interview show that there is no segmentation and targeting based on the audience, i.e. this recycling communication strategy aims to educate residents about recycling through personal communication methods such as face-to-face interactions or phone calls.

The face-to-face interactions usually take place at recycling sites, which is not possible in Astana because the recycling sites are located outside the city. While it is important to note that visits to recycling sites are not prohibited, they are not promoted either. This communication strategy is partially implemented in Astana, especially by the contractors, Clean City, as they organize offline events in schools, subbotnik (cleaning day), emmerka (event for exchanging clothes and other items) where they teach about sorting and recycling.

The authors suggest that this communication strategy focuses on audience empowerment through active involvement of the audience in the recycling program. We believe that this communication strategy has great potential for Astana, especially given the results of our findings, where distrust from citizens remains high. The existing recycling communication practice shows that there is a lack of sufficient interaction with citizens.

Despite this rhetoric, citizen-centered communication strategies for the recycling system are still lacking. At present, it appears that the political will to implement these changes is still lacking.


  • Research summary
  • Practical implications
  • Limitations of the study
  • Policy recommendations

The tools the Akimat uses only work in one direction and no one receives feedback from the residents about the effectiveness of the tools. The survey on color-coded waste bins clearly showed awareness among Astana residents. The study concludes that Astana City Akimat's existing communication strategy on waste recycling is ineffective.

According to the survey, the majority of respondents from all four districts of the city of Astana are not educated enough about the recycling and waste sorting procedures. And also according to the interview with a representative of Akimat, we can conclude the lack of information campaigns about recycling among residents of Astana. Block managers and volunteers can inform the residents of the houses about the importance of recycling in addition to guiding them in waste sorting.

It is imperative for the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan to strive to introduce this into the curricula of kindergartens, schools and universities. Our research suggests that the Akimat is introducing policies without receiving feedback from one of the main stakeholders, viz. Strategic planning and reform agencies of the State Statistical Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev's State of the Nation Address, September 2, 2019 - Official website of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The research is conducted by master students of the Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Public Policy. If you have chosen an apartment complex, please state the name of the apartment complex where you live.

How do you evaluate the work of the Akimat of Astana in informing citizens about recycling.


Table 1.  Summary of the literature review.

Ақпарат көздері


As it is stated in the concept of social cultural development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the cultural heritage allows the people to remember traditions of the past, to derive