If the submission contains material for which I do not own the copyright, I confirm that I have obtained unrestricted permission from the copyright holder to grant NOW the rights required by this license and that such third-party-owned material is clearly identified and. All research participants were recruited via snowball and purposive sampling techniques and were reached via social networks, email and telephone calls.
- Statement of the Problem
- Purpose of the Study
- Research Questions
- Significance of the Study
- Definition of Key Terms
- Plan of the Thesis
Even students may not realize how challenging the re-entry transition period can be. It focuses on the theoretical background and takes into account the views of various researchers on the phenomenon of re-entry.
- Student Population
- Re-entry challenges
- Psychological issues
- Sociocultural issues
- Professional issues
- Factors Influencing Individual’s Re-entry Adjustment
- Marital status
- Cultural distance
- Time spent abroad
- Сontact with home-country individuals
- Previous intercultural experience
- Re-entry Copying Strategies
Thus, according to the findings of many researchers, gender is considered as one of the important factors that can predict re-entry problems. However, Sussman (2001) and Cox (2004) do not acknowledge gender as a crucial variable in re-entry challenges. Cox's (2004) findings indicated that older individuals experienced a lower level of reentry difficulties from a social and psychological perspective.
That is, the question may remain open as to whether age was indeed a determining factor influencing return. This situational variable can thus be considered as one of the important predictors for the successful return adjustment. Regardless of the amount of literature devoted to the problems of the re-entry phenomenon, not many copying practices have been systematically examined.
Arthur (2003) defines counseling as one of the helpful support services capable of addressing the re-entry issues experienced by international students. Adler's (1981) argues that returning to a new culture was more psychologically challenging for returning individuals than primary entry into a new culture. In contrast, Pritchard (2011) when evaluating the applicability of the W-curve hypothesis did not witness any adjustment problems or the re-entry crisis previously described in adjustment models.
- Research Design
- Data Analysis
- Ethical Issues
- Risks and Benefits of the Study
This type of interview broadened the understanding of the topic explored and to obtain detailed information .. about the "lived experience" of the participants. Schostack (2002) notes that the typical length of the interview should last at least 30 minutes to reveal the phenomenon under investigation. Data processing went through several steps that include description and analysis of interview results (Creswell, 2013).
As a result of describing what and how the participants experienced the phenomenon of re-entry, its essence emerged (Creswell, 2013). Ethical issues remain central to the conduct of research and no investigation can be conducted without proper adherence to a code of ethics (Ramrathan, Grange and Higgs, 2017), and protecting the interests of individuals involved in a research study is extremely important (Bloomberg and Volpe, 2012). From that moment on, none of the participants was forced to participate in the research project, as the principle of fair selection of participants is respect for individual autonomy, so participation was completely voluntary (The Belmont Report, 1978).
Participants were informed of the purpose of the investigation, and their rights were prioritized in making any reports and disseminating information. In addition, the results of the study may lead to positive changes in policy making and addressing issues related to re-entry difficulties.
Results Related to Research Question 1
- Sociocultural challenges
- Professional challenges
- Factors influencing international students’ re-entry adjustment
He rushed to buy a car as soon as possible because it was quite difficult to get used to such conditions after living in the United States. In addition, it was difficult for her to get used to people constantly criticizing someone or something. Overall, it wasn't the most pleasant of memories when she returned to Kazakhstan from the UK.
But the members who decide for higher positions told me that it is a very serious organization that is looking for serious colleagues. Finally, she was asked to leave the company, and when she left, it was quite a shock for her. She started working at the university, it was a good experience, but she also faced the same problems there.
She got alcohol herself from the pharmacy, because it was always lacking in a university laboratory. I wouldn't say it was difficult for me culturally or anything else because I had my family and friends who helped keep in touch throughout the period.
Results Related to Research Question 2: What Strategies have the Returnees Used
The strategy of retaining newly acquired habits from the host country and maintaining them in the home country was also an excellent solution for the participant who studied in Japan to cope with the challenges upon arrival. During the interview, she mentioned that she started with street photography in Japan and continued with it after returning to Kazakhstan. Like Participant's 5, she tries to keep in touch with her friends who studied with her in Japan and even plans to reunite at the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics.
As we can see, maintaining social networks is a good way to deal with stress. challenges returnees face during the readjustment period. I remember photographing people on the streets on weekends or holidays, I didn't want to quickly give up the habits I acquired in Japan... Once I started my job, I didn't have much time to get involved to be in photography. You have to be very passionate about something else to maximize your time and your thoughts and not think about how I would go back and stay.
Try to be initiative, but always think about your initiatives may be far out of a box of thinking of most people around you. After a certain time, I realized that it helped me a lot to deal with the issue of readjustment."
Findings Related to RQ 1
- Re-entry challenges
- Factors influencing the re-entry adjustment
While psychological and social issues of the reentry process have been the focus of many previous studies, the results of this investigation show that most of. These findings confirm the previous study of Gama and Pedersen (1977), which revealed that most of the problems encountered by returnees were related to the professional side of the re-entry. However, the present study supports the findings of Gama and Pedersen (1977) and Brabant et al. 1990) who argued that men and women experienced re-entry to the home country differently in that women experienced more adjustment problems.
When recruiting research participants for this study, it was important to attract graduates from different countries, such as the US. As a result, the results of this study showed that the Russian university graduate indeed did not experience any problems after returning home. Thus, this study partially supports the findings of Galchenko et al. 2007), in which international students from former USSR countries adjusted smoothly to the host country (Russia).
However, Uehara (1986) found no correlation between time spent abroad and adjustment difficulties upon return to the home environment. According to the results of this study, it can be assumed that the time spent in the host country affects the ease of readjustment.
Findings Related to RQ 2. Re-entry Coping Strategies
The results of the study confirm the literature on this topic that those who have previously experienced multiple intercultural moves from host country to home country experience fewer problems.
Another female respondent also traveled to the UK and later this was the reason why she has chosen this country as her future academic destination. They believe that the host country environment is the most appropriate place for them to demonstrate their full potential, representing the skills, knowledge and experiences they have gained while living abroad.
Initially, Bolashak scholars go abroad for academic reasons, which later enable them to grow professionally and career after returning to Kazakhstan. They are excited to share their experiences abroad with colleagues, friends and family, but when the response from others does not meet their expectations, it leads to disappointment and creates challenges in their professional lives. They returned to Kazakhstan with higher qualifications than before and thus expect to find not only recognition of their academic achievements, but also employment in higher positions.
This finding explains why the majority of returnees in this study expressed a willingness to return abroad to continue professional development and possibly even find permanent employment.
Limitations and Practical Recommendations for of the current study
In the data analysis, there is a possibility that this researcher may become biased as some of the participants are my friends. The current study did not take into account the positive aspects of the return experience of the returnees. According to the results of the survey, we consider it expedient to initiate a process as part of the administrative structure of the Bolashak Scholarship Program to provide social-psychological support to returnees.
As part of the Bolashak program, a counselor or social worker working on the team and with similar experiences to the returnees, who might be a former Bolashak candidate, would be needed to provide individual or group sessions to the current and/or . You have been selected as a significant subject in the study and will be asked to participate in an interview. The feeling of discomfort may arise during the discussion of some topics related to the re-entry experience.
According to the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a person under the age of 18 is considered a child. This study aims to investigate the experiences of Bolashak scholarship alumni who studied and lived abroad for an extended period and explore the process of their re-entry adjustment in their home countries: to identify any factors that influence re-entry adjustment and which, as well as their strategies, they use to adapt again after a stay abroad.