Similarly, I verify whether parents' higher education level, richest wealth quantile, and urban residential area negatively influence school dropout, while women's experience of discrimination, large number of children in the household, early marriage of the mother, and the large age difference between spouses positively affects children's school admission. While researchers focused on finding out the prevalence of IPV, very little attention was paid to attitudes towards IPV in the country (Hindin, 2014). The main reason behind this situation regarding education in the country is the lack of legally mandated education regulations and government supervision.
In the first study, Tran, Nguyen, Fisher (2016) analyze 39 low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2003) of 7,951 married or cohabiting women, the author found that girls whose mothers rationalize violence against their wives in four of the following situations (burning food) decreased their school enrollment for girls by 2.6 percentage points. , neglects children, goes out without telling, and refuses to have sex). On the other hand, girls are usually expected to provide emotional support and cooperation at work, but they are not exes after marriage.
By using data on parents, cases of absence of father and/or mother in the household were also omitted. The analysis paper uses the following variables described in Table 1 in the last section of the tables to understand the relationship between women's IPV rationale and their children's school entry age. Similarly, a variable corresponding to polygamous marriages is added to control for household variation in the sample.
The exact derivation of the index can be found in the work of Filmer and Pritchett (2001). In addition, the study uses measures of family residence to prevent heterogeneity biases related to differences in living environment and region. Therefore, this IV is a proxy representing the attitude of older women towards IPV who live in the same neighborhood as the young mothers investigated.
The main variable of interest - the proportion of late enrollees - is relatively higher in the IPV group than in the non-IPV group (43% vs. 32%). Similarly, the expected differences in the demographic characteristics of the observation of individuals by group are noticeable. The share of uneducated fathers is also lower in the first group - 17%, while in the second group it is 25%.
Overall, more parents achieved a level of education in the non-IPV group, which supports a negative correlation between literacy and the occurrence of IPV. The percentage of early marriages in the IPV group is 72%, which is higher than in the non-IPV group (61%).
In the model, the instrumental variable (ivIP Vmj) is the average response to IPV questions from older women over 35 living in the same enumeration area as the observing young mothers. The prediction is that the coefficient β2 for the variable of interest will have a positive sign, indicating an increasing probability that the student will be late to school. Regarding the type of marriage, indicators capturing child marriage indicator and polygamous type of relationship are included in the model.
Household characteristics consist of wealth index quintiles as an indicator for households' financial well-being and family structure (living with in-laws), area and area of residence to reduce heterogeneity biases associated with the living environment differences. First is the instrument relevance, which means that the valid IV must be highly correlated with the endogenous variable while controlling for other independent terms. Therefore, I examine the relationship between the endogenous variable - the attitudes of young women towards the abuse of women by the husband and the instrumental variable, which is the average response of older women living in the neighborhood to the same questions.
To check the validity of other instruments created for each situation (neglect children, burn food) separately, the corresponding endogenous variables and IVs are regressed in the same probit model. The second condition for a valid IV is the exogeneity of the instrument, meaning that the IV should not be correlated with the error term. In order to fulfill this requirement, it is necessary to show that opinion IV, the opinion of older women about IPV who live near the young girls of interest, is not related to the dependent variable, the school admission of children born to the investigated mothers .
Because mothers-in-law are also included in the studied group of older women, one way to address the exclusion restriction could be to show that the presence of a mother-in-law in the household does not affect the grandchildren's school attendance. Ceteris paribus, the coefficient for the binary variable capturing mother-in-law presence is insignificant (Table 3).
If we consider the entire sample, the probability of late entry increases by 8.7 percentage points. The probability of late entry increases by 10.8 percentage points when only girls are examined, which represents an increase of 25% compared to the average level. The chance that sons will be late to school is 5.8 percentage points lower and is not statistically significant.
Specifically, the probability of delayed school enrollment of children increases by 4.1 percentage points when mothers normalize IPV against wives in this situation (Table 6, column 3). The results show that the likelihood of boys starting school late increases by 5.4 percentage points, or 12% from the mean, if mothers justify physically assaulting a wife when she goes out without telling the husband. Unlike other coefficients, there is a negative relationship between IPV acceptance to deny sex and children's school enrollment, with the marginal effect being statistically significant for the girls' sample.
In particular, the probability of late entry of daughters decreases by 1.9 percentage points if a mother knocks fair because her community refuses. In comparison, boys' likelihood of late school entry is positively related to women's normalization of IPV for gender rejection, although the estimate is insignificant. Returning to the main results with IV in Table 5, having a sibling is also positively correlated with the probability of late school entry of students and is significant across Models 1 and 2 (with 1,2 and 2, 5 percentage points).
This suggests that the probability of going to school on time is higher for children born to women who struggled with inequality. However, the variable capturing an extreme case of confinement during the menstrual period, when a mother was forced to live in an animal shelter, has a significant negative correlation with the likelihood of late hospitalization.
Under the supervision of elders, young women can accept violence as a necessary method of dealing with family problems and raise children with the same attitude towards marriage. Curiously, the marginal estimates for dummies, which reflect differential age differences between spouses, are negative, indicating that having an older partner benefits child rearing. To provide useful evidence, the article employs a bivariate probit model using the instrumental variable approach with the primary independent variable as the dependent variable: women's approval of IPV and the likelihood of children attending school, while controlling for child, parent, and household characteristics.
As evidenced, the estimates include valid evidence supporting the stated hypothesis that mother's justificatory views about beating affect the child's educational outcome, although the marginal effect is not large. Another finding is that girls are significantly influenced by their mothers endorsing abuse against them by their husbands, sons are not sensitive to IPV justification by their mothers. This is consistent with the question that women who have a violence-endorsing attitude tend to overestimate men's position and authority and therefore care more about their sons' development than daughters.
The empirical results also show that the educational attainment of both parents is the crucial determinant of children's access to school, but the magnitude of the impact differs between girls and boys. The variation of the marginal effects between two samples (daughters and sons) indicates gender-related differences. These results suggest that parents treat their daughters unequally when it comes to education decisions that indicate gender-based maltreatment.
Finally, these results offer new research channels related to the importance of social norms and beliefs of mothers influencing the school outcomes of their offspring. More importantly, however, there is a need to make education compulsory through legislation and the development of strategies that can influence societal behavioral change regarding women's education and improve the monitoring of children at risk of late entry and dropout. .
An attack on our future: The impact of violence on young people and their relationships, Sydney, White Ribbon Foundation. Married women's justifications for intimate partner violence in Bangladesh: Examining community norms and individual-level risk factors. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, p.
Longitudinal effects of domestic violence on employment and welfare outcomes, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. Bystander Approaches to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace, Australian Human Rights Commission, Sydney. Late Entry to Primary School in Developing Societies: Findings from International Household Surveys.” International Review of Education, vol.
Prevalence of children's exposure to domestic violence and child maltreatment: Implications for prevention and intervention. The relationship between a mother's attitude towards domestic violence and children's school outcomes in Turkey. Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated drug use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behaviour, pregnancy and suicide.
Intimate partner violence, social support and employment in the post-welfare reform era, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22, p.